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. It is another great imperfection in our London commonly known by the name of the Colly-MollyCries, that there is no jast time nor measure ob- Puff'* ; and such as is at this day the vender of served in them. Our news should indeed be pub- powder and wash-balls, who, if I am rightly inlished in a very quick time, because it is a com- formed, goes under the name of Powder-Wati. modity that will not keep cold. It should not, I must not here omit one particular absurdity however, be cried with the same precipitation as which runs through this whole vocifero's generafire. Yet this is generally the case. A bloody tion, and which renders their cries very often not battle alarms the town from one end to an only incommodious, but altogether useless to the other in an instant. Every motion of the French public. I mean, that idle accomplisomert which is pablished in so great a hurry, that one would they all of them aim at, of crying so as not to be think the enemy were at bur gates. This likewise understood. Whether or no they have learned this I would take upon me to regulate in such a manner, from several of our affected singers, I will not that there should be some distinction made between take upon me to say; but most certain it is, that the spreading of a victory, a march, or an encamp- people know the wares the y deal in rather by their ment, a Dutch, a Portugal, or a Spanish mail. tunes than by their words; insomuch that I have Nor inust I omit under this head those excessive sometimes seen a country boy run out to buy apples alarms with which several boisterous rustics infest of a bellows-mender, and ginger-bread from a our streets in turnip-season ; and which are more grinder of knives and scissars. Nay, so strangely inexcusable, because these are wares which are in infatuated are some very eminent artists of this no danger of cooling upon their hands.

particular grace in a cry, that none but their ac. There are others who affect a very slow time, quaintance are able to guess at their profession ; and are in my opinion much more tuneable than for who else can know, that“ work if 'I had it,' the former. The cooper in particular swells his should be the signification of a corn-cutter ? last note in an hollow voice, that is not without its Forasmuch, therefore, as persons of this rank harmony; nor can I forbear being inspired with a are seldom men of genius or capacity, I think it most agreeable melancholy, when I hear that sad would be very proper that some man of good sense and solemn air with which the public are very often and sound judgment should preside over these pubasked, if they have any chairs to mend? Your lic cries, who should permit none to lift up their own memory may suggest to you many other la- voices in our streets, that have not tunable throats, mentable ditties of the same nature, in which the and are not only able to overcome the noise of the music is wonderfully languishing and melodious. crowd, and the rattling of coaches, but also to

"I am always pleased with that particular time vend their respective merchandises in apt phrases, of the year which is proper for the pickling of and in the most distinct and agreeable sounds. Í dill and cucumbers; but, alas! this cry, like the do therefore hu.nbly recommend myself as a persong of the nightingale, is not heard above two son rightly qualified for this post; and if I meet months. It would therefore be worth while to with fitting encouragement, shall communicate consider, whether the same air might not in some some other projects which I have by me, that may cases be adapted to other words.

no less conduce to the emolument of the public. 'It might likewise deserve our most serious con

'1 am, sir, &c. sideration, how far, in a well regulated city, those

RALPA CROTCHET,' humorists are to be tolerated, who, not contented ADDISON. with the traditional cries of their forefathers, have

* There is a print of this man in the Set of London Cries, invented particular songs and tunes of their own:

M. Lauron, del: P. Tempest, erc. as we learn from Grainger's such as was, not many years since, the pastry-ınan, Biographical History of England.

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SPECTATOR.

VOL. IV.

TO THE

preserve this work from oblivion, by affixing to it DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH*. your memorable name.

