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e the glory of our own nation. The improve- son, and seem to have few ideas above those of its which others had made in natural and ma- sense and appetite. These, methinks, appear like natical knowledge bave so vastly increased in large wilds, or vast uncultivated tracts of human hands, as to afford at once a wonderful instance nature ; and, when we compare them with men

great the capacity is of a human soul, and of the most exalted characters in arts and learn

inexhaustible the subject of its inquiries ; so ing, we find it difficult to believe that they are · is that remark in holy writ, that “though a creatures of the same species, e man seek to find out the works of God from * Some are of opinion, that the souls of men beginning to the end, yet shall he not be able are all naturally equal, and that the great disparity lo it."

we so often observe arises from the different or. I cannot help mentioning here one character ganization or structure of the bodies to which they e of a different kind indeed from these, yet are united. But, whatever constitutes this first I an one as may serve to show the wonderful disparity, the next great difference whicb we find be

e of nature and of application, and is the most tween men in their several acquirements is owing alar instance of an universal genius I have to accidental differences in their education, forr met with. The person I mean is Leonardo da tunes, or course of life. The soul is a kind of ci, an Italian painter, descended from a noble rough diamond, which requires art, labour, and ily in Tuscany, about the beginning of the tine, to polish'it. For want of which many a eenth century *. In his profession of history. good natural genius is Jost, or lies unfashioned, like nting he was so great a master, that some bave a jewel in the mine. med he excelled all who went before him. It One of the strongest incitements to excel in ertain that he raised the envy of Michael An- such arts and accomplishments as are in the bighest ), who was his contemporary, and that from esteem among men, is the natural passion which the study of his works Raphael himself learned his mind of man has for glory; which, though it may be t inanner of designing. He was a master too in faulty in the excess of it, ought by no means to be Ipture and architecture, and skilful in anatomy, discouraged. Perhaps some moralists are 100 sethematics, and mechanics. The aqueduct from vere in beating down this principle, which seems

river Adda to Milan is mentioned as a work of to be a spring implanted by nature to give motion contrivance. He had learned several languages, to all the latent powers of the soul, and is always | was acquainted with the studies of bistory, observed to exert itself with the greatest force in losophy, poetry, and music. Though it is not the most generous dispositions. The men whose tessary to my present purpose, I cannot but characters have shone the brightest among the ane notice, that all who have writ of him men- cient Romans, appear to have been strongly aniled likewise his perfection of body. The in-mated by this passion. Cicero, whose learning and sces of his strength are almost incredible. He services to his country are so well known, was inescribed to have been of a well-formed person, Hamed by it to an extravagant degree, and warmly la master of all genteel exercises. And lastly, presses Lucceius, who was composing a history of are told that his moral qualities were agreeable those times, to be very particular and zealous in his natural and intellectual endowments, and relating the story of his consulship; and to exe. t he was of an honest and generous inind, cute it speedily, that he might have the pleasure of vrned with great sweetness of maoners. i enjoying in his life-time some part of the honour ght break of the account of him here, but I which he foresaw would be paid to his memory, vine it will be an entertainment to the curiosity This was the ambition of a great mind; brit he is my readers, to find so remarkable a character faulty in the degree of it, and cano: refua from tinguished by as remarkable a circumstance at soliciting the historian upon this occasion to neglect death. The fame of his works having gained the strict laws of history, and, in praising him, 1 an universal esteem, he was invited to the even to exceed the bounds of truth. The younger irt of France, where, after some time, he fell | Pliny appears to have had the same passion for k; and Francis the first coming to see him, he fame, but accompanied with greater chasteness sed himself in his bed to acknowledge the ho. and modesty. His ingenuous manner of owning it or which was done him by that visit. The king to a friend, who had prompted him to undertake braced him, and Leonardo, fainting at the saine sone great work is esquisitely beautiful, and raises tant, expired in the arms of that great mo him to a certain grandeur above the imputation of rch.

vanity. “ I must confess," says be, that nothing It is impossible to attend to such instances as employs my thoughts more than the desire I have se, without being raised into a contemplation on of perpetuatiog my name ; which in my opinion is

wonderful nature of an human mind, which is a design worthy of a man, at least of such an one, able of such progressions in knowledge, and who, being conscious of no guilt, is not afraid to ? contain such a variety of ideas without per- be remembered by posterity.” xity or confusion. How reasonable is it from I think I ought not to conclude without interest, ace to infer its divine original? And whilst we ing all my readers in the subject of this discourse: I d unthinking matter endued with a natural shall therefore lay it down as a maxim, that though wer to last for ever, unless annihilated by Om- all are not capable of shining in learning or the potence, how absurd would it be to imagine that politer arts, yet every one is capable of excelling Being so much superior to it should not have the in something. The soul bas in this respect a cere ne privilege?

