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subject at once complicated and common-place, and he was but a better sort of common-place painter. His Moses striking the Rock, which I neglected to notice, in the grand centre gallery, is much finer than either of these, both in colouring and expression. There are, indeed, some very admirable parts in it, particularly a child that seems to be drinking with its mind as well as its mouth.
We now arrive at the Dutch and Flemish department of the Gallery. The most conspicuous object here is one of Ruben's grand allegorical works, Peace and War (137). A distinguished living critic, speaking of Spenser, at once answers and deprecates all objections to allegory, by saying, “ If we do not meddle with the allegory, it will not meddle with us."* Applying this to Rubens's pictures, (and it is at all events as applicable in the one case as the other,) nothing more can be said. If we are not to meddle with the allegory of the work before us, there is no denying that it is a vigorous and spirited representation of certain human and other forms, and a gorgeous, glowing, and harmonious mass of colouring. Moreover it includes portraits of the painter and his family ; which, to be sure, 6 do not meddle with us” any more than the allegory,—otherwise we might fairly take exception at their too frequent occurrence under similar circumstances. The two grand works by this master, which I had occasion to notice last month, and the one now before us, have each contained portraits of the painter, and two or three of his wives and children. This is, perhaps, “something too much,” even in Sir Peter Paul Rubens; in almost any one else it had been a mere impertinence.—The two principal Teniers’ in this collection (198 and 182) are worthy of all admiration, whether for their infinite variety and truth of character, their exquisite freedom and spirit of touch, or their unrivalled clearness of colouring.–The Ostades are also peculiarly choice and fine. I can only refer generally to the rich cluster of them that hangs on the right-hand side of the largest room belonging to this department. Among these, the Courtship (179) is perhaps the best.
In the Landscape department of this school we meet with some delicious pieces, each of them full of the peculiar manner of its author; for all the Flemish landscape-painters are mannerists-except, perhaps, Hobbima, whose manner is that of Nature alone. As I have already occupied more than the space that can usually be devoted to these papers, I am compelled to defer my notice of the characteristics of this class of painters till a future number. In the mean time I must content myself with pointing out a few specimens of their respective styles. Cuyp's large picture (142), the landing of Prince Maurice at Dort, is a singular example of this artist's power of steeping his scenes in sunshine. There are several others by Cuyp, in two or three of his different styles; but I think not one of his very first-rate pictures. By Both here are several most exquisite works, in his sweetest and richest manner; but most of them are small. I ought not to particularize any of these; for they are all delightful. By P. Wouvermans we have several rich gems. Nothing can be more charming in their way than 226, 227, and 228: the last, in particular, is a most sweet composition, as sweetly coloured.
Here are several of Wynants' best works; in particular four hanging nearly together (213, 215, 217, 219). The landscape with tower, figures, &c. (217) is very rich in all the qualities of his style. Here is also one most exquisite picture by Berghem—the best that I remember to have seen ; combining the warmth of Both, and the brightness of Wynants, with all his own sharpness and sweetness. Hobbima has but two pictures here, and those not among his best. No. 139 is, however, a very pretty little example of his purely natural manner.
* Hazlitt's Lectures on the Literature of the age of Elizabeth.
Passing over silently (as I am now compelled to do), but not on that account the less admiringly, numerous other rich and valuable specimens of the Flemish school in all its departments, I shall close this paper by noticing Rembrandt's Samuel and Hannah, as it is called (193). The female head, in this picture, is perhaps one of Rembrandt's most extraordinary and successful efforts in this way. It is of a miniature size, but touched with that wonderful force and spirit which is so conspicuous and effective in his larger works; and yet, whether looked at close, or at a distance, it has all the effect of a highly-finished miniature. The light (which is concentrated on the face of the old female) is put on in such a way as to make it, in a great degree, cast its own shadows -if I may so speak. The paint of which it is composed is nearly all white, but so laid on as to form of itself the wrinkles and inequalities; just as the skin and flesh do by their sinkings and risings. It is, in fact, more like a piece of delicate modelling in clay, than a smooth surface receiving all its effects from different shades and tints of colour. Though as a composition—as a piece of general effect—this picture is of course not to be compared in value with Mr. Angerstein's wonderful picture by the same artist, yet, as a single head, it is, I think, finer than any one in that work. Indeed, as a single effect, regarded with reference to the apparently disproportionate means used to produce it, this head may, perhaps, be looked upon as one of the finest things in painting
I now reluctantly take leave of this noble Collection ; lamenting the inadequacy of the account which my confined space, as well as abilities, have enabled me to give of it; but hoping that I may be not without some future opportunity of doing it—or, I should rather say, doing my own feelings respecting it-more justice.