I shall not here presume to mention the illusMY LORD,

trious passages of your life, which are celebrated As it is natural to have a fondness for what has by the whole age, and have been the subject of cost us much time and attention to produce, 1 the most sublime pens; but if I could convey you hope your Grace will forgive my endeavour to to posterity in your private character, and de

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and Prince of the sion of one hundred thousand florins per annum. To relate Holy Roman Empire, one of the ablest statesmen, and most all the achievements be performed during the ten years that polite courtiers, as well as one of the greatest generals, and ensued, i. e. from 1702 to 1712, would be almost to give a most illustrious heroes of his age, was the son of Sir Winston history of Queen Anne's reign. It may be sufficient here to Churchill, of Wotton Basset, in Wiltshire, and born at Ashe, observe, that he defeated the French armies, though headed in Devon-dire, June 4, 1650. He was at first page of ho- by their ablest generals, and always superior to bim in point nour to James Duke of York; but being strongly inclined of number, in several pitched battles, at Blenheim, at Rato a military life, be obtained, at the age of sixteen, an milies, at Oudenard, at Malplaquet, &c.; that he reduced ensigncy in the guards, and in that quality served against almost every place of importance in the French and Spanish the Moors at Tangier. In the war with the Dutch in 1672, Netherlands ; saved the empire; secured the United Probe served under the Duke of Monmouth in the French army, vinces; raised the glory and consequence of Great Britain; where he distinguished himself so much by bis gallantry and humbled the pride of the French monarch to such a and conduct, that he received the thanks of the French degree, that' that ambitious prince, who, but a few years monarch at the head of the army. The Duke of Monmouth before, had seized, in imagination, the dominions of all his too, at his relum to England, declared to King Charles the neighbours, now began, in earnest, to tremble for his own. Second, that he owed his life at the siege of Maesti ich to

In a word, it may be said of this general, what can hardly the bravery of Captain Churchill.' This opened the way for

be said of any other, that he never fought a battle which be his further advancement, and be was accordingly appointed did not gain, nor ever besieged a town which he did not lieutenant-colonel of Littleton's regiment, and gentleman take. Even in the earlier part of his life, he gave evident of the bed-chamber, and master of the robes to James Duke

signs of what he afterwards proved. Prince Vaudemont, it of York. This prince be afterwards attended to the Low

is said, delivered himself to King William in the following Countries, and to Scotland; and it was by the interest of terms: "There is somewhat in the Earl of Marlborough, that his royal highness, that, in 1682, he was made Baron of Eymouth, and colonel of the third troop of guards. Upon all the judgment of Laniere, all the conduct of Mackay, and

I want words to express; he has all the fierceness of Kirke, the accession of King James to the throne, he was created Baron Churchill, of Sandridge, in the county of Hertford, deceives me, which yet it nevewdid, or he will make a greater

all the intrepidity of Colchester; and either my skill in faces and made brigadier-general of his majesty's army; and in this last capacity he had a considerable share in suppressing figure as a general

, than any subject your majesty bas." The the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion. Great, however, as were

king smiled, and replied, “ Marlborough is obliged to you ;

but I really believe you will lose no credit by your prethe obligations which he lay under to his sovereign, those

diction.' His great merit met with a suitable reward. He which he owed to his country were, in his opinion, much

was honoured, six different times, with the thanks of the greater; for when he saw King James taking strides toward destroying the religion and liberties of his country, be

house of commons, was created a duke, had a pension of five immediately deserted him, and went over to the Prince of

thousand pounds a year settled upon him out of the postOrange. In the subsequent reign he enjoyed the same in

ofice revenue, and was presented with the manor of Woodfluence which he had possessed in the preceding. He was

stock and the hundred of Wotton, where the queen caused sworn of the privy-council

, made one of the gentlemen, of to be erected for him a noble edifice, called Blenheim-bouse, the queen's bed-chamber, and created Earl of Marlborough.

in memory of the victory which he had gained at that place. He afterwards served with great reputation, both in Flanders

He was likewise created a prince of the empire, by the title and in Ireland; but, in 1692, he was dismissed from all his of Prince of Mildenheim, in the province of Swabia. His employments, and even thrown into the tower on a suspi-prudence and moderation were equal to his other great quacion of high treason. This suspicion, however, appearing, lities. For when, upon the change of the ministry in 1710, upon examination, to be altogether groundless, he was re

he found his interest al court considerably diminished, or stored to favour, and appointed-governor to the Duke of rather totally annihilated, he still continued to serve his Gloucester, whom King William delivered into his hands country in his military capacity; and when stripped of his with this remarkable expression, My lord, make him but