tain vegetative power which candot lie wholly At the same time it is very surprising, when we idle. If it is not laid out and cultivated into a renove our thoughts from such instances as I have gular and beautiful garden, it will of itself sboot Intioned, to consider those we so frequently up in weeds or flowers of a wilder growth.? et with in the accounts of barbarous nations long the Indians ; where we find numbers of peo

: who scarce show the first glimmerings of rea-
He was born in 1945, and died in 1520, in the arms of
Scis 1. King of France

patron to The Tender Ilusband was in Englass a

abroad. N° 555, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1712.

The reader will also find some papers which are marked with the letter X, for which he is obligai to the ingenious gentleman who diverted the tori

with the epilogue to The Distressed Moth-r*. | Respue quod non es

PERS. Sat. iv. ver. 51.

might have owned these several papers w.th white

free consent of these gentlemen, who did not sth Lay the fietitious character aside.

them with a design of being known for the setter

But, as a candid and sincere behaviour ought to be All the members of the imaginary society, which preferred to all otber considerations, I wonidas were described in my first papers, having disap let my heart reproach me with a consciocard peared one after another, it is high time for the having acquired a praise which is not my right Spectator himself to go of the stage. But now I The other assistances which I have had have been am to take my leave, I am ender much greater conveyed by letter, sometimes by whale paper anxiety than I have known for the work of any and other times by short hints from unknown hands day since I undertook this province. It is much I have not been able to trace favours of this kn more dificult to converse with the world in a real with any certainty, but to the following bam than a personated character. That might pass for which I place in the order wherein I received the humour in the Spectator, which would look like obligation, though the first I am going to masta arrogance in a writer who sets his name to his work. hardly be mentioned in a list wherein be would The tictitious person might contemn those who dis- deserve the precedence. The persons to wdans approved him, and extol his own performances, am to make these acknowledgments are Mr. He without giving ofience. He might assume a mock Martynt, Mr. Pope, Mr. Hoghes, Mr. Cares authority, without being looked upon as vain and New-college in Oxford, Mr. Tickell af Quera: 1 conceited. The praises or censures of himself the same university, Mr. Parnelle, and Mr. Essern fall only upon the creature of his imagination ; of Trinity in Cambridge. Thus, to speak in the and, if any one finds fault with him, the author language of my late friend, Sir Andrew Freeper

, may reply with the philosopher of old, Thou dos: I have balanced my accounts with all my creden but beat the case of Anaxarchus,' When I speak for wit and learning. But as these ercellect pas in my own private sentiments, I cannot but address formances would not have seen the light miten myself to my readers in a more submissive manner, the means of this paper, I may still arrogate and with a just gratitude for the kind reception myself the merit of their being communicated 4 which they have given to these daily papers, that the public, have been published for almost the space of two I have nothing more to add, bet, having swel years last part.

this work to five hundred and hfts-five part I hope the apology I have made, as to the licence they will be disposed into sesen volumes, fuar e allowable to a feigned character, may exeuse any which are already published, and the three site thing which has been said in these discourses of the ia the press. It will not be demanded of me Spectator and his works; but the imputation of the 1 now leave ofi', though I must owo myself blond grossest vanity would still dwell upon me if I did to give an account to the town af my time here not give some account by what means I was ena- after; since I retire when their partiality to my bled to keep up the spirit of so long and approved so great, that an edition of the former volume el a performance, All the papers marked with a c, Spectators, of above nice thousand each book, an lan I, or an , that is to say, all the papers already sold off, and the tax on each half which I have distinguished by any letter in the has brought into the stamp-office, ene week | name of the muse Clio, were given me by the gen. another, above 201, a week arising from this sites tieman of sboe assistance I formerly boasted in paper, notwithstanding it at first reduced it oli the preface and concluding leaf of my Tatlers. than half the number that was usually printed be I am indeed much more proud of his long continued fore this tax was laid. friendship, than I should be of the fame of being I humbly beseech the continuance of this item thoughe the author of any writings which be hin nation to favour what I may hereafter predir". bell is capable of producing, I remember, when and hope I have in any occurrences of life tastets I finished The Tender Husband, I told him there deeply of pare and sorrow, that I am praefagis was nothing I so ardently wished, as that we might much more prosperous circumstances than any some time or other publish a work, written by us vantages to which my own industry can posting both, which should bear the name of The Monu- exalt me. ment, in meinory of our friendship. I heartily

