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terms either to the Professor or his against his own conviction, that it is Spectators, that he may lecture, but utterly destitute of poetical and dra. that nobody will understand him. He matic merit, and disgraceful, not to accordingly makes his bow, and the Mr Maturin alone, but to the audicurtain falls; but the worst of the ences who admired it when acted, and joke is, that the Professor pockets the the reading Public, who admired it no admittance-money,--for what reason, less when printed. There is more his outwitted audience are left, the malignity, and envy, and jealousy, and best way they can, to“ fancy or ima- misrepresentation, and bad wit, in this gine."

Critical Essay, than in all the Reviews But the greatest piece of Quackery now existing, from the Edinburgh in the Book, is his pretended account down to the Lady's Magazine. Mr of the Metaphysical System of Kant, Coleridge ought to have behaved otherof which he knows less than nothing. wise to an ingenious man like Mr MaHe will not allow that there is a sin- turin, struggling into reputation, and gle word of truth in any of the French against narrow circumstances. He Expositions of that celebrated System, speaks with sufficient feeling of his nor yet in any of our British Reviews. own pecuniary embarrassments, and of We do not wish to speak of what we the evil which Reviewers have done to do not understand, and therefore say his worldly concerns; but all his feelnothing of Mr Coleridge's Metaphy- ing is for himself, and he has done all sics. But we beg leave to lay before in his power to pluck and blast the our readers the following Thesis, for laurels of a man of decided Poetical the amusement of a leisure hour. Genius. This is not the behaviour

which one Poet ought to show to an“ This principium commune essendi et other; and if Mr Coleridge saw faults cognoscendi, as subsisting in a will, or

and defects in Bertram, he should primary act of self-duplication, is the mediate or indirect principle of every

science ;

have exposed them in a dignified manbut it is the mediate and direct principle ner, giving all due praise, at the same of the ultimate science alone, i. e. of tran- time, to the vigour, and even originaliscendental philosophy alone. For it must ty, of that celebrated Drama. Mr Colebe remembered, that all these Theses refer ridge knows that Bertram” has bem solely to one of the two Polar Sciences,

come a stock play at the London namely, to that which commences with and Theatres, while his own Remorse rigidly confines itself within the subjective, is for ever withdrawn. Has this stung leaving the objective (as far as it is exclusively objective) to natural philosophy, bim? Far be it from us to impute

But there which is its opposite pole. In its very idea, mean motives to any man. therefore, as a systematic knowledge of our

is a bitterness-an anger-a scorncollective KNOWING (scientia scientiæ), it we liad almost said, a savage and reinvolves the necessity of some one highest vengeful fierceness in the tone of Mr principle of knowing, as at once the source Coleridge, when speaking of Mr Maand thie accompanying form in all particular turin, which it is, we confess, imposacts of intellect and perception. This, it sible to explain, and which, we fear, has been shown, can be found only in the act and evolution of self-consciousness. We proceeds (perhaps unknown to his meare not investigating an absolute principium taphysical self) from private pique and essendi ; for then, I admit, many valid ob- hostility, occasioned by superior merit jections might be started against our theory; and greater success. As a proof that but an absolute principium cognoscendi. our opinion is at least plausible, we The result of both the sciences, or their quote Mr Coleridge's description of equatorial point, would be the principle of a Bertram. total and undivided philosophy, as, for prudential reasons, I have chosen to anticipate

This superfetation of blasphemy upon in the Scholium to Thesis VI. and the note

nonsense this felo de se and thief captain subjoined."

--this loathsome and leprous confluence of

robbery, adultery, murder, and cowardly We cannot take leaveof Mr Coleridge, assassination this monster, whose best without expressing our indignation at

deed is, the having saved his betters from the gross injustice, and, we fear, en

the degradation of hanging him, by turning

Jack Ketch to himself.vious persecution, of his Criticism on Mr Maturin's “ Bertram.” He has What a wretched contrast does Mr thought it worth his while to analyse Coleridge here afford to Mr Walter and criticise that Tragedy in a diatribe Scott. That gentleman, it is known, of fifty pages. · He contends evidently encouraged Mr Maturin, before he was VOL. II.


known to the public, by his advice and Wernerian Society, and given in commendation; and, along with Lord No V. of this Magazine, p. 471, Byron, was the principal means of though it may have been singular in bringing “ Bertram” on the stage. the neighbourhood of Leadhills, is not Such conduct was worthy of the a solitary instance of the same appear“ Mighty Minstrel,” and consistent ance; and if you think it worthy of with that true nobility of mind by notice, I shall transcribe from my which he is characterized, and which note-book its occurrence to me on two makes him rejoice in the glory of different occasions. contemporary genius. Mr Coleridge Having resided for several years in speaks with delight of the success of the West Highlands, my profession his own Tragedy—of his enlightened often obliged me to be on horseback audience, and the smiling faces of those in the night as well as during the day. he recollected to have attended his Lec- From the western situation of that tures on Poetry at the Royal Institu- country, in the immediate vicinity of tion. How does he account for the the Atlantic Ocean, the climate is gensame audience admiring Bertram? Let erally moist and variable, occasioned him either henceforth blush for his by the prevailing winds, which, for own fame, or admit Mr Maturin's the greater part of the year, blow from claims to a like distinction.*

that quarter, - and carry along with We have done. We have felt it them immense volumes of clouds cole our duty to speak with severity of this lected over that immeasurable expanse book and its author,-and we have of water, which, being attracted by given our readers ample opportunities the great altitude of the mountains, to judge of the justice of our strictures. are broken upon their summits, and We have not been speaking in the pour down their torrents on the surcause of Literature only, but, we con- rounding country of this descripceive, in the cause of Morality and tion was the 6th of October 1799. I Religion. For it is not fitting that He mounted my horse in the morning, to should be held up as an example to encounter--what I had often done be. the rising generation (but, on the con- fore-a long ride with a wet skin. trary, it is most fitting that he should Along with the rain there was its be exposed as a most dangerous model), usual accompaniment, a breeze of who has alternately embraced, defend- wind, which continued till dusk, ed, and thrown aside all systems of when it became calm. The rain also Philosophy, and all creeds of Religion; gradually abated, and at last disapwho seems to have no power of re- peared, but left in its place a dense taining an opinion,-no trust in the humid vapour, so that at the distance principles which he defends,-but of a few yards no object was visible. who fluctuates from theory to theory, The night became dark and dreary, according as he is impelled by vanity, but I continued my journey. envy, or diseased desire of change, In passing along a road that leads and who, while he would subvert and by the margin of an extensive moss, scatter into dust those structures of and not far from a considerable river knowledge, reared by the wise men of which intersects a great plain, I was this and other generations, has nothing surprised, and I confess startled, by to erect in their room but the baseless the sudden illumination of


horse's and air-built fabrics of a dreaming whole mane and ears, which rapidly imagination.

appeared as if thickly covered with burning sulphur or ignited phosphorus, and partially spread over the breast

of my great-coat, and edge of my hat. CURIOUS METEOROLOGICAL

Having never before seen any thing of the kind, I believed that I was en

veloped by an electric cloud, and felt MR EDITOR,

considerable alarm lest an explosion The meteorological phenomenon described in a paper read before the

Mackenzie, the illustrious author of the

Man of Feeling. The knowledge that high * We may here make mention of an ad- praise was bestowed on him by such a man, mirable essay on this Drama, read before may well comfort Mr Maturin under the the Royal Society of Edinburgh, by Mr mean abuses of an envious rival.


of it should prove fatal. I drew my the electric state of the atmosphere, the whip along the horse's mane, which moisture of which, at those times, preproduced a degree of scintillation, but vented explosion; but which readily did not dissipate the fiery fluid, a emitted the surcharged fluid when it great quantity of which adhered to came in contact with any substance to the whip. This lumination continued which it would adhere'; and this is about four minutes, without increase particularly remarkable with regard to or diminution, and went off in an in- the strong pair of horses. It may be stant, and did not frighten, nor seem observed, that on both occasions the to incommode, my horse.

horses were white, a colour, it has The next opportunity I had of ob- been noticed in the 66th volume of serving this phenomenon, was at the the Philos. Transac., by which the distance of some years, on the 14th of electric fuid is peculiarly attracted, February 1813. The day had been when it happens to strike an animal; very boisterous, with frequent showers a satisfactory instance of which lately of rain and hail. Į was on horseback took place, and consists with my knowlate in the evening, attended by a ser- ledge. yant, also mounted. We required to On a small island off Lochearn, in ford a large river, which, to the re- Argyllshire, one of the most picturproach of the district in which it is esque and beautiful lakes in Britain, a situated, is the only one without a poor man had erected a cottage for his bridge, on the great line of road from family, and at the back of it a hut for the Mull of Kintyre through the West his cow. During a thunder storm in Highlands, and as far north as Johnny autumn 1810, the lightning penetrated Groat's House.

the roof and wall of this cottage, made This river is often so much swelled its way through the cow-house, and by foods as to be rendered impassable; split a huge piece of rock that stood and these floods frequently effect such behind. The lightning had killed the changes in its course, as to make the cow, but a black calf that stood close fords intricate and hazardous for travel to her was not touched. Upon exlers. On this occasion all these dan- amining the cow, the colour of which gers seemed evident; and just as we was brown, and streaked with white on Jad arrived at the brink of the stream, the sides, it was found that the electric and were considering by which track fluid had run along the white portions we should attempt to cross it, a black only of the skin, the hair of which was heavy cloud, accompanied with a vio- completely destroyed, while that of a lent blast of wind, and a severe shower different colour remained sound, and of hail, came in oựr faces, and we were was not even singed. instantly in the dark. As we could Before concluding this subject, it not now see an inch before us, we may be noticed, that the above describwere forced to stand still, on a wide ed luminous appearances of the horses' open plain, where no shelter was near, manes were observed on the borders of and turning our backs to the storm, two very extensive mosses, in both of in shivering expectation awaited its which there are at all seasons large cole. blowing over.

lections of stagnant water; but whether We had not however halted long, these luminations can be attributed to when our attention was carried from the same cause as that of the wellthe storm by the appearance of the known Ignes Fatui, so often seen near manes and ears of our horses, which sink swamps, it may be difficult to dewere quickly covered with the bril- termine. Though the vapours arising liant coruscation I hail formerly wit- from marshy ground, and decayed aninessed, and which now remained longer mal and vegetable matter, are said to than before. The servant, who was a possess, along with their property of innative of Ayrshire, having never seen Hammability, that of mobility also, we the like, was much surprised and ter- can assign no other probable cause for rified.

the wonderful, and often fantastical apThere was no thunder nor lightning pearances of such vapours, than that observed within many miles of the of occasional combination with electric places where these phenomena appear. cal fluid, to which they have a strong ed, nor had there been any for several affinity, and which pervades all the previous months; yet we cannot doubt operations of nature. that they must have been produced by Sept 24, 1817. DICALEDON






bic inches, and the cubes eight; from SCORESBY, JUN. M.W.S. &c. TO PRO- which I expected to find whether the FESSOR JAMESON.

shape or dimension of the wood had

any effect in encouraging or hindering Whitby, 27th Aug. 1817. the entrance of the sea-water. A MY DEAR SIR,

counterpart of each substance, corresThat man is born to disappointment, ponding in size, shape, and weight, and that where he indulges the high- were in readiness to be immersed in a est expectations he is frequently de- tub of water during the time the princeived, are truths which I doubt not cipal pieces were under water, that the but you, my dear sir, may be disposed clear effect of the impregnation might to admit. At least I assure myself, be ascertained. Besides the above inyou will feel a sympathy in the dis- teresting object, I had in view other appointment I now allude to, the par- matters also—the temperature of the ticulars of which I am about to com- sea at a depth scarcely before sounded municate.

was to be ascertained the water of Last year, you will recollect, I made the greatest depth to which the apan experiment on the impregnation of paratus was sent, to be brought up, wood with sea-water, when submitted and its specific gravity and constituto vast pressure, by being immersed ents examined-two tin vessels (sent some thousands of feet deep in the sea, by Mr Adie), intended for trying the the result of which was interesting. depth and mean specific gravity of the From this experiment, and two others water passed through in the descent, subsequently made, I perceived that to be proved—the nature of the cursmall blocks of wood, sent down to rent to be examined—and by means the depth of 720 feet, became a little of a frame of wire-gauze stretched impregnated with water, but were still across the upper valve of the marine buoyant in this fluid ; that similar diver, it was converted into a trap for masses of oak, fir, beech, &c. after insects and small fishes; and whatever being sunk to the depth of 4000 feet, animals might enter by the lower valve became heavier than sea-water, but in its descent, were expected to be that the fir speedily regained some of brought up by it. its buoyancy, so that it floated in fresh With these various objects in view, water; that at the depth of 4566 feet, I procured all the lead lines I could lignum vitæ, hickery, elm, beech, ma- meet with ; and having a favourable hogany, and fir wood, as well as bone, opportunity on the 28th of June, I each became more or less impregnated moved the ship to a field of ice, fixed with water, so that they all sunk in the whole apparatus, consisting of the salt water, and having been kept con- marine diver, a Six's thermometer, Mr stantly immersed, yet remain of great- Adie's tin vessels, the specimens of er specific gravity than the water of wood, bones, jet metals, &c. and althe sea.

From the observable ratio of lowed them to sink to the perpendicuincrease of specific gravity, obtained lar depth of 720 feet without meetby wood subjected to an increase of ing with the bottom. The end of the pressure, I imagined that a still high- line resting in a boat, was, after an er pressure would produce a still great- interval of two hours, taken on board er effect, and that the proportion of the ship, and, by a slow and steady moweight, gained by certain descriptions tion, we proceeded to draw it in. We of wood sent down by a line, might had taken about 300 yards on board, be made use of to ascertain the depth. when, to my excessive mortification, To prove this point, I wished to try the line gave way, slipped through the the effect of pressure at the depth of grasp of a man who held it at the time, a mile or a mile and a half. I there- and disappeared in a moment! Thus fore prepared for the experiment, by an experiment, in which I placed such providing blocks of wood of different sanguine expectations, was blastedshapes, dimensions, and qualities, and an experiment which I intended as a other substances, to the amount of finishing one, proved so indeed by antwenty articles. In this assortment I other and reverse process. The appahad blocks of fir, oak, and hickery, in ratus I set a high value upon, being onbes, parallelipoids, and wedges of the only one of the kind in existence. different weights. The wedges and The original was presented me by Sir parallelipoids, each contained two cu. Joseph Banks, and contrived at his re







quest by Messrs Cavendish and Gilpin, as it had recently rubbed against the i both of whom, it is remarkable, died shore, We were sixteen days navigatbefore it was completed. It was of ing between the meridians of 50 and wood. But the first time it was sent 10° W. without even being able to see to the depth of 300 fathoms, the wood four miles for fog; and frequently the swelled, opened, and became leaky, mist was so thick for forty-eight hours and the plate-glass illuminators rent, together, that we could not see obthrough the middle, whereby it was jects at the distance of a hundred rendered useless. I therefore made a yards. At these times, when we had inodel of a similar instrument, and got light winds, we sometimes groped as it cast in brass. It was well finished, it were through the ice for a few hours and was a beautiful apparatus : it was in the day, but generally moved in provided with Six's thermometer, and the evening, and in fresh winds. It the valves of the original instrument. was in longitude 4° 44 W. that I lost I cannot say whether the failure of my marine diver and apparatus.--I am, the experiment, or the loss of the in- my dear sir, your most obedient serstrument, gave me the most con- vant,

WM SCORESBY, jun. The line which broke was the thickest, and apparently the strongest of the whole series in use. A small portion, however, scarcely two inches in length, proved to have been injured by accidental moisture, and

No II. was rotten. Had it been as good as it appeared, it would have supported

Edward II.-MARLOW.* thrice the weight. The strain on the Jine certainly exceeded what I had cal

(We have been promised, by a gentleculated. The rope being thoroughly man distinguished for his knowledge of old wetted, became nearly half as heavy English Literature, a series of Essays on the in water as it was before in air. Thus early Dramatists. The first essay of the terminates my experiments on the tem- series (on the “ Faustus” of Marlow) apperature of the sea at great depth. peared in the fourth Number of this Ma

I fear I shall have wearied you with gazine, and they will be regularly continued this elaborate account of my mishap.

in this publication.] On account of the singular open- This, we think, is decidedly the best ness of the Greenland seas, I have of all Marlow's plays, and is entit, twice (during my last voyage) pene- led to rank with the finest historical trated to the longitude of 100 W. when the weather was foggy, and once to 1010 W. when the weather * Christopher Marlow was born in the reign was clear ; on which last occasion (Ju- of Edward VI., and, according to Oldys,

educated at Bennet College, Cambridge, ly 29-30) the coast of West Green

where he took the degree of Master of Arts land, rarely before seen by any Brit- in 1587. His parentage is unknown, and ish Navigator, was in sight. Accord- also the reasons which induced him to leave ing to our best, and indeed only au- the University--to abandon the destination thorities, the Dutch, the east coast of for which he seems, from the nature of his W. Greenland is laid down in longitude education, to have been intended—and to 4° or 5° W. from Greenwich, in the try his fortune on the stage. Langbaine latitude of 75° to 7610 ; its situation, says, generally, that " he trod the stage by the Dutch, is very erroneous. I

with applause;" but it does not appear that had good sight of the chronometer in Few men have received such lofty encomi.

he was greatly distinguished as an actor. 5, 7, and go 33 W. immediately ums from contemporary Wits ; and high as previous to each of the occasions in his poetical powers unquestionably were, which we penetrated so far as 10o and they seem to have been somewhat over-rat1040 W. Hence I am assured, that ed. Ben Jonson, in his lines to the methe land lies further to the westward mory of Shakespeare, speaks of Marlow's than 11° W. in each parallel of lati

mighty line,” an expression which Schletude between 74o and 76°N. It is gel, the celebrated German critic, thinks probably as far west as 14–15° in the rather singular critical opinions on many

altogether unapplicable. Ben Jonson held parallel of 74°, which I saw it. The subjects; and certainly the epithet “ mighty, ice in this situation was mostly mud- cannot, with peculiar propriety, be applied dly, and black with dirt on the edges, to the character either of his thought or ex.

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