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eight houris, leving without ye horse and fourtie men; within entret threscoir, of

ABDICATION OF QUEEN MARY, COMquhom ye principales ar, the erll himself, the Erl Murray, Schir William Keith, ane soune of lochlevinnes, William Stewart

MR EDITOR, Constable, Maister Jhone Colvin, etc.

The publicity which has been be“ The laird of Spott was this tym in the Kingis house, and immediatlie afoir yair with the History of Queen Mary, may

stowed upon every thing connected kything, in the duikes chalmer, quha eftir yair cry crying a bothweill, Justice Justice, serve as an apology for adducing the ran toʻye zett and tuik ye keyis fra bog following notice of what occurred at a portar, and tuik out his twa servantis cap- critical and interesting period of her tives but culd not get ye laird of Cumbadge life. quha was kepit in ane uther chalmer, all Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, English his leggis with ye buittis dong in crosche, ambassador to Scotland in the year swa it is thocht yat Spot hes not bein of 1567, intimates to Queen Elizabeth, long forsein heirof, bot throw the unworthie in a letter dated at Edinburgh upon misusing his servantis hes latlie run head- the 25th of July of that year, that, after longe yarto.

** In the tym of ye crying the Chancellar certain conferences among the confebeing sowpit was gangand in ye end of ye derate Lords upon the 23d, the depogalrie befóir his hall, quhilk iš devidit be sition of Mary, then a prisoner at Lochane perpan, and sudditlie ran up to the leven, had been finally resolved. * Chalmer with his servantis, casting doun in He, at the same time, informs her, ye narrow turnpek fayer beddis, and at un- that, knawin flaugueris with muskattis repowsit

“ The Lord Lindsay departed this Mornye persewaris, slew ane Scott, and schot ane ing (the 24th) + from this Town, accomuther in the buttokis with ane schott, it is panied with Robert Melvill. He carrieth said yat Wauchop laird of Nathrie is schott

with him three Instruments to be signed throw ye bodie. “ In this tym, ze ken his chalmer is de. by the Queen. The one containing her con

sent to have her son crowned, and to relinvidit fra ye duikis chalmer be ane burden quish the Government of the Realm. The weran, the Chancellar earnestlie lukis throw

other is a Commission of Regency of the to ye duik, craving yat he micht be receavit Realm, to be granted to the Earl of Murray in his chalmer, or yat ye duik wold cum in during the King's minority. The third is to him, quha refusit, answering it war bet

a like Commission, to be granted to certain ter for yaime baith to keip yaire awin lodg- of the Nobility and others, for the Governingis. With the samin cry, they of ye ment of the Realm during the King's mikingis house ware warnit, quha tuik up the nority, in case the Earl of Murray will not King and the Quein in to ye tour, and caest

accept the Regency alone." to ye Yrn Zett. The persewaris seeing yai euld not haue entrie to ye Chancellar, pur. Register, we learn, that upon the 25th,

By an entry in the Privy Council posit to entir into ye king be ye quenis Lord Lindsay returned to Edinburgh, chalmer, and with hammers brak

up durr to have ye king in yair power.

having accomplished the object of his Thus they continew quhill neir ten mission. The Queen signed upon houris, and yareeftir begin to retyr be ye the 24th the three instruments mendurr yat leidit in to ye kirk, these quha tioned above; and these, though their were sett to keip ye laird burlie, and uther warrant be no longer preserved, proquha kennit nocht ye way, being eight in fessing to have been regularly sealed eftir preiching, hangit, all simple servantis, upon that day, are engrossed at full matho colvin, ane sone of heckie Stewartis length in the acts of parliament of the in paislay, ane gentleman of the mersse, and year. utheris.