• I am, wish what I have done here was as honorary to

* My good-natured reader, that sacred name, as learning, wit, and humanity,

"Your most obedient, reader those pieces which I have taught the reader

most obliged humble servasi, how to distinguish for his. When the play above

* RICHARD STERIE mentioned was last acted, there were so many ap-Vos valete et plaudite. TER plauded strokes in it which I had from the same haud, that I thought very meanly of myself that I • See No 335. It was well known in to see fired have never publicly acknowledged them. After that Addison was himself the author of these have put other friends upon importuning him to be came early in the morning betare the opees ***

“When it was actually printed with his name ware *** publish dramatic as well' as other writings he has buled, and ordered it to be givea to Mr L. Bodętri *** by him, I shall end what I think I am obliged to might add weight to the solicitatia wbk Adina was in say on this head, by giving my reader this hint for making for a place for Mr. Badgek, whos be usest tegen the better judging of my productions--that the best Addison's first cousin."

minate the man who calls me cousin,' and be easy way commeat upou them would be an account when the + See N 149, note

• Addison,

The following letter regards an ingenious set of | are to face-painters ; and, besides, we have the entlemen, who have done me the honour to make greatest number of the works of the best masters ve one of their society.

in that kind of any people, not without a compen

tent number of those of the most excellent in every 'MR. SPECTATOR,

Dec. 4, 1712. other part of painting. And for encouragement, The academy of painting lately established in the wealth and generosity of the English nation ondon, having done you and themselves the honour affords that in such a degree as artists have no rea

choose you one of tbear directors ; tbat noble son to complain. nd lively art, which before was entitled to your * And accordingly, in fact, face-painting is no egard as a Spectator, has an additional claim to where so well performed as in England: I know ou, and you seem to be under a double obligation not whether it has lain in your way to observe it, > take soine care of her interests.

but I have, and pretend to be a tolerable judge. The honour of our country is also concerned in I have seen what is done abroad, and can assure re matter I am going to lay before you. We (and you that the honour of that branch of painting is erhaps other nations as well as we) have a national justly due to us. I appeal to the judicious obe alse humility as well as a national vain glory; servers for the truth of what I assert. If foreigners od, though we boast ourselves to excel all the have often times, or even for the most part, ex: orld in things wherein we are outdone abroad, in celled our patives, it ought to be impiited to the ther things we attribute to others a superiority, advantages they have met with here, joined to their rhich we ourselves possess. This is what is done, own ingenuity and industry; nor has any one nas articularly in the art of portrait or face-paint. tion distinguished themselves so as to raise an ar

gument in favour of their country: but it is to be Painting is an art of a vast extent, too great observed, that neither French nor Italians, nor any y much for any mortal man to be in full possession one of either nation, notwithstanding all our pres f in all its parts; it is enough if any one succeed judices in their favour, have, or ever had, for any | painting faces, history, battles, landscapes, sea considerable time, any character among us as faces ieces, fruit, flowers, or drolls, &c. Nay, no man painters. ver was excellent in all the branches (though many * This honour is due to our own country, and has a number) of these several arts, for a distinct art been so for near an age : so that, instead of going take upon me to call every one of those several to Italy, or elsewhere, one that designs for porinds of painting.

trait-painting ought to study in England. Hither And as one man may be a good landscape such should come from Holland, France, Italy, ainter, but unable to paint a face or a history to Germany, &c. as he that intends to practise any rably well, and so of ihe rest; one nation may other kinds of painting should go to those paris xcel in some kinds of painting, and other kinds where it is in the greatest perfection. It is said lay thrive better in other climates.

the Blessed Virgin descended from heaven to sit to Italy may have the preference of all other na- St. Luke. I dare venture to affirm, that if she ons for history-painting ; Holland for drolls, and should desire another Madonna to be painted by the

near finished manner of working; France for life, she would come to England ; and am of opiay, janty, fluttering pictures; and England for nion that your present president, Sir Godfrey Knele ortraits: but to give the honour of every one of ler, from his improvement since he arrived in this rese kinds of painting to any one of those nations kingdom, would perform that office better than a account of their excellence in any of these any foreigner living. I am, with all possible res arts of it, is like adjudging the prize of heroic, spect, ramatic, lyric, or burlesque poetry, to him who as done well in any one of them.

