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deeply into it, with Elwine 1. While these settled with lä about the new chapel, erected for them in the old parish of Lanant, and Pendinas rose into a town under her chapel's appellation of St. Iës g.

But we can lengthen out this list of saints. With lä сame her two brothers, brothers equally in nature and in affection, brothers in a high relish for religion, in a tender love for sequestration, in a fond feeling of devoutness. “ Saint-Hya, that is, Saint Hy,as her name is now varied a little by another author, “ lies a virgin in the parish church of

| Leland's Itin. iii. 15, 16: "• Breaca ædificavit eccl. in Trenewith et Talmeneth,' ut " legitur in Vitâ S. Elwini," who must therefore have accompanied her.

$ The real name of the town, even as written in the days of Leland, is St. Tës; though by an English assimilation of the name to that of the town in Huntingdonshire, which is denominated from St. Ivo, a Persian (Leland's Itin. iv. 159—161), it is equally denominated St. Ives at present. The hill of Pendinas, at our St. Ives, is still called Dinas ór Dennis, but with an addition from the Saint, Dennis Eia; while the residence of Dinan assuredly was that very house in the vicinity of St. Ives, which is traditionally denominated a castle to this day; and from its other denomination of Tregenna (in English, moor-house), gave name to the family more recently resident within it, even existing there to the days of the first James; and in a younger branch, probably existing at Mawgan, near St. Columb, within these few years. Norden's map of Penwith hundred notices Tregenno, M. Tregenno;" Norden’s Description, p. 42, Tregenno--the howse of Mr. Tregennor ;" map of Pyder hundred, for the parish of Mawgan, “ Polgreen, Jo. Tregenna ;" Description, p. 68, Polgreene--the howse of John Tregenno, situate upon the north sea;” and in p. 103, in

a Catalogue of Gentlemen and of their Dwellinges,” are “ Tregenno at Tregenno," with

Tregenno, John, at Polgreene.” Walker, in his Sufferings of the Clergy, 423, remarks, Tregenna, John; he succeeded Mr. Gammon,” the last of three rectors whom tradition recognises as Ham, Gammon, and Bacon, “ in the rectory of Mawgan, which he made a “shift to keep, but with great trouble and difficulty," till 1660-1, "and died possessed of it “ in the year 1683; he was a person of good learning, eminent piety, and sweetness of “ conversation.” He was succeeded in the living by his son, and the latter again by his son, all equally John Tregenna, with Norden's proprietor of Polgreen, and all equally proprietors of Polgreen with him. The name of the family ended in 1754, the last rector leaving only daughters. All this would have appeared more authoritatively, as well as more circumstantially detailed, I presume, if the late Mr. Tregenna one day, on his maiden aunt's production of the family genealogy to him, had not snatched it from her in a paroxysm of indignation, that might seem to him a dignified superiority to family pride, yet was really (I fear) a sacrifice on the altar of personal vanity, and thrust it hastily into the fire.

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“ the town of Saint Hy, upon the northern sea, about twelve miles, “ from the farthest end of the western kingdom of England; and “ her day is observed on the third of February *,” as it still is on the Sunday next after the morrow of the Purification. She “was the “ sister of Saint Herygh, and the sister of Saint Vuy t.” At a very little distance from her, both these brothers took up their residence. One of them, “ SAINT Herygh,” resided apparently in that adjoining parish of Erghe ; which, in the ignorance of the English about our saints, and concerning our pronunciation, has had its name anglicised into Erth, and was then supposed to have been dedicated to an unknown saint of this name, plainly one of English origin ; but is apparently denominated from this brother to St. Tä, “ whose day is observed “ on the vigil of All Saints, that is, on the last day of October," as it still is at St. Erth's on the Sunday nearest to the festival of All Saints. The other brother, “Saint Vuy, the brother of Saint Herygh },” was actually denominated Saint Vny in pronunciation, and is mis-written Vuy only from an accidental viciousness of reading, that had no pronunciation to correct it; but settled himself in his devout retirement at the neighbouring parish of Uny Lanant, or Lalant, because “he lies in the parochial “ church of St. Vuy [Vny), near the village of Lalant, upon the northern

sea, three miles from Mount St. Michael, where his feast is kept on “ the first day of February $," as it still is on the Sunday next to the eve

• Itineraria-Wi Worcester, p. 106: « Sancta Hya, id est, Seynt Hy,-jacet in ecclesia .“ parochiali villæ Seynt Hy, super mare boreale circa 12 miliaria ab ultimo fine occidentalis

regni Angliz ; et ejus dies agitur tertio die Februarii.” + Ibid. ibid. “ Sancta Hya,-soror Sancti Herygh, et soror Sancti Vuy." # Ibid. ibid. “ Sanctus Herygh, frater Sancti Vuy,-jacet in quâdam ecclesiâ,” &c.