Tal, che di rimembrar mi giova, e dole.
When visions of the past—that will not rest-
The scenes we loved, the friends we valued best,
Tumultuous thronging thick upon the breast,
Her look-her eyes-her voice-her melting tone,
Her bounding form-perchance from childhood known,
THE PHYSICIAN.-NO. IV.
General Rules for attaining long Life. THERE dwelt in ancient times on the Palus Mæotis, a barbarous people, called the Alani, whose god was a naked sword, which they set up in the ground and worshipped, and whose greatest glory and happiness consisted in slaughtering their fellow-creatures, and employing their skins for horse-covers. This brutal nation was, as far as I can recollect, the only one that considered it ignominious to die of old age. This maxim, nevertheless, seems to have identified itself with the character of martial nations, the members of which are anxious to die for their country; and it may be viewed in a milder light where it loses all that is rude and barbarous, and appears in the rank of real heroic virtue. It is truly absurd to regard natural death, that is to say, the only way in which men can die of old age, as ignominious: but still it is a real virtue to sacrifice one's life for the public weal; a virtue in which the ancient heroes and philosophers were great, and in which those of modern times are mostly very little. The more effeminate and luxurious a nation becomes, and the more it is depraved by indulgence and voluptuousness, so much the more it dreads death and is attached to life. In vain would you show the debauchee the lustre of immortality that must surround his name, if he sacrifice his life for his fellow-citizens and his country. To no purpose would you promise him the pure joys of heaven, and the everlasting glories on which his soul will feast itself. He would rather be utterly forgotten from the present moment, and renounce a future state altogether, than give up a single year of his voluptuous life. Between these two extremes the wise will choose a middle course. We must not hold life so lightly as to throw it away, neither ought death to appear so terrible as to make us hesitate to surrender it, when important occasions demand the sacrifice.
Such are my sentiments, though I am a physician, and a physician ought always to espouse the cause of life. The duty of a physician extends no farther than to take care that life be not lost till natural necessity or higher purposes require it. For this reason we combat the diseases which carry off men before they have attained the natural term of life ; but not to render our patients immortal: just as we should pay the most assiduous attention to a sick general, without being offended if, after his recovery, he should go forth and seek honour or death in the turmoil of battle. Besides, a physician is best qualified to determine the real value of life, and to form a comparison of the advantages and inconveniences of age, with the degree of attachment or indifference to long life, which deserves to be termed, not only a duty but a real benefit to mankind. For, how melancholy is that life, every moment of which is embittered by the fear of losing it !—and how grievous that death, which a hopeful youth draws upon himself by culpable neglect ! Old age is subject to a thousand inconveniences. It is a lingering death, which causes us to survive ourselves, and deprives the world of the melancholy pleasure of tenderly deploring our loss. The death of one, who, in his best years, sacrifices himself for the State, is a peal of thunder that shakes all who hear it: and how grateful to his spirit must be the heart-felt sorrows of all on his account! It is evident from the expressions of Horace, that he preferred the early death of Achilles, far above the melancholy immortality conferred by Aurora on Tithonus :
Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem,
Longa Tithonum minuit senectus. I am well aware, however, that all this imposes on no man the obligation to die a moment sooner than his destiny calls him, and that an old man ought not to grieve because he survives those who would have done him the honour to deplore his early end. So right and proper as I esteem it in every one, not to set too high a value on life, and not to fear death; so little can I find fault with him who is solicitous to attain advanced age, even though he has but little honour and enjoyment to expect from it: for one of the first laws of nature enjoins the love and preservation of life ; and it is the interest of the State itself that men should not be too careless on this point. The enemies of religion are frequently told, that no power on earth would be strong enough to restrain the wicked without the fear of a future state, which is promised by religion. In like manner we may argue in opposition to those who preach up the contempt of life, that not one individual in the world would enjoy more peace and safety, if the wicked had not some regard for their lives and some horror of death. I can therefore have no scruple to show my readers the way to attain longevity, without in any manner injuring either themselves or the State. I am not an apostle of voluptuousness; I desire of my readers nothing more, than that life shall be dear and death not terrible to them. I shall now tell them how they must act to preserve life as long as possible, without falling into the absurdities of the alchemists, to which I shall presently advert.