• Your most humble and · Where there are the greatest geniuses, and most

'most obedient servant, &c.' elps and encouragements, it is reasonable to supose an art will arrive to the greatest perfection :

* The ingenious letter signed The Weather y this rule let us consider our own country with Glass, with several others, were received, but came spect to face-painting. No nation in the world too late. elights so much in having their own, or friends or Hlations pictures ; whether from their national

POSTSCRIPT. pod-nature, or having a love to painting, and not eing encouraged in the great article of religious It had not come to my knowledge, when I left ictures, which the purity of our worship refuses off the Spectator, that I owe several excellent le free use of, or from whatever other cause. sentiments and agreeable pieces in this work to 'ar helps are not inferior to those of any other Mr. Ince of Gray's-Inn*. eople, but rather they are greater; for what the

R. STELLE ptique statues and bas reliefs which Italy enjoys re to the history-painters, the beautiful and noble

• Mr. Ince died, we are told, a student in Christ-churett ices with which England is confessed to abound Oxford, October 13, 1768.

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titudes of aspiring young men fall short of ya i

all these beauties of your character, notwithstart WILLIAM HONEYCOMB, ESQ.

ing the study and practice of them is the si business of their lives. But I need not tell a

that the free and disengaged behaviour of a The seven former volumes of the Spectator hav- gentleman makes as many aukward beaus, a ing been dedicated to some of the most celebrated easiness of your favourite Waller hath made i persons of the age, I take leave to inscribe this sipid poets. eighth and last to you, as to a gentleman who

At present you are content to aim all you hath ever been ambitious of appearing in the best charins at your owo spouse, without further thought company.

of mischief to any others of the ser. I know ya You are now wholly retired from the busy part had formerly a very great contempt for these pot of mankind, and at leisure to reflect upon your dantic race of mortals who call themselves phi past achievements ; for which reason I look upon sophers; and yet, to your honour be it spalat you as a person very well qualified for a dedica- there is not a sage of them all could have bed tion.

acted up to their precepts in one of the most s I may possibly disappoint my readers, and your portant points of life: I mean, in that geseru self too, if I do not endeavour on this occasion to disregard of popular opinion which you shoea make the world acquainted with your virtues. some years ago, when you chose for your wie And here, sir, I shall not compliment you upon obscure young woman, who doth not indeed po your birth, person, or fortune ; nor any other the tend to an ancient family, but has certainly 25 m like perfections which you possess, whether you forefathers as any lady in the land, if she coul will or no : but shall only touch upon those which but reckon up their names. are of your own acquiring, and in which every

1 mast own, I conceived very extraordinary one must allow you have a real merit.

hopes of you from the moment that you confezel Your janty air and easy motion, the volubility your age, and from eight-and-forty (where sa of your discourse, the suddenness of your laugh, had stuck so many years) very ingenuousty steppel the management of your snuff-box, with the white into your grand climacteric. Your deportes ness of your hands and teeth (which have justly has since been very venerable and becoming, gained you the envy of the most polite part of the I am rightly informed, you make a regular seper: male world, and the love of the greatest beauties ance every quarter-sessions among your broches in the female) are entirely to be ascribed to your of the quorum ; and, if things go os as they de own personal genius and application.

stand fair for being a colonel of the milita. i You are formed for these accomplishments by am told that your time passes away as agreeably & happy turn of nature, and have finished yourself in the amusements of a country life, as it escat in them by the utmost improvements of art. A in the gallantries of the town; and that you 397 man that is defective in either of these qualifica- take as much pleasure in the planting of your tions (whatever may be the secret ambition of his trees, as you did formerly in the catting dose of heart), must never hope to make the figure you your old ones. In short, we hear from all banda have done, among the fashionable part of his spe that you are thoroughly reconciled to your et! cies. It is therefore no wonder we see such mul- acres, and have not too much wit to look in • Colonel Cleland.

your own estate.

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After having spoken thus much of my patron, I must take the privilege of an author in saying

No 556. FRIDAY, JUNE 18, 1714. something of myself. I shall therefore beg leave o add, that I have purposely omitted setting those

Qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus narks to the end of every paper, which appeared Frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat ; o my foriner volumes, that you may have an op

Nunc positis novus esuviis, nitidusque juventa,

Lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga portunity of showing Mrs. Honeycomb the shrewd. Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis.