command about two years after, and even cruelly and unwhat you are, and my nephew will be all that I wish to see justly persecuted, instead of embroiling the administration him.' Upon the accession of Queen Anne to the throne, he his personal disputes, he retired into a foreign country, was made a knight of the garter, and captain-general of her

where he remained till the decease of Queen Anne ; and majesty's forces, and sent over to Holland with the character returning to England at the accession of King George the of ambassador extraordinary, and minister plenipotentiary. First, he was by that prince re-instated in all his former The states too, in compliment to the queen, and as a proof employments. He died June 16, 1722, in the seventy-third of their being sensible of the earl's own merit, constituted year of his age, and was interred with great funeral pomp in him captain-general of their forces, and assigned bim a pen Westminster-abbey.

VIRG. Æn. ii. ver. 570.

scribe the stature, the behaviour, and aspect of the Duke of Marlborough, I question not bat it would

No 252. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1711. fill the reader with nore agreeable images, and give him a more delightful entertainment, than

Erranti, passimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. what can be found in the following, or any other book.

Exploring ev'ry place with curious eyes. One cannot, indeed, without offence to your- MR, SPECTATOR, self, observe, that you excel the rest of mankind in the least, as well as the greatest endowments.

I the

the eye *, that you have not thoroughly stuNor were it a circumstance to be mentioned, if the died the nature and force of that part of a beaugraces and attractions of your person were not the have said ten thousand things, which it seems did

teous face. Had you ever been in love, you would only pre-eminence you have above others, which is not occur to you. Do but reflect upon the nonleft, almost unobserved, by greater writers. sense it makes men talk, the flames which it is said Yet how pleasing would it be to those who shall to kindle, the transport it raises, the dejection it

causes in the bravest men; and if you do believe read the surprising revolutions in your story, to be those things are expressed to an extravagance, yet made acquainted with your ordinary life and de- you will own, that the influence of it is very great, portment! How pleasing would it be to hear, that which moves men to that extravagance. Certain the same man who carried fire and sword into the it is, that the whole strength of the mind is some

times seated there ; tbat a kind look imparts all countries of all that had opposed the cause of li- that a year's discourse could give you, in one moberty, and struck a terror into the armies of France, ment. "What matters it what she says to you? “ See had, in the midst of his high station, a behaviour how she looks,” is the language of all who know as gentle as is usual in the first steps towards great and expressed in a glance, did you never observe

what love is. When the mind is thus summed up ness! And if it were possible to express that easy a sudden joy arise in the countenance of a lover? grandeur, which did at once persuade and com- Did you never see the attendance of years paid, mand, it would appear as clearly to those to come, know that the intelligence of affection is carried on

overpaid in an instant? You a Spectator, and not as it does to his contemporaries, that all the great by the eye only; that good-breeding bas made the events which were brought to pass under the con

tongue falsify the heart, and act a part of conti. duct of so well-governed a spirit, were the blessings nual constraint, while nature has preserved the of Heaven upon wisdom and valour; and all which eyes to herself, that she may not be disguised, or seem adverse fell out by divine permission, which and say, “ I do,” with a languishing air, to the

misrepresented. The poor bride can give her hand, we are not to search into.

man she is obliged by cruel parents to take for You have passed that year of life wherein the mercenary reasons, but at the same time she cannot most able and fortunate captain, before your time, look as if she loved; her eye is full of sorrow, and declared he had lived enough both to nature and sacrifice is performed in what we call the marriage

reluctance sits in a tear, while the offering of a to glory; and your Grace may make that reflection ceremony. Do you never go to plays? Cannot you with much more justice. He spoke it after he had distinguish between the eyes of those who go to arrived at empire by an usurpation upon those see, from those who come to be seen? I am a wo

man turned of thirty, and am on the observation a whom he had enslaved; but the Prince of Mindel- little; therefore if you, or your correspondent, had heim may rejoice in a sovereignty which was the consulted me in your discourse on the eye, I could gift of him whose dominions he had preserved. have told you that the eye of Leonora is slily Glory established upon the uninterrupted success ber without the help of the glasses you speak of*:

watchful while it looks negligent; she looks round of honourable designs and actions, is not subject to and yet seems to be employed on objects directly dimination ; nor can any attempts prevail against before her. This eye is what affects chance-med. it, but in the proportion which the narrow circnit ley, and on a sudden, as if it attended to another of runoar bears to the unlimited extent of fame.