So stands the matter as narrated by “ The King with his domestiques tuik historians, founded upon public record inquisitione of thir eight yain depositione. and official correspondence. Quhile yai war at ye inquisitione, the lorde I, not very long ago, happened to meet Montrose, and lorde Maxwelle cum down, with an original Notorial Protocoll of and war haldin at ye durr; quhilk was a James Nicholson, whether the same market, and reportet be him quha was present, and sawit this, and siclyk worket a Original Letter in the Cott. Liby. mislyking of the Nobiltie. Sua sone as thir “ Calig. C. I.” ap. Keith, Hist. p. 424. reportis war spred, The erliss of Anguse + He writes upon the 24th, though his quha wes in tentalloune, and Mortoune qua letter is dated upon the 25th. wes in lochlevin, cumis to ye toun, and # Keith, Hist. p. 434, where the minute court, and sic is the wisdome of the Chan- of Privy Council is inserted. The precise cellar, war receavit be ye king, with gud hour of the day when the Council met, or countenance.”

when Lindsay appeared, is not specified.

事 *

who, in the above year, was appointed Regne_the_xxv zeire, sic subscribitur Comptroller of the Thirds of Bene- Marie R.-And, in name, and behalfe of fices, * a character of some notoriety the Remanent lordis foursaidis, Requyrit in his day, I cannot precisely deter- Thomas Sinclair to seall the saidis lettres, mine. It is, however, evidently the and offerit him the said warrande. Quha

onswerit yat sa lang as the quenis majeste production of the 16th century, and is in warde, he walde seall na sic lettres that is authenticated by his attestation

are extreordinare, And yereafter the saide throughout, as well as by that of the lorde preissit him yerto, And tuke fra Director of Chancery. Between the him the privy seill, and wyt cumpany of exterior binding and the backs of the folkis, compellit him to seill the same, Quilk leaves, where it had been pretty effece ye said thomas protestit wes agains his tually concealed, there appeared a thin- will vi maiori,' to ye quhilkis he culd not

resist. Ande the saide Lord tuke instruly folded


of paper, which prov- mentis yat he offerit to him the letter for his ed to be a minute of a protest, taken

warrande.” at the request of parties by Nichol

We are thus furnished with a conson, acting in his professional capaci- temporary copy of a missing document ty, in the view of being afterwards the warrant of Mary for her own extended. Of this document, which abdication. The privy seal, then “ de fills a single sheet, and is besides facto,” was not appended to the three evinced by the water-mark to be of instruments until late in the 25th of corresponding antiquity with the pro- July. A curious instance is afforded tosoll, the following is an accurate

of the resolute manner in which Lynde transcript:

say, styled by Robertson “ the Zealot" “ Upone the xxv day of July anno etc.

of his party, hurried on the accomLXVII., hora tertia post meridiem, præsentibus Richardo Carmichaell de edderm, plishment of their measures, at a crisis Niniano lamby,t patricio Cranston, Henrico of considerable difficulty. And adSincleir.

ditional proof of the hazard, and perMy lord lyndesy requyrit thomas sinclair haps unpopularity, of the enterprize, to seall thir three writtingis eftre following may be discoverable in this marked contenit in yis writtinge,

opposition of a public officer, * who • Regina, Keipare of our privy seill, It is our will and by the national feelings of the mo

might not be altogether uninfluenced we charge ze, It is our will and we charge zeI that, incontinent eftre the sight heirof, ment, asserted to have undergone a

change favourable to the interests of ze put our prive seill to our thre lettres underwritten, subscrivit wyt oure hand, ane of the Queen. yame beirande dimmissioune, and renun- The above circumstance, though unciatioune of the governmente of our realme, noticed by any historian, is, as will be in favouris of our maist deir sone; Ane seen by the extract which follows, aluyer makande our breder James erle of luded to in the supplication presented murray Regent to our said sone, during to the Queen's Parliament, upon the his minoritie ; And the third, in caise of 12th of June, in the year 1571, insertour saide brudris deceise, or quhill he cum

ed in Bannatyne's MS. Journal in the wytin our realme, etc. Makande James

Advocates' Library. duke of chasteautarault, Mathow erle of lennox, Archibalde erle of ergile, Johne