VIRG. Æn. ii. ver. 471. less of your conjectures, by ascribing every spe

So shines, renew'd in youth, the crested snake, ulation to its proper author : though you know Who slept the winter in a thorny brake;

And, casting off his slough when spring returns, low often many profound critics in style and sen- Now looks aloft, and with new glory burns :

Restor'd with pois'nous berbs, his ardent sides iments have very judiciously erred in this particu- Reflect the sun, and rais'd on spires he rides; ar, before they were let into the secret.

High o'er the grass hissing he rolls along,
And brandishes by fits his forky tongue.

• I am, sir,
* Your most faithful

acquainted the world with my design of humble servant,

electing a new club, and of opening my mouth in

it after a most solemn manner. Both the elec• THE SPECTATOR *!! tion and the ceremony are now past; but not find.

ing it so easy, as I at first imagined, to break through a fifty years silence, I would not venture into the world under the character of a man who pretends to talk like other people, till I had arrived at a

full freedom of speech. BOOKSELLER TO THE READER.

I shall reserve for another time the history of such club or clubs of which I am now a talkative,

but unworthy member; and shall here give an ac» the 6320 Spectator the Reader will find an account of this surprising change which has been ount of the rise of this eighth and last volume +. produced in me, and which I look upon to be as I have not been able to prevail upon the seve- since that which happened to the son of Creesus,

remarkable an accident as any recorded in history, al gentlemen who were concerned in this work after having been many years as much tongue-tied let me acquaint the world with their names.

as myself.

Upon the first opening of my mouth I made a Perhaps it will be unnecessary to inform the speech, consisting of about half a dozen wellLeader, that no other papers which have appeared turned periods; but grew so very hoarso upon it, nder the title of Spectator, since the closing of that for three days together, instead of finding the

use of my tongue, I was afraid that I had quite lost vis eighth volume, were written by any of those it. Besides, the unusual extension of my muscles on entlemen who had a hand in this or the former this occasion made my face ache on both sides to

such a degree, that nothing but an invincible resoolumes.

lution and perseverance could have prevented me

from falling back to my monosyllables. • This dedication has been attributed to Budgell.

I afterwards made several essays towards speak+ After the Spectator had been discontinued about eighteen ing; and that I might not be startled at my own onths, during which time the “Guardian,” and the "Eng- voice, which has happened to me more than once, shman,” were published, ' an attempt was made to revive I used to read aloud in my chamber, and have , at a time,' says Dr. Johnson, " by no means favourable to often stood in the middle of the street to call a terature, wben the succession of a new family to the throne coach, when I knew there was none within hearing. led the nation with anxiety, discord, and confusion; and

When I was thus grown pretty well acquainted ther the turbulence of the times, or the satiety of the with my own voice, I laid hold of all opportuaders, put a stop to the publication after an experiment of nities to exert it. Not caring however to speak ghty numbers, which were afterwards collected into an much by myself, and to draw upon me the whole b volume, perhaps more valuable than any one of those attention of those I conversed with, I used for at went before it. Addison produced more than a fourth some time to walk every morning in the Mall, and irt; and the other contributors are by no means unworthy found my modesty greatly relieved by the commu

talk in chorus with a parcel of Frenchmen. I appearing as his associates. The time that had passed nicative temper of this nation, who are so very aring the suspension of the Spectator, though it had not ssened his power of bumour, seems to have increased his sociable as to think they are never better comisposition to seriousness : the proportion of his religious to his pany than when they are all opening at the same

time. mic papers is greater than in the former series. The Specitor, from its recommencement, was published only three female conversation, and that I should have a con

I then fancied I might receive great benefit from mes a week, and no discriminative marks were added to the venience of talking with the greater freedom when apers. To Addison, Tickell has ascribed 23; Nos. 556, 557, I was not under any impediment of thinking: I 58, 559, 561, 562, 565, 567, 568, 569, 571, 574, 575, 579, therefore threw myself into an assembly of ladies, 0, 582, 583, 584, 585, 590, 592, 598, and 600. Johnson's but could not for my life get in a word among ives of English Poets, vol. ii. p. 345, 8vo. edit. 1794.

them: and found that if I did not change my com pany, I was in danger of being reduced to my primitive taciturnity.

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