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PLATE 24. FIG. 5.

Bibles or other valuable books are often covered with cloth, leather, wash leather, Holland, &c., and for books in every day use it is far better than wrapping them in paper. Purple or claret coloured cloth iooks very handsome, and when bound with ribbon, ribbon strings, and the initials marked outside, it looks finished and particularly neat. The case is merely a long piece of cloth of the width of the book, and of such a length as to lie outside, and turn in a piece to cover the inside of each flap with the book shut about two-thirds of the way. The book, when shut, takes more than when open, therefore it should be measured when shut. *

PLATE 24. FIG. 9.

This is a simple cover made usually of leather or Holland. One piece is sufficient to go before and behind the book, allowing an extra piece for a flap to turn over. Two strips for side-pieces complete the case. If of leather, the pieces are back-stitched neatly together; but if of Holland, &c., the sides are bound up with ribbon.

PLATE 24. FIG. 10, 11.

This is made with a regular lid, as in the drawing, and buttons over.
Fig. 11 has fly pieces or bits, to lay over the book, but beneath the outer flap or lid.

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This is made of coarse sacking or earn, and is most useful for covering large trunks, and is composed simply of two lengths of the stuff, laid one across the other, and stitched firmly together, exactly where they fall upon each other, forming an oblong or square of back-stitching, as in the Plate, of the size of the bottom of the trunk. Four holes should be made in one of the sides, on which the direction card may be more easily fastened (see A).

The ends are turned down with a broad hem, and button-holes made on the hems of the two ends, B and C, and at two or more nails from the hem at the opposite sides. In packing up the trunk, it is simply laid upon the back-stitched square of the sacking, and the sides being turned up, two at a time, they are laced up with cord, without the trouble of getting a packing needle and sewing it up every time.

PLATE 24. FIG. 13.

This is usually made of green baize, and is used for wrapping up knives and forks (both steel and dessert or silver), when not in daily use. The knives are put in one case and the forks in another. These cases are made out of half or a whole breadth of the baize, according to the width. After cutting sufficient length to hold six or twelve knives, allowing at one end enough to tie over, cut it at the top straight from A to B, which is to turn over as a side flap, and shape the rest from B to C, in a semicircular form. Cut another long strip of baize, half the width of from B to C, lay it along and stitch it down at proper equal distances, and when done, bind it along the outer edge, and all round the case. The knives are then put in, with the blades between the pieces of baize. The flap turns over the handles, the whole rolls up, and is finally tied round with strings, sewed at the circular end.

PLATE 24. FIG. 14.

This is very similar in shape to the porte mouchoir, excepting that four little gores or hinges are put in at the sides of the pockets, to enable it to open wider and contain more cards (see A). This hinge should be creased in two, after being sewed in, and when once creased well, will always set properly. They are made of morocco paper, silk, rich satin, or velvet. A piece of flannel or demet may be put between the outside and the lining. They are sometimes embroidered or braided round the edge, with the initials or crest put in the middle. A cord or twist is sometimes put round the edge, to give a finish.

PLATE 24. FIG. 16.

Covers for bed-room candlesticks, teapots, cream jugs, sugar basins, dish covers, salvers, and indeed all plated or silver articles may either be made to the shape or circular. The advantage of the latter plan is, that by hemming it round and putting in a string, it will draw up and suit any shaped article, whereas cases made to fit one particular article will do for no other.

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Flowers, especially geraniums, are apt sadly to injure the dress and waistband when worn; it is therefore very useful to put flower stalks in a kind of case, similar to a scissors sheath, which protects the dress completely. It should be cut out of card-board, in the shape of a wide scissors sheath, and covered all over with silk. A W O O L C A S E. PLATE 24. FIG. 18.

This is made of thin muslin or of Holland, and is most useful for holding and preserving wools. It is made something like a housewife, having runners for the wool, side by side. The wools should be put in in shades and numbered; each colour might have six or seven shades allowed, so that it would require a long piece to admit three or four colours, with their various shades. The flaps at both ends turn over, the whole rolls up when not in use, and ties round.

