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The oylet or lace-holes are next worked, and after the stay-bones are put in, the top and bottom of the stays, with the shoulder-straps, are neatly bound with stay-binding.
As there are many varieties in the shapes of the different parts of stays, they will be described in detail, under their respective heads.
These are sometimes made of elastic wires, as in Fig. 23, sometimes of Indian rubber, and sometimes of a kind of elastic twill.
Are made of the same material as the stays, and back-stitched to the front and back of the shoulder. Sometimes they are buttoned down in the front, which enables the wearer, by unbuttoning them, to dress her hair in an evening with perfect ease. (See Fig. 22.)
Others have oylet-holes to admit of bobbins, which lace them to corresponding holes in the stays. (See Fig. 24.)
A piece of Indian rubber or elastic wire, of about one mail in length, is frequently sewed to the end of the strap, and this is considered the most convenient, as it will lengthen or contract at pleasure.
Are generally worked round in button-hole stitch; sometimes tape is laced from the outside through these holes, being drawn through every other hole till they reach the top, and then brought down again, drawing it round the edge, through the intermediate holes; this preserves them from being worn. (See Fig. 26.) Others insert in every hole a ring, called a patent lace-hole. These are very durable, but are said to destroy the laces.
To the top of the stay is sometimes attached a small modesty-piece, which for some people is an excellent contrivance, as it makes it set more closely and delicately in front. This extra piece is all in one, and is the cross-way; it is carried along the whole of the front of the stay: it is about half a nail deep over the bosom, and sloped off to a quarter of a nail over the stay-bone; at the top of this additional strip, which is bound all round, a bobbin is run to draw it up. When drawn properly, this modesty lies over the bosom so as to shade it delicately, whereas if it were cut all in one piece with the stay it would make it higher, but it would stand out, and not answer the desired end. (See Fig. 25.)
It is essential to open the front of nursing stays, so as to give the mother the greatest ease while feeding her infant; for this purpose, care should be taken that no stay-bones or hard buttons should come in contact with the child's face: the two or three best modes of opening them are the following: Leave open that side of the bosom gore which is next to the shoulder-strap, to the depth of a full mail and a half; neatly bind the side of the gore, and after back-stitching the opposite side, sew on very firmly two buttons, one at the top and the other lower down. To the gore is attached two loops, by which it can be buttoned or unbuttoned at pleasure. (See Fig. 24.) Another mode is that of leaving open the outer sides of those gores nearest the steel or middle of the stays. These sides, and the parts with which they accord, have oylet-holes worked down them, exactly
opposite to each other. Through each oylet-hole in the gore, pass a bobbin of about two nails and a quarter long, which is fastened at one end firmly to the wrong side, just behind the oylet-hole. The other end of each bobbin is drawn across to the inner side of the corresponding hole, and pulled through. By this arrangement all the ends of the bobbins lace up the whole gore. The bobbins are sewed together at the ends, forming a loop to attach it to a button on each side of the steel (see Fig. 23, A B). These bobbins should be carefully cut and joined, so as to pull the gores properly in their places. When it is unbuttoned the whole front lets down comfortably. It is advisable to sew a little fold or oblong piece to the stay on the inside, which forms a flap to lie between the shift and the opening, as
a guard from cold.
PLATE 11. FIG. 27, 28.
These are worn by gentlemen in the army, hunters, or by those using violent exercise.
They are made of strong jean, duck, leather, or webbing.
Sometimes the stay is merely a strip or belt, as Fig.28; at others it is a little shaped or peaked, as Fig. 27. Towards the ends is sewed a piece of elastic work (see Fig.28 E). Runners of cotton are made in various places to strengthen the whole. Long webbing straps are sewed three on each end. These straps are sewed on with pieces of leather over them, and are about three nails deep. The length is, of course, determined by the size of the wearer.
BELT FOR A HUNTER OR COACH MAN.
This is often merely a simple leather belt, with three tongues and buckles.
CHILD'S LITTLE STAY.