thing, turns all its charms against an ogler. The

eye of Lusitania is an instrument of premeditated We may congratulate your Grace not only upon murder; but the design being visible, destroys the your high achievements, but likewise upon the execution of it; and with much more beauty than happy expiration of your command, by which that of Leonora, it is not half so mischievous. There your glory is put out of the power of fortune: and is a brave soldier's daughter in town, that by her

eye has been the death of more than ever her when your person shall be so too, that the Author father made fly before him. A beautiful eye makes and Disposer of all things may place you in that silence eloquent, a kind eye makes contradiction higher mansion of bliss and immortality which is an assent, an enraged eye makes beauty deformed.

This little member gives life to every other part prepared for good princes, law-givers, and heroes, about us, and I believe the story of Argus implies when he in his due time removes them from the no more, than that the eye is in every part ; that envy of mankind, is the hearty prayer of, is to say, every other part would be inutilated, MY LORD,

were not its force represented more by the eye, Your Grace's most obedient,

than even by itself. But this is heathen Greek

to those who have not conversed by glances. This, Most devoted humble servant, THE SPECTATOR.

Let. I.

* NO

+ NO 950. Let, II.

sir, is a language in which there can be no deceit, nor can a skilful observer be imposed upon by looks, even among politicians and courtiers. if No 253. THURSDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1711. you do me the honour to priot this among your speculations, I shall in my next make you a pre

Indignor quicquam reprehendi, non quia crasse sent of secret history, by translating all the looks Compositum, illepidæé puteter, sed quia nuper. of the next assembly of ladies and gentlemen into

HOR. Ep. ti. 1. 1. ver. 75. words, to adorn some future paper.

I lose my patience, aod I own it too,
* I am, sir,

When works are censur'd, not as bad, but new,
Your faithful friend,

POPE.
• MARY HEARTFREE.'

THERE is nothing which more denotes a great mind

than the abhorrence of envy and detraction. This DEAR MR. SPECTATOR,

passion reigns more among bad poets than among * I RAVE a sot of a husband that lives a very scan. any other set of men, daloas life, and wastes away his body and fortune As there are none more ambitious of fame, than in debaucheries; and is immoveable to all the argu- those who are conversant in poetry, it is very natuments I can urge to him. I would gladly know ral for such as have not succeeded in it to deprewhether in some cases a cudgel may not be allowed ciate the works of those who have. For since they as a good figure of speech, and whether it may not cannot raise themselves to the reputation of their be lawfully used by a female orator.

fellow-writers, they must endeavour to sink it to Your humble servant, their own pitch, if they would still keep themselves * BARBARA CRABTREE.'

upon a level with them.

The greatest wits that ever were produced in MR, SPECTATOR,

one age, lived together in so good an understand“Tuorgu I am a practitioner in the law of some ing, and celebrated one another with so mach ge. standing, and have heard many eminent pleaders nerosity, that each of them receives an additional in my time, as well as other eloquent speakers of lustre from his contemporaries, and is more famous both universities, yet I agree with you, that women for having lived with men of so extraordinary a are better qualitied to succeed in oratory than the genius, than if he had himself been the sole wonder men, and believe this is to be resolved into natural of the age. I need not tell my reader, that I here causes. You bave mentioned only the volubility point at the reign of Augustus ; and I believe he of their tongue; but what do you think of the will be of my opinion, that neither Virgil nor Hosilent flattery of their pretty faces, and the per race would have gained so great a reputation in suasion which even an insipid discourse carries with the world, had they not been the friends and adit when flowing from beautiful lips, to which it mirers of each other. Indeed all the great writers would be cruel to deny any thing? It is certain of that age, for whom singly we have so great an too, that they are posse-sed of some springs of rhe- esteem, stand up together as vouchers for one toric which men want, such as tears, fainting-fits, another's reputation. But at the same time that and the like, which I have seen employed upon Virgil was celebrated by Gallus, Propertius, Hooccasion, with good success. You must know I race, Varius, Tucca, and Ovid, we know that am a plain man, and love my money; yet I have Bavius and 'Mævius were his declared foes and a spouse who is so great an orator in this way, that calumniators, she draws from me what sums she pleases. Every room in my house is furnished with trophies of her poet, without attacking the reputation of all his