PLATE 24. FIG. 34, 35.

This is made to resemble thread papers, and is usually formed of muslin. It is plaited along, or doubled, like Fig. 85, and all the doubles sewed along together, thus forming a bunch of runners, for the

wool to be drawn through.

PLATE 24. FIG. 19, 20, 21.

This is made of leather, stamped paper, silk, ribbon, satin, velvet, white dimity, Holland, or any

other material, even common print. Two pieces, the size of A B C D, are first of all cut out and back-stitched along, to form the thread

runners, after which, another piece, E FG H, is cut out, and the places for the scissors, bodkin, &c. made, and then a long strip is cut, not only sufficient for the whole length, but to turn over at the end to form a pocket. The other pieces are neatly bound to it, and the flannel or kerseymere for needles is added. The initials may be put at the sloped end. The case may wrap up like Fig. 19 or 20.

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This is very convenient, from the small compass in which it goes, when folded up. It is similar to a carpenter's rule in shape, and is marked with nails on one side and inches on the other.


PLATE 24. FIG. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27.

Pincushions may be made of every variety of shape and material, and stuffed with bran, wool, hair, flannel, chaff, &c., &c. Fig. 23 makes a very nice toilet pincushion, and is circular at the top, with a deep length sewed all round, which is hemmed at the bottom; it draws neatly beneath the cushion, and ties firmly on it. Fig. 24 is very neat for a toilet pincushion, and is made to button and unbutton from beneath. Fig. 25. Another very neat toilet pincushion, made with a fringe or frill round it. Sometimes the cushion is of glazed calico or coloured silk, and the cover of muslin, with a handsome worked edging all round. These are very handsome for spare rooms, but too good for daily use. The colour of the cushion ought to correspond with the paper or drapery of the room. Fig. 26 is a flat pocket pincushion, and may be circular, square, diamond, oblong, or any other shape. Cut out the form in two cards, both of which are covered with silk. Flannel is put between, and the two sides neatly sewed together. Fig. 27 is a drawing-room pincushion, usually made of silk or satin, and is tufted like a mattress with bows or tufts of silk. Bows are attached to all the corners.


PLATE 24. FIG. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33.

Bags are made of silk, satin, velvet, and many other materials, and are almost always lined; in which case, they are done in a similar manner to sleeves.

There is a great variety of shapes, and they are trimmed with fringe, lace, ribbon, silk cord, &c., &c.

The Figures represent the shapes most in use at present, and need little description.

Fig. 32 is a double bag, being two pockets or bags, which, being sewed together up the sides and along the bottom, form a third pocket between them, which may either be left open, or have a regular silk bag sewed above.

In one pocket may be kept pencil, knife, Indian rubber, and other writing materials; in the other, money, bills, memoranda, &c.; and in the middle part, scissors, thimble, cotton, and other materials for work.

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This is made of a strip of kerseymere, one nail and a quarter wide, which is marked out in the required number of divisions, to separate the different sized needles from each other. Each space between the divisions should be half or three quarters of a nail, so that the length of the strip must depend upon the number and size of these divisions. After fixing upon the length and width, cutting off the strip, and marking in pencil the lines for the divisions, work over the lines in chain-stitch in silk, or lay on braid, marking at the top of each space, the number of the needles to be put in; then bind the kerseymere down with some broad ribbon, which serves likewise for the back of the case. This ribbon should be stiff and rich, and when turned over the edges of the kerseymere, should be back-stitched down very neatly. The end of the strip is usually rounded, as in the Plate, and the initials worked on. Ribbons, or a button and loop are attached to the end, to fasten it up by.