Ejus dies agitur in vigiliâ omnium Sanctorum, id est ultimo die Octobris.” The name of Erghe had been so long anglicised into Erth, in Leland's time, that he repeatedly speaks of Saint Erth in Itin. iii. 20, and that if the second Valor had not caught the original name, it would have been for ever lost; the first noticing it hy its secular name of Lanhudnou, Lan Udnow, or the Church upon Udnow, a manor (I suppose) so called, to which the name of Udnow Parva, now Piran. Uthnoe, apparently referred, and refers back.

§ Ibid. ibid. “ Sanctus Vuy, frater Sancti Herygh, jacet in ecclesiâ parochiali Sancti « Vuy propè villam Lalant, super mare boreale, per tria miliaria de Mont-Myghell; ejus “ dies agitur die primo Februarii.”'


of the Purification. Thus did the two brothers, with a steady flame of affection, that throws a blaze round the heads of all, unite with their sister in life, and hardly divide from her even in death; taking their course with her from Ireland, fixing with her in Cornwall, fixing in her very vicinity for life, and then lying down in her very vicinity at death.

Yet with these saints, both of them equally with their sister unknown to Dr. Borlase, plainly landed another, who is actually mentioned by the Doctor, the period of whose coming is also conjectured by the Doctor to have been about the year 400, and the varied orthography of whose name has caused him to be split by the Doctor into two*.

PIRAN,” notes Leland, from an ancient life of the Saint, in his very useful mode of extracting the biography of saints, “who is called also Pieran "and Kyeran, was born in Ireland, within the province of Ostrige; “ Domuel was the father of Piran, his mother was called Wingela; Piran

was the disciple of St. Patrick. Piran came into Britain ; Piran died " and was buried in Britain ; Wingela, the mother of Piran, inhabited in a place near her son with holy virgins t." The notes of Piran's birth in Ireland, of his discipleship to St. Patrick there, of his coming into Britain, dying in Britain, and being buried in Britain ; all unite to identify his person, to ascertain his chronology, and to fix him with the company of St. Breaca, before in the region of Cornwall. He was indeed, like Barricius and Sinninus before, the companion of St. Patrick. He was even more than this, being one of four clergymen that preached the Gospel in Ireland prior to St. Patrick. A native of Ireland, born about the year 352, of noble parents, in the region of Ossory, and bred up in the islet that gives denomination to Cape Clear; he became a Christian in heart and mind, from the conversation of some laical Christian there; went therefore to Rome, was there initiated into Christianity by baptism, and spent twenty years there, studying the

* Borlase, 369 and 388.

+ Leland's Itin. iii. 195: “Ex vitâ Pirani. Piranus, qui et Pieranus et Kyeranus, de “ Hiberniâ oriundus in provinc. Ostrige. Domuel pater Pirani, mater ejus Wingela “ dicta. Piranus discipulus S. Patritii. Piranus venit in Britann. Piranus obiit et sepultus est “ in Britannia. Wingela, mater Pirani, in loco propě filium cum sanctis virginibus " habitabat':'

Scriptures, Scriptures, collecting copies of them, or preparing himself for orders. Being ordained, and even raised to the highest rank in orders, the episcopate, he returned into Ireland about 402, to convert his countrymen. He converted his mother (his father, I suppose, being now dead), his immediate countrymen of Ossory, and a number of others; thus becoming the first in time, of all the apostles of Ireland*. Having now triumphed in that greatest of external acts of goodness, the conversion of

many to religion and to God; he did what was still greater, he triumphed internally over himself. And as we are told by an ancient biographer of another of the four preachers, antecedent to St. Patrick, while this preacher and two of the rest refused, Chiaran shewed all “ concord and subjection and discipleship to St. Patrick, present or