The way to long life is, like that to everlasting happiness, arduous and difficult. There are many rules that are disagreeable, to be observed; and these even it is useless to observe, unless a person be descended from healthy parents and have brought into the world with him a sound constitution. I will suppose that this is the case ; and then the first care of him who desires to attain old age must be, in early youth not to waste or exhaust his energies in any way whatever. With this view he must avoid too severe bodily exertion, by which he will either bring on himself infirmities or premature age.
I can never see but with pain, how the common people keep young children to laborious employments to which their strength is inadequate. Young colts are spared and not set to work till they have attained a certain age, when their strength is proportionate to the labour required of them; because their owners know from experience that they are spoiled, and become prematurely old and unserviceable, unless this indulgence be allowed them. It is most unreasonable that we should spare children less than horses; for though they are not so dear as those animals, yet they are of far greater importance to the State ; and parents ought not to forget, that their children are part of themselves though existing independently of them, and that it is therefore their duty to be as tender of them as of their own persons.
All too lively sensations, the too free use of the senses, violent passions, excesses of every kind, by whatever name they may be called, severe exertion of the mental faculties, assiduous study, deep meditation, and nocturnal vigils, consume the vital spirits, weaken the powers, and bring on premature old age. Indolence and total inactivity, either of the corporeal or mental energies, are nevertheless equally to be avoided. Bacon has well expressed this where he says" the vital spirits must not be left to stagnate till they clog up their vessels; neither ought they to be wasted or so expended as to injure those vessels.” Experience confirms incontestably the truth of this doctrine. It is proverbial, that children remarkable for precocity of intellect or acquirements die prematurely. Boerhaave knew a boy who was a miracle of erudition, but scarcely attained his fifteenth year. Another learned youth, who passed night and day in study, died in his pineteenth year without any previous illness, merely of premature age. Debauchery, not war, put an end to the life of Alexander the Great in the flower of manhood. Most of those who have exceeded the term of human longevity, were thoughtless, easy, insensible persons, who were in no hurry with the labour to which poverty doomed them, and strangers to all kinds of excesses. Such as have cultivated the sciences merely for their amusement, and opened their hearts only to the gentler passions, have in consequence attained advanced age.
6 Look you," says a writer of the last century, " at the old dames, who have lost all their teeth : let them relate to you their course of life, and they will tell you how merry they were in their youth: you will find that their anger dwells rather in the tongue than in the heart. These have enjoyed favourable gales, and have reached the haven where they would never have arrived either with a total calm, or with violent tempests. Whoever wishes to become old, must endeavour to resemble them in this point."
Go through the whole catalogue of excesses in pleasure, and you will find that they have precipitated their votaries into a premature grave. Boerhaave justly observed, that few who are intemperate in the use of wine, brandy, and other spirituous liquors, survive the age of fifty. With these votaries of Bacchus, the votaries of Venus proceed pari passu ; and immediately after them come the immoderate eaters. Plato and Socrates grew old upon very frugal fare ; and Maimonides, the Arabian physician, says, that it is necessary to avoid overloading the stomach with too much food : for though a person might take the most wholesome aliments, yet if he were to take too much of them, be could not remain in good health. Bread and water are an admirable diet for those who would rival Methusalem in longevity; and fasting itself is an excellent promoter of their views.
A regular way of life, in the most comprehensive sense of the term, is absolutely requisite for those who would flatter themselves with the hope of living to be old. They must live in a free, serene, and healthy air. That of high mountains is best suited to this object. In mountainous countries you meet with persons verging upon a century and a half, though living in poverty and subsisting on the coarsest fare. How much temperance in eating and drinking contributes to the attainment of old age, I shall have occasion to show hereafter by a variety of examples.
In respect to bodily exercise, I have already observed that it must be moderate, otherwise it will tend to abridge life. In this point, then, the system of life of those who wish to be old, differs a little from