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These are very pretty, light, and useful. Purchase a suitable size, of the shape of the pattern, about twelve inches long, eight wide, and three and a half deep, or smaller, are the usual sizes. As they look neater and keep better when painted, it is advisable to send them to the coach-maker's to be coloured the shade desired (the darker, the more handsome); when quite dry, procure a good silk of a suitable colour, and also satin ribbon to match, of two thirds of a nail wide, and line the basket, putting first muslin, and then a layer of fine flannel, and afterwards silk. It should be made exactly to fit, and be quilted in some pretty pattern all over, after which, the satin ribbon, neatly quilled, is sewed round at the top. Sometimes ladies put little pockets or bags all round, to contain a knife, scissors, money, pincushion, &c.

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A travelling bag is very useful for ladies, when taking long journeys, especially when they are fond of working or sketching while in the carriage. The Fig. represents both sides of the bag complete, excepting that it requires the sides to be sewed up. It is thus laid open, or unsewed, in order to explain the plan more clearly. The bag should be made of rich strong silk, and on one side pockets are made to contain as follows:— A. Needle book or housewife. B. Scissors. C. Work and cotton. D. Pocket for money. E. Ditto for watch, or gold, &c. On the other side, the pockets are as follows:– F. For a note book, or journal. G. For two pencils. H. Sketch book. I. Rules. J. Knife. A piece of Indian rubber is fastened to a bit of galloon and confined to one end of the bag. The pockets should be put in rather lower from the top than is represented in the Plate, else the bag will not close neatly, when the strings are drawn.


PLATE 24. FIG. 39.

This band is made of webbing, black tape, calimanco, or any other firm material.

To the middle of the band is attached a square piece of pasteboard, or tin covered with flannel and calimanco, on which the girl's number is marked.

On this band are put several strings of galloon or tape, to which are tied scissors, keys, pincushion, &c. A simple band of Holland, or tape would be very useful for servants, especially housekeepers, lady's maids, and housemaids, to attach the keys belonging to their department, also scissors, cushion, pencil, &c. These bands might have button-holes, or large oylet-holes worked in them, to receive the ribbons to which the things are attached, and they should be made to button neatly behind.

Shoulder-straps might be added of the same material.

PLATE 24. FIG. 40.

This is very useful for those ladies who drive about constantly in a town, and who have much shopping, or many calls, &c. to make.

The left hand side of the case marked A, is a porte folio to carry paper, bills, &c. with a long pencil at the side, which, when the book or case is shut, secures the two sides together, by being passed through the loops.

The other side is made with two pockets above, at B, for visiting cards, one pocket below C, for a rule, and crossed narrow ribbons between, to hold bills, &c. in. This case may be made of leather, cloth, or stamped paper, and should be laid on millboard, or pieces of tin to form the sides.


PLATE 24. FIG. 41.

This is convenient for travelling, when there is not sufficient room for a desk; it is made of card or book board, and covered with black silk or paper. Under the part marked A, is a porte folio for paper, the two parts being connected together by means of a wide ribbon all round. The four flaps lay over and tie across with ribbon. On the part, A, are places for sealing wax, pencil, pens, knife and paper knife, all in one, and at the corner a piece of ribbon sewed on in a circle, and made to draw up like a bag, to contain wafers.

PLATE 24. FIG. 42. 43.

This sort of case is very useful for men in all classes when travelling, and for school boys, and is usually made of Russia duck, or of leather; it is one yard long, and about one nail and a half or two nails wide. The pockets and thread-case must all be prepared before sewing them to the back. A is divided, according to the Plate, for the thread case as in a housewife, it is about four nails long, and has two flaps, C and B, at the ends, to keep the thread neat. The flap, C, is finished inside, as seen in Fig. 43, with boot-hooks, &c., &c. The thread should be strong white, strong black, whity brown, carpet thread, pack thread, and other kinds, also white and black silk.

D is a square pincushion with divisions for scissors, tweezers, stiletto, &c. Inside this pocket should slip a needle book and sticking plaister case, both in one; the flaps of E FG H, all hook and eye down to their respective pockets, which contain fish-hooks, buttons, hooks and eyes, &c., &c.

PLATE 24. FIG. 44.

This is made of leather of any length, according to the number of things put in. It should be the

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