absent t.” Hence he came to be denominated by his own biographer in Leland, “Piran the disciple of St. Patrick.” He then appears to have retired into that solitude, which is so congenial to the feelings of devoutness in general, and seems to have been so peculiarly soothing to the hearts of all these sainted personages; living in a small cell by a fountain, as a hermit, within an extensive forest of Leinster, at a place denominated " Sier Keran” from him*. Here his Irish biographer states him to have died; but his British asserts, and the tradition of Cornwall decisively confirms, that he removed into this region of Britain f. His cell in Ireland grew into a monastery, the monastery expanded into a city #, and the solitude of the hermit was invaded from mere reverence by the world. To escape from the officious intrusion, and to preclude the possibility of repeating it, Piran transported himself over into Cornwall; and came undoubtedly with that Breaca, that Sinninus, that Germochus, lä, as well as many others, who landed at Rivier, or at St. Ives, but who thence dispersed themselves over the country.

* Usher, 410: * In Vitâ ipsius quam MS. habeo :- Pater ejus erat de nobilioribus “ gentis Osraigi—; conceptus est-Kiaranus, natusque, et nutritus est—in Clerâ insulâ.' “ -Circa annum CCCLII. natus est Kiaranus.” P. 412: “5 Triginta annis S. Kiaranus "-in Hiberniâ habitavit sine baptismo-sed_audiens famam Christianæ religionis in urbe “ Romæ esse,-adivit Romam; perveniensque illuc, baptizatus est et doctus in fide Catholicâ,

ibique viginti annis mansit, legens Divinas Scripturas, librosque earum colligens.'" Anno CCCLXXXII. Romam adiisse, et CCCCII. in patriam rediisse, Kiaranum com“periemus.” P. 413, 414: “ Ipsum vero Kiaranum collecta, quæ in officio ejus olim “ legebatur, ita celebrat, Deus, qui B. Kiranum seniorem, confessorem tuum atque pon“ tificem, ante alios sanctos in Hiberniæ insulam misisti',” &c. Indeque jam dictus « biographus "Hiberniæ sanctorum primogenitum illum appellat; tum præterea addens, “ non modo,-eum matrem' fidelem Christianam-effecisse,' sed etiam, suum gen

tem, id est Osraigi, et plurimos alios de errore gentilitatis ad Christi fidem convertisse'." P. 408 : “ In Vitâ Declani legimus : ' Quatuor sanctissimi episcopi cum suis discipulis “ fuerunt in Hiberniâ ante Patricium, prædicantes in eâ Christum, sc. Ailbeus, Declanus, Ibarus, et Kiaranus'."

+ Usher, 418 : “ Chiaranus enim omnem concordiam et subjectionem et magisterium 56 dedit S. Patritio, ipso præsente et absente.” From the uncertain writer of the life of Declan, one of the four, the other two being Albeus and Ibarus. 4

denominated appella

Piran went to the east, as Helen went, while lä staid at Pendinas on the west, and there settled in a solitude that soon assumed his tion. “ S. Piranes in the sandes,” says Leland, “ is an xviii. miles from “ S. Tës upward on Severne ."- _"Here,” adds Camden,“ is a chapel “ erected in the sands to St. Piran, a saint even of Ireland, who rests " at this place ll.” The tradition of the place also reports, that he was forced to float over from Ireland to it upon a millstone; just as another tradition at another place avers St. Petrock to have floated over to Padstow upon an altar . The inhabitants of the parish are almost all

* Usher, 413

+ That Leland's biographer was of Britain, these words evince : “ Piranus venit in « Britann."

| Usher, 413, from Irish biographer: “De vili materiâ cellulam suam incepit; et inde monasterium, et postea civitas, crevit.”

Leland's Itin. iii. 22. || Camden, 140: In sabulo positum S. Pirano sacellum, qui Sanctus etiam Hibernicus “hic requiescit.” Hence Piran church is called in the Valor of Henry VIII. “ Piran in " Zabulo;" and in popular usage, “ Piran-Zabulo." The Cornish name is “ Pieran in Treth;" Piran on Sand, in the old writing relative to estates (Tonkin's MS. described in the next note); and the parish is therefore said by Norden, 68, with a slight erroneousness, to be called in the Cornish language Peran Kreth, for “ Peran Treth.”

From a MS. Parochial History of Cornwall, by the late Thomas Tonkin, Esq. of Trevawnance, in St. Agnes, of which a fragment was luckily rescued from immediate ruin by the Rev. Mr. Pye, rector of Truro. I have a copy of this fragment, and have written notes upon it.


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