In our own country a man seldom sets up for a eloquence, rich cabinets, piles of china, Japan brothers in the art. The ignorance of the moderos, screens, and costly jars; and if you were to come the scribblers of the age, the decay of poetry, are into my great parlour, you would fancy yourself the topics of detraction with which he makes his in an India warehouse. Besides this she keeps a

entrance into the world: but how much more noble squirrel, and I am doubly taxed to pay for the is the fame that is built on candour and ingenuity, china be breaks. She is seized with periodical fits according to those beautiful lines of Sir John Den. about the time of the subscriptions to a new opera, ham, in his poem on Fletcher's works! and is drowned in tears after having seen any woman there in finer clothes than herself. These are * But whither am I stray'd! I need not raise arts of persuasion purely feminine, and which a

Trophies to thee from other men's dispraise : tender heart cannot resist. What I would there

Nor is thy fame on lesser ruins built,

Nor needs thy juster title the foul guilt fore desire of you, is, to prevail with your friend of eastern kings, who, to secure their reign, who has promised to dissect a female tongue, that

Must have their brothers, sons, and kindred slain.' he would at the same time give us the anatomy of a female eye, and explain the springs and sluices justly esteemed among the best judges, has ad

I am sorry to find that an author, who is very which feed it with such ready supplies of moisture; (mitted some strokes of this nature into a very fine and likewise show by what means, if possible, they may be stopped at a reasonable expense. Or, in- poem; I mean The Art of Criticism, which was deed, since there is something so moving in the very published some months since, and is a masterpiece image of weeping beauty, it would be worthy his like those in Horace's Art of Poetry, without that

in its kind. The observations follow one another art to provide, that these eloquent drops may no more be lavished on tritles, or employed as servants

methodical regularity which would have been reto their wayward wills; but reserved for serious quisite in a prose author. They are some of them occasions in life, to adoro generous pity, true peni- uncommon, but such as the reader must assent to, tence, or real sorrow

when he sees them explained with that elegance *I am, &c.'

and perspicuity in which they are delivered. As

for those which are the most known, and the most STEELE.—This letter by HUGHES.

T. received, they are placed in so beautiful a light,

• Pope.

ODYSS. 11.

ADDISON,

and illustrated with such apt allusions, that they in the four first it is heaved up by several spondees have in them all the graces of novelty, and make intermixed with proper breathing places, and at the reader, who was before acquainted with them, last trundles down in a continual line of dacstill more convinced of their truth and solidity. tyls: And here give me leave to mention what Monsieur Boileau has so very well enlarged upon in the pre

Και μεν Σισυφον ισειδον, κρατερ αλγε' εχονία, face to his works, that wit and fine writing do not

Λαιν βασαζονία σελωριον αμφοτερησιν. consist so much in advancing things that are new,

Ητοι ο μεν σκηρυπτομενος χερσιν τε σοσιν τε, as in giving things that are koown an agreeable

Λααν ανω ωθεσχε σολι λοφον" αλλ' οτε μελλοι turn. It is impossible for us, who live in the latter Ακρον υπερβαλεειν, τοτ' αποςρεψασκε Κρέλαιις, ages of the world, to make observations in criti- Αυτις επειλα πεδoνδε κυλινδετο λαας αναιδης. . cism, morality, or in any art or science, which have not been touched upon by others. We have little I turn'd my eye, and as I turn'd survey'd else left us, but to represent the common sense of A mournful vision! the Sisyphian shade: mankind in more strong, more beautiful, or more

With many a weary step, and many a groan, uncommon lights. If a reader examines Horace's

Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone:

The huge round stone, resulting with a bound, Art of Poetry, he will find but very few precepts Thunders impetuous down, and smokes along the ground.'

POPE. in it, which he may not meet with in Aristotle, and which were not commonly known by all the poets It would be endless to quote verses out of Virgil of the Augustan age. His way of expressing and which have this particular kind of beauty in the applying them, not his invention of them, is what numbers: but I may take an occasion in a future we are chiefly to admire.

paper to show several of them which have escaped For this reason I think there is nothing in the the observation of others. world so tiresome as the works of those critics who

I cannot conclude this paper without taking nowrite in a positive dogmatic way, without either tice that we have three poems in-our tongue, which language, genius, or imagination. If the reader are of the same nature, and each of them a masterwould see how the best of the Latin critics wrote, piece in its kind; the Essay on Translated Verse*, he may find their manner very beautifully described the Essay on the Art of Poetry +, and the Essay in the characters of Horace, Petronius, Quintilian,

upon

Criticism I. and Longinus, as they are drawn in the essay of

C. which I am now speaking.

Since I have mentioned Longinus, who in his reflections has given us the same kind of sublime,

N° 254. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 21, 1711. which he observes in the several passages that occasioned them; I cannot but take notice that our English author has after the same manner exem- Σεμνος ερως αρετης, και δε κυπριδος ασχος οφελλό. plified several of his precepts in the very precepts On love of virtue reverence attends, themselves. I shall produce two or three instances

But sensual pleasure in our ruin ends. of this kind. Speaking of the insipid smoothness which some readers are so much in love with, he WAEN I consider the false impressions which are has the following verses :

received by the generality of the world, I am trou

bled at none more than a certain levity of thought, 'These equal syllables alone require, Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire,

which many young women of quality have enterWhile expletives their feeble aid do join,

tained, to the hazard of their characters, and the And top low words oft creep in one dull line.' certain misfortane of their lives. The first of the

following letters may best represent the faults I -ping of the vowels in the second line, the would now point at; and the answer to it the templetive do' in the third, and the ten monosyl- per of mind in a contrary character. bles in the fourth, give such a beauty to this passage, as would have been very much admired in 'MY DEAR HARRIOT, an ancient poet. The reader may observe the fol- If thou art she, but oh how fallen, how changed, lowing lines in the view :

what an apostate ! how lost to all that is gay and "A seedless Alexandrine ends the song,

agreeable! To be married I find is to be buried That like a wounded snake drags its slow length along.'

alive. I cannot conceive it more dismal to be shut

up in a vault to converse with the shades of my And afterwards,

ancestors, than to be carried down to an old ma

nor-bouse in the country, and confined to the conTis not enough no harshness gives offence,

versation of a sober husband, and an awkward The sound must seem an echo to the sense.

chambermaid. For variety I suppose you may enSoft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows, And the sinooth stream in smoother numbers flows;

tertain yourself with madam in her grogram gown, But when loud surges lash the sounding shore,

the spouse of your parish vicar, who has by this The boarse rough verse should like the torrent roar. time, I am sure, well furnished you with receipts When ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw, The line too labours, and the words move slow :

for making salves and possets, distilling cordial Not so, when swift Camilla scours the plain,

waters, making syrups, and applying poultices. Flies o'er th' unbending corn, and skims along the main.' * Blest solitude! I wish thee joy, my dear, of thy

loved retirement, which, indeed, you would perThe beautiful distich upon Ajax in the foregoing suade me is very agreeable, and different enough lines puts me in mind of a description in Homer's from what I have here described : but, child, I am Odyssey, which none of the critics have taken no- afraid thy brains are a little disordered with ro. tice of. It is where Sisyphus is represented lifting his stone up the hill, which is no sooner carried hear thee talk of love, and paint the country

mances and novels. After six months marriage to to the top of it, but it immediately tumbles to the bottom. This double motion of the stone is admi- * By the Earl of Roscommon. rably describe in the numbers of these verses; as + By the Duke of Normanby. By Pope.

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