This is made of fine jean, doubled, of three nails depth, and of the width required by the child. Cord runners are made in front, and at the backs, and buttons are put on, before and behind, for the drawers and flannels to be attached to.
AN OLDER CHILD'S STAY.
This is formed of double jean, and may be lined between with Irish linen. If it is preferred, all the runners may have cotton drawn through them, so as to admit of no bones.
PLATE 11. FIG. 30, 32.
Bustles are worn by those whose shape requires something to set off the skirt of the gown. They should not be too large, or they look indelicate, and in bad taste. They are made of jean, strong calico, and sometimes of glazed calico.
Fig. 30 represents a simple bustle of strong calico. It is composed of one piece the width of the calico, say a yard, and eight nails deep. This piece is doubled in two, so as to make two flounces, the one four nails and a half long, and the other three and a half. At one nail from the doubled top make a narrow case to admit of tapes. The bottoms of the flounces are hemmed with a very thick cord in them. When worn, the bustle is turned inside out, by which means the frill falls between the two flounces (see Fig. 32).
Fig. 31 is merely two flounces of jean, one four nails deep and the other three nails, gathered into a tape at the top and vandyked at the bottom.
Some persons wear down bustles (sce Fig. 33), which are made of glazed liming muslim. A flat half circle or oval is cut out, about two mails and a hals wide by two nails deep, and another piece, of an oblong shape, rounded at the corners, much longer and deeper, say three-quarters of 3 yard long by four nails and a half deep, is fulled into the smaller piece on one side, and into a tape on the other or top, thus making a bag to contain the down, which should be either swan's or the best goose down.
The subject of veils is one that may soon be dismissed, as a few words on the materials of which they are composed, together with the usual sizes, comprises all that can be said upon them. Veils for ordinary wear inay be of a kind of soft tulie, made on purpose, of net, gauze, or crape. The size for a grown-up person is from thirteen nails to a yard long, and about twenty mails wide; for a child, eleven nails long, and the width is determined by that of the material. Demi-voiles are about four nails deep, and the width is regulated by that of the boinet to which they are attached. A pretty way of making a nel or lulle veil is by hemming a satin ribbon half a nail deep all round it, either the same colour, or, is the veil is white, of some paic shade to suit the bomet or the dress. This, by strengthening the edges, makes the veil wear better than it would otherwise do. A crape or gauze veil is simply hemmed all round, the hem being deeper at the botton to give it a little weight. A ribbon is run in at the top. Mourning veils are of black crape. They should be made of what is termed the best, or jet black crape, as the blue-black soon wears whitish, and looks shabby. The other, though the most expensive at first, is the best economy in the end. They are made quite plainly, with a broad bem all round— say three-quarters of a mail deep. Demi-voiles, when not of blonde, Chantilly, or worked lace, are of titlle, with ribbon run in. They should be set on the bonnet slightly, sulled all round the brim, but much more so at the ears, to make them hang well. A demi-voile should al-o be a little taken up at the ears, so as not to be the full depth, which is apt to give a Slovenly appearance. Riding veils are much shorter than any other kind czcept demi-voiles, and sufficiently wide to draw nearly all round the hat. They are made eithe, of black lace, worked on purpose, or of brown or green crape. It is a good plan to run a string through a riding-veil, both at the top and bottom, taking care that the ribbon at the bottom is only just as long as the veil is wide, so that it is not seen when not in use. The advantage of this second string is, that in hot weather, and under a glaring sun, the wearer may tie both ribbons round her hat, thus forming a double veil for the protection of her eyes, whilst the lower part of the face has all the benefit of the cool air.
Sleeves should, when it is possible, be cut upon the cross; for which purpose a corner of the material should be turned up, until the dombled part, which is the cross way, is large enough to admit of the length and width of the sleeve.
Silk is sometimes too narrow for a very large sleeve to be made without joining, when care should be taken to join together two selvages. The joinings must be so contrived as to set either under, or at the back of the sleeves.
In order to make sleeves set well, they are hollowed out, as it is called, which is nothing more than