“ It is not to be past over in silence, in erle of athole, James erle of Mortoune, what manner the privie seale was appendit alexandre erle of Glencarne, and Johne erle

to that Letter (the Royal Letter of Demisof Mar,-And, in caise of the said James sion), how it violentlie, and be force (was] erle of murrayis refuising of acceptatioune reft out of the Keperis' handis as may apof the saide office singularlie upone him, peir be authentick documentis, sua as hir makande him, & yaine Regentis to oure

Maiestis subscription was purchased by said sone ; as the saidis lettres at lenthe force, so was the Seill extorted be force.” beris, kepande yir presentis for ze war

Without, however, what has been rande, subscryvit wyt our hande at loch. premised, the fact, resting merely levin, the xxIIII day of Julii, and of oure upon ex parte statement, might have

been discredited, if not utterly disbelieved.

J. R. * Records of Assumption of Thirds of Benefices, unprinted Acts of Sederunt, &c.

† This Ninian Lamby was a burgess of * Thomas Sinclair, we are informed by Edinburgh; he is a witness to a discharge the Register of the Privy Seal, filled the in the year 1557, entered in a protocol of a situation of deputy of that seal from the John Robertson.

year 1555 to the year 1574, when he was # This repetition, as well as other things succeeded by a Henry Sinclair, probably in the deed, indicate the precipitancy of its the same who figures as one of the witnesses execution.

to the protest.





P. S.-The order for the proclama- of some of its most remarkable protion of the marriage between Darnley perties; but in order to understand the and Queen Mary is still extant in the nature and origin of the colours, the “ Buik of the Kirk of the Canagait,” experiments must be repeated with one of the oldest and most curious pieces that are regularly formed. registers of the kind that is extant. If we take a plate of regularly formed

“ The 21 of July anno domini 1565. mother-of-pearl, having its two op

The quhilk day Johne Brand Mynister posite surfaces ground perfectly flat presentit to ye kirk ane writting-written be (but not polished), either upon a blue ye Justice Clerk hand, desyring ye kirk of stone, or upon a plate of glass, with ye cannogait, ande Minister yareof, to pro- the powder of schistus, and if

, with on ye one part, And Marie be ye grace of the eye placed close to the plate, we god quene of Scottis, Soverane, on ye uyer

view in it, by reflection, a candle part. The quilk ye kirk ordainis ye Myn- standing at the distance of a few feet, ister to do, wyt Invocatione of ye name of

we shall observe a dull and imperfect God.”

image, free from all prismatic colours.

This image is formed upon the ordiOPTICAL PROPERTIES

nary principles of reflection, and is

faint and undefined, owing to the imMOTHER-OF-PEARL, AND THE ME

perfect reflecting power of the ground surface. On one side of this imper

fect image will be seen a brighter imBy Daviu BREWSTER, LL.D. F.R.S. age, glowing with the prismatic colLond. and Edin.

ours, and separated to as great a deMOTHER-Of-PEARL is a well-known gree as the colours formed by one of substance, obtained principally from the angles of a common equilateral the shell of the Pearl Oyster; and from prism of flint glass. the facility with which it can be cut If the plate is now turned round in and polished, it has been long employ- its own plane, the observer continuing ed for a variety of useful and orna

to see the image, the prismatic image mental purposes

. Every person must will follow the motion of the plate, and have observed the fine play of the pris- perform a complete revolution about matic colours, to which mother-of-pearl the common image, the blue rays owes its value as an ornamental sub- always keeping nearest the common stance, &c. and the ever varying suc- image, and the red rays farthest from it. cession of fresh tints which may be J.et the plane be now placed in such a developed, either by changing the in- position, that the prismatic image is in clination of the plate, or the direction the plane of reflection, and between the of the light in wħich it is placed. The common image and the observer, and nature and origin of these colours have let the image of the candle be viewed never been investigated: they have been at various angles of incidence. It will carelessly ascribed to the laminated then be found, that the angular disstructure of the shell, and have been tance of the prismatic image from the regarded as a fine proof of the New- common image gradually increases as tonian Theory of the colours of natural the candle is viewed more obliquely, bodies.

the distance being 2° 7', when the

candle is seen almost perpendicularly I. On the Optical Properties of Mothers in the plate, and 9° 14', when it is

seen at the greatest obliquity. This of-pearl.

angular distance varies with more raIn order to observe all the proper- pidity when the plate is turned round ties which we propose to describe in 180°, so as to place the common imthis paper, we must select a piece of re- age between the prismatic image and gularly formed mother-of-pearl, which the observer ; but in this case, we can, is known by the uniformity of its not observe the angle much beyond white colour in day-light, resembling 60° where it amounts to 4° 30'. somewhat the pearl itself, and scarcely On the outside of the prismatic image exhibiting any of the prismatic tints. will be observed a mass of coloured This regularity of structure is not often light, nearly at the same distance beto be met with in the ordinary pieces yond the prismatic image that the prisof mother-of-pearl, nor is it indispen- matic image is from the common image. sably necessary for the mere exhibition These three images are always in the VOL II.



same straight line ; but the angular When the second prismatic image is distance of the mass of coloured light extinguished, by removing the polish, varies according to a law different from it is then the most brilliant when seen that of the prismatic image. At great by transmission; and, in general, the angles of obliquity, this mass of light image which is brightest by reflection has a beautiful crimson colour ; at an is faintest by transmission, and vice angle of about 37° it becomes green, and at less angles it acquires a yellow In pieces of mother-of-pearl that hue, approaching to white, and be- are irregularly formed, the common comes very luminous. The colours of reflected image is encircled by a numthis mass of light become more bril- ber of irregular prismatic images at liant when the plate of mother-of- different distances from it. pearl is polished, and have an origin essentially different from the colours of the prismatic image.

II. On the Communication of the Hitherto we have considered the Colours of Mother-of-pearl to other phenomena only in the case where the

Substances. surface has merely that slight degree The phenomena which we have now of polish which accompanies smooth described must be allowed to be very grinding. If a'greater degree of polish, singular, and contrary to all our nohowever, is communicated to the plate, tions of the action of surfaces upon the common image becomes more bril- light; and had it not been for the liant, and a new prismatic image starts accidental circumstance which led to up, diametrically opposite to the first the discovery of their communicabiliprismatic image, and at the same dis- ty, it is probable that philosophers tance from the common image. This would have remained satisfied with assecond prismatic image resembles in cribing them to reflection from differevery respect the first, and follows the ently inclined planes near the surface same law by a variation of the angle of of the shell. incidence. Its brilliancy increases In measuring the angular distances, with the polish of the surface, and of the prismatic image from the comwhen this polish is very high, the se- mon image seen by reflection, I had cond prismatic image is nearly as bright occasion to fix the mother-of-pearl to as the first, which has its brilliancy a a goniometer by means of a cement little impaired by polishing. This made of rosin and bees-wax. Upon second image is never accompanied, removing it from the cement when in like the first, by a mass of coloured a hard state, by making it spring off light. If the polish of the surface is by insinuating the edge of a knife, the removed by grinding, the second pris- plate of mother-of-pearl left a clean inatic image vanishes, and the first re- impression of its own surface; and I sumes its primitive brilliancy.

was surprised to observe, that the ceWhen the preceding experiments are ment had actually received the properrepeated on the opposite surface of the ty of producing the colours which plate of mother-of-pearl, the same were exhibited by the mother-of-pearl. phenomena are observed, but in a This unexpected phenomenon was at reverse order, the first prismatic image first attributed by myself, and by seand the mass of coloured light being veral gentlemen who saw the experinow seen on the opposite side of the ments, to a very thin film of motherplate.

of-pearl detached from the plate, and In examining the light transmitted left upon the cement; but subsequent through the mother-of-pearl, we shall experiments convinced me that this perceive phenomena analogous to those was a mistake, and that the motherwhich have been described. A col- of-pearl really communicated to the oured image will be seen on each side cement the properties which it posof the common image, having the same sessed. angular distance from it as those seen The best method of making this exby reflection, and resembling them in periment is to employ black sealingevery particular, the blue light being wax, and to take the impression from nearest the common image, and the the mother-of-pearl when the wax is red light farthest from it. These rendered as fluid as possible by heat. two images, however, are generally The mother-of-pearl should be fixed fainter than those seen by reflection : to a handle like a seal, and its surface

should be carefully deprived of any The extraordinary images formed by greasy substance that might accidents reflection were both visible—the prially be adhering to it.

mary one being remarkably brilliant, The properties of mother-of-pearl and the secondary one scarcely permay also be communicated in this way ceptible ; but when the light was to balsam-of-tolu, gum-arabic, gold- transmitted through the gum, the leaf placed upon wax, tinfoil, the fu- primary image was nearly extinct, sible metal composed of bismuth and while the secondary one was unusumercury, and to lead, by hard pressure ally brilliant and highly-coloured, far or the blow of a hammer. When the surpassing in splendour those which impression is first made upon the fu- are formed by transmission through sible metal, the play of colours is sin- the mother-of-pearl itself. When gularly fine; but the metallic surface both the surfaces of gum-arabic are soon loses its polish, and the colours impressed with mother-of-pearl, four gradually decay.

images are seen. The colours seen by In order to show that in these cases transmission are more brilliant in the no part of the mother-of-pearl is left gum than in the balsam, as the latter on the surface, I plunged a piece of has the greatest reflective power; but wax, after it had received the impres- the coloured images produced by resion, into nitric acid, which would flection do not seem to have suffered have instantly destroyed the carbonate a greater dispersion when they are of lime, of which the mother-of-pearl formed by the metals than when they is chiefly composed, but it had no ef- are formed by cements. fect either in destroying or diminish- When the impression is taken from ing the colorific property of the sur- a pearl, the wax receives a character face. In soft cements, made of bees- similar to that which is possessed by wax and rosin, the slightest degree of the pearl. The image reflected from heat destroys the superficial configu- the surface of the pearl is enveloped ration, by which the colour is produc in a quantity of unformed light, arisced. In sealing-wax, gum-arabic, and ing from a cause which will afterwards realgar, a much greater heat is neces- be explained ; and the very same sary to destroy it; but in tinfoil and white nebulosity is reflected from the lead, its destruction can pnly be effected by the temperature at which

(To be continued.) they cease to become solid.

If we now examine the prismatic images reflected from the wax which has received the impression from an

LETTER unpolished piece of mother-of-pearl,

TO THE LORD HIGH CONSTABLE, we shall find, that the single prismatic image which is thus produced is on

From MR DINMONT. the right hand side of the common image, whereas it is on the left hand

MY LORD, side of the common image in the mo- Your Lordship will be very concerna ther-of-pearl itself.

ed to hear of the death of your old At different angles of incidence, the tenant Magg Scott: she has been two coloured images, formed by the long on your estate ; and although the wax, follow the same laws as those rent she paid was but small, yet every produced by the mother-of-pearl; but body had a respect for her from her the mass of green and crimson light great age and former character, for she never appears: It is therefore caused was in her 78th year when she died ; by some internal structure, which can- and has, as your Lordship may renot be communicated to other bodies. member my telling you, been in a

When an impression is taken from very weakly condition for many years the fracture of mother-of-pearl, its past : she was always drivelling and faculty of producing colour is also repeating what other people said to communicated. In imparting to gum- her as observations of her own, and arabic and balsam-of-tolu the super- was grown very, ignorant of every ficial configuration of mother-of-pearl, thing passing in the world. But as I we are enabled, on account of their remembered her once a very entertransparency, to observe the changes taining woman, and had a love for the induced upon the transmitted light. stories she used to tell about the 45,


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