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what was tantamount to a declaration of war, sent fourteen risons were beaten and disarmed at Toby, Laihela, Ylistaro, thousand fresh troops into Finland, plentifully supplied with Lappo, Seinäjoki, Ilmola, and Lillkyro. cannon, machine guns, mortars, armored cars, and rifles, on the But ever-increasing armed forces came pouring into Finland pretext that, as the new Finnish Government was not a prole from across the Russian border in response to the appeals of tarian one after the model of that set up in Petrograd, it must the Red Guard, and it became necessary for the White Guard be replaced with one more to the liking of the Bolsheviki! The to find
of warfare for its thousands of eager but unold example of Russian interference in Finnish affairs was too armed adherents if they were to avert the final ruin of their strong and too recent to be abandoned, no matter what lofty cause and their country's liberties. In these sore straits they principles might conflict with its resumption !
turned to Sweden, but, although some hundreds of Swedes, oftiAccordingly the Socialist revolution was soon in full swing, cers and men alike, responded with alacrity as private indiopening in Viborg, the town closest to the Russian border, on viduals, the Swedish Government, afraid apparently of the January 25, and marked by a series of unspeakable atrocities Socialists within its own gates, contented itself with platonic committed by the Red Guard throughout Finland, with the phrases of sympathy. active support of the Bolshevist troops.
Deprived of the expected help in this quarter and desperate Under these circumstances the Finnish Government found at the threatened loss of everything that lent life itself any itself powerless. As long ago as 1902 the Finnish army had value, the Finnish Constitutional Government found itself combeen abolished by the Czar, and consequently, lacking means of pelled to seek the necessaries of warfare in the only quarter effective resistance, the legally elected Government could do that remained, viz., Germany. Complying with the request. nothing except take to flight and leave the capital to the armed Germany promptly shipped artillery, arms, and ammunition by Red Guard and their Russian accomplices, recruited by numbers sea from Libau to Vasa, and from Riga transported the reof criminals who had been previously released from prison by maining Finnische Jaeger to their native shores to swell the orders from Broholm in order to take part in the work of ter- forces of the White Guards. Undoubtedly Germany saw her rorization. Most of the Government officials left Helsingfors, profit in the transaction--she does nothing without an ulterior the capital, during the night of January 26–27, for the motive--and exacted an adequate recompense, which it was not north. The few remaining Ministers, together with several of in the power of the hard-pressed Finnish Government to decline; their Parliamentary supporters, were arrested by the Red but the fact remains that Germany helped the Constitutional Guard when the latter seized the Government buildings the Government of Finland to defend itself against the rebel Red next day, and kept in confinement from a week to ten days. Guard and alien Bolshevist troops and defy the otherwise triOne of the menıbers of the Diet, Mikkola by name, was umphant forces of anarchy and high treason on its soil. murdered in his cell. At the same time the banks were rifled
Now, for the first time, adequately equipped for the interof such funds and securities as had not been removed to a place necinc warfare forced upon it, the Finnish White Guard, of safety. Of course the loyal Diet could hold no session. The infinitely superior to its opponent in intelligence and discipline, Red Guard proceeded to set up a “ People's Commissariat” and capably officered by tried leaders who have won their repuafter the Petrograd model. A veritable Reign of Terror was tations against the Germans on the eastern front, is making inaugurated. The wild excesses that followed were of such a excellent headway, and at present writing controls not only the nature as to shock the more moderate Socialists themselves. whole of the north and center, but nearly all the southern and In this tragic farce one of the most notorious released criminals, eastern part of thú country. a man who had committed more than one murder, named Savi- The spirit of the whole native White Guard movement is nainen, played a leading part, bringing in a bill of his own epitomized in the following ringing proclamation of General Disillusionment, discontent, and, is the funds gave out, actual Mannerheim, the White Guard's commander-in-chief : want, began to work among the followers of the Red Guard,
I swear in the name of the Finnish peasants' army, whose and a serious split occurred in the Socialist ranks.
leader I have the honor to be, not to sheathe my sword in its Meanwhile the Constitutional Government had established scabbard again until lawful order has been restored in the land, itself in Vasa, the capital of the province of Oesterbotten (East all fortresses are in our hands, and the last soldier of Lenine, Bothnia), on the west coast, whence it issued, on February 1, a together with the last hooligan, is finally driven out of Russian proclamation addressed to the people of Finland.
Karelia as well as Finland. Relying upon our high cause, our It declared that Finland's“ newly won independence has been
brave men and devoted women, we look forward to creating a exposed, through a comprehensive act of high treason, to the
great and powerful Finland. most threatening danger,” and appealed to all Finlanders to With eighty thousand troops now either in thorough battle rally to the support of the Constitutional Government, and in par- trim or actively training, the loyalist White Guard has every ticular of " our national volunteer defense organization," known prospect of a speedy victory over the combined forces of the as the White Guard, “ to insure and consolidate our people's Red Guard and their Bolshevist allies, in which event Finland liberty, to protect our homes, and to re-establish lawful order will be able to proceed to the prompt restoration of that order and the supremacy of the Diet.”
and tranquillity for which she has always hitherto been famous The response of the people was enthusiastic and prompt. and to the development of her social and political well-being. From all parts of the country the loyal inhabitants came pour- Unfortunately, however, another and even more sinister influing in- men of all classes, nobleman and peasant, merchant and ence, if at present more innocent-seeming, looms upon the horizon farmer, clerk and fisherman with any and all kinds of weapons, of Finland's future, further to bedevil the already complex and all burning with zeal to blot out the stain with which the situation which, if left to itself as between the native factions, Red Guard had besmirched the honor and fair name of Finland. would speedily find its own solution. The shadow of the insatiate
The opportunity to prove their mettle was immediately forth- and crafty Prussian colossus lies athwart the land, and already coming.
the discredited Red Guard are making capital out of it, and At the time of the issuance of the manifesto the 42d Rus- not least here in America, to befog the fundamental issue and sian Army Corps was stationed in Oesterbotten, and immedi- envelop their opponents in a mist of foul aspersions. In view of ately issued orders to the Finns—in the most flagrant contempt this, Americans must be doubly on their guard against the of the fact that the independence of Finland had been formally supposition that there is any desire on the part of the Finnish recognized by their own Soviet in Petrograd, to say nothing of Government or their White Guard supporters to come under other foreign governments—to the effect that the White Guard the sway, whether open or secret, of Germany, or even to entershould immediately disband and their followers and supporters tain any sympathy with the aims or ambitions of the Teutonic disarm, under penalty of the destruction of the city of Vasa. Power. The extent of their feeling in that direction consists The response was as instantaneous as it must have been unex- solely in a certain degree of gratitude, natural and legitimate in pected. The Finnish forces immediately gave battle, and dis- the exceptional circumstances, for the help extended in Finland's armament soon thereafter took place—but of the Russian troops, hour of direst need, which help, however, would much sooner who suffered an ignominious defeat. The news spread like have been owed to the Allies, had this been possible, and wildfire, and all over the country the natives flocked to the which was actually in the first place sought from Sweden. White Guard standards, with the result that the Russian gar- Had Sweden, casting all other considerations of opportunism or, shall we say, downright timidity, to the winds, come the declared purpose of capturing the Russian fleet there lying promptly to her distressed neighbor's assistance, she would unofficered and futile, and of the participation of German forces have solved the difficult situation to the ultimate advantage of in the capture of Viborg by the White Guard, as well as in herself no less than of Finland, and by cutting the ground from what appears to have been a decisive battle near Tavastchus, under the feet of further Prussian intrigue would have served ending in the loss by the Red Guard of most of their army, the whole Allied cause and won for herself a place of high honor. artillery, and supplies. In the presence of such evidence of new She, however, let the great opportunity slip, and now finds her- and unwelcome German power in the young Republic, the Finself rewarded by the more or less openly expressed contempt of landers may well look their gift-horse in the mouth with sinking the Teutonic military power, culminating in the high-handed hearts and pray secretly for the triumph on the western front seizure of the Åland Islands, commanding the entrance to both of the sore-pressed Allies, in whom they are perfectly aware, in the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia, and therefore the sanctuary of their breasts, lies the only real hope for the possessed of an immense strategical value. This act on the part eventual assurance and preservation of not only their own but of Germany was all the grosser an infraction of international any democracy and liberty on the face of the earth henceforth. comity since the future of the islands was even then the sub- Finland is thus overshadowed from converging directions by ject of discussion between Finland and Sweden, the former of the black pinions of the Bolshevist vulture and of the Prussian which had actually landed a small force to drive out the ma- eagle. Will the shadow fall, or will it lift? That is what every rauding Bolshevist invaders. And now latest despatches bring sincere American must ask himself as he watches the unfoldthe news of the landing of German troops in Helsingfors for ment of the present tragedy of Finland.
BY GINO C. SPERANZA
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK IN ITALY HAVE often noticed in my visits to the Italian front that To most of the returned immigrants to whom I have spoken over the fields where men have fought and along the devas- the distinction between Italian and American citizenship has
seemed, and is, vague and unreal; it exists in their minds, if at spring forth in great and colorful profusion as the aftermath of all, as a legalistic distinction; a thing for lawyers to wrangle blood and suffering.
over, not something of real moment to human souls. What Somehow I often vision this fact in relation to the results counts with them is what they feel far more than what they do, which this war will work upon the spirit of the immigrant even if what they do is to stand ready to die like men. In other world, upon those hundreds of thousands of European peasant words, it is a human rather than a political aspiration which is laborers who have known America ; and I feel that the suffer- uppermost in their minds. Fighting
on the Italian front or ing and sacrifices which our country must henceforth face in ever fighting “ Over There,” wearing the Italian gray-green or the greater measure will brighten the smoldering fire under our American khaki, made little difference in the heart's alle great “ melting pot” into a vast consuming blaze, destroying giance of these men, though occasionally a certain wistfulness the disloyal (the unassimilable, in the language of other days) shone in the eyes of those who, had they been free to choose, among our alien population, but sublimating into an enduring might have preferred the cowboy sombrero to the képi of the heart allegiance the political allegiance of those countless immi- fantaccino. grants among us for whom America will have become truly This is the spirit which is abroad in the world—in the immi their Patria.
grant world; this is America's reward for having offered to In these long, exciting years of absence from my own land” every humble yet adventurous soul the longed-for opportunity, the brightest moments have seemed to me those occasions of my for having tendered a home and a refuge to the disinherited of intimate talks with returned Italian immigrants, with the hum- every land. For only through such largesse could the spiritual ble men who had come back to fight for Italy, but whose eyes revolution have been accomplished by which the age-old idea of sparkled at the mention of America.
loyalty to a racial group has been converted into an allegiance To the question put by me to hundreds of these returned by racially divided and even opposite elements to a Patria immigrants at the front, whether, after the war, they were going representing essentially human as distinguished from political back to America, I have had an invariable and constant answer. ideals. But it was not so much the unanimity of assent which struck Yes, this is the spirit which is abroad in the immigrant world me as the tone in which that invariable “ Sure!" with its East to-day on both sides of the Atlantic, of which I may cite one or Side forcefulness of finality, was flung back at me. I hear it two illustrative examples. echo over the white stretches of the Adamello Glacier and along Some days ago an oldish peasant woman knocked at the door the jagged sides of the hard-won and tragically lost trenches of of the office of our military attaché here; then, in the presence the Carso; it comes reverberating through the men-made of Uncle Sam's busy officers, she drew from the innermost caverns of the Trentino mountain bulwarks where former West pocket of her voluminous skirt a letter from her eldest son in Virginia coal workers labored at countermining against the America, and asked, a little timidly, for the kindness of an hated Austrians. I hear that monosyllable voiced like a declara- explanation as to the exact meaning of some of its contents, for tion of faith in the midst of suffering, like a challenge to the it was not clear to her how her boys who were subject to milidoubters of our democracy; and in the vision of those scenes of tary duty in Italy (and how that thought had worried her!) struggle-in trench and hospital—the spiritual impulse behind could be volunteers (and such happy volunteers, it seemed) in that Sure !” seems both a great flame of human tenderness the Army of the United States. and a tiny flame of human wistfulness.
Here is the letter which sounded a little strange to that It is at the feet, as it were, of just such men that I have Italian mother. It loses, however, much of its peculiar charm grown wise; wise with the knowledge of a latent, unexpressed in the translation from the halting Italian original: force or virtu instinct in the life of a mixed people such as constitutes the present American State, of an element or poten
Long Island. tiality in our National life which has escaped statutory expres- “Dear Mother—I received your letter with great pleasure. sion because it is too subtle for juridic definition, but which was From it I learn that you are well, and also my little brother well within the hopes and the vision of the fathers of the Re- Guglielmo. But I don't see why you do not seem to understand public. Let us call it human allegiance or heart's allegiance, as that I am in the American Aviation Service. I wrote you
about distinct and different from political allegiance, yet politically it some time ago, and also that Aurelio is in the Army. Rest potent and active as a cohesive and unifying power in a Nation assured that both of us are glad to give our lives for liberty of diverse races and varied political antecedents.
and to abolish the German slavery and destroy those unnatural
enemies who would like to be the padroni of the world. I fly I shall close with another little example of heart's allegiance on a hydroplane and am taking a pilot's course. In seven out of hundreds I might cite. It was at the American Hospital months of service I have already reached a fine grade. I started in Florence about a month after the United States had joined as nothing, and now I am a second-class petty officer. I don't in the conflict and I was making my little daily visit to a ward know what this would correspond to in Italy, but the photo- where every soldier patient had stuck a tiny starry flag above graph which I inclose will show you what I am. Notice that I his bed next to the Italian tricolor. “Jimmy," the swarthy have two stripes and an eagle on my uniform. The eagle stands immigrant from Basilicata, who had worked on the Santa Fe for America. I have made a number of flights, and, I tell you, Railroad, motioned to me to draw near. He was in great exciteit's great! But my ambition is to become a pilot and fly over ment, and searched feverishly under his pillow till he found a Germany and spread death and destruction there. If the war letter which he held up solemnly for my inspection ; but before doesn't end soon, I'll surely get my chance at her. I am in the I could read it he was telling me of its contents, speaking in best of health, thank God, and let us hope that during the cur- spurts from the tension of emotion. “It's from me brother-in rent year I shall become a pilot. I'm studying very hard for it, Oregon. He's an American soldier-volunteer-you undereven the French language, which is taught to us-would you stand ?" He stopped a moment under the stress of his mounting believe it?-in the house of a millionaire ! You can't imagine excitement; then, sitting up in bed despite his shattered leg, how everybody tries to do something for us. I do hope that you he went on, slowly : “I got a bullet in me leg—for Italy's sake; understand that I was a volunteer when America entered the now-I hope-me brother will get hurt too-for America—then war.”
-it will all be--squared up. See ?"
TRAINING YOUNG AMERICA
BY CHARLES KEEN TAYLOR
What Mr. Taylor writes in the following article is not theoretical ; it is the product of study, experiment, and experience. For years he has conducted a camp for boys at considerable expense to himself. The only profit which he has received has been the knowledge which he has accumulated, and that he has shared with others. He has carried on research on this subject in a thoroughgoing fashion at Columbia University, and in the course of his research has collected data obtainable only by the use of laboratory methods. He is the author of several books on this and related subjects. His most recent book is “The Boys’ Camp Manual,” published by the Century Company. Other books of his are “ Physical Examination and Training,” “ Character Development,” and “Going Back to Shirt Sleeves.” Mr. Taylor is a Master of Arts of the University of Pennsylvania, and has studied science and engineering in that University and Cornell, psychology at Pennsylvania and Columbia, and literature at Yale. Since writing this article Mr. Taylor has enlisted as a private in a volunteer engineer regiment. Those who are interested in boys may have the impulse to send a copy of this article to a school superintendent or principal or heal master or other school authority-or perhaps to several school authorities. In our opinion, that impulse is a good one. We comment on the subject editorially elsewhere in this issue.—THE EDITORS.
N the chill of an early morning in the latter part of June a who at that moment was realizing only a bottomless dismay as long Pullman train rid itself of a small army of boys, aver- the world of his experience dissolved about him. Bob had gained
aging about fourteen years of age. The station was a little a scholarship, as had many others. box of an affair near the western shore of Lake Champlain. As the boat-load containing our four approached the island, The party were on their way to what was called a military camp their summer's "stamping-ground,” they looked in vain for (though it might not have been recognized as such), and they signs of an encampment. There was not a tent in sight. But if were likely to arrive there shortly. As the whole affair proved they expected to find orderly rows of well-furnished tents awaitto be something of an adventure, it would be very interesting ing them, they were in for a real surprise. and instructive if we could follow the experiences of every single After a large though simple breakfast-eaten to the last boy, but as that would be impossible, we will see what happened scrap-our four were taken in tow by a strapping fellow of sevto four typical ones, and through these get some kind of an idea enteen (Harris) who informed them that he was to be their as to what happened to all of them.
“counselor” for the summer, and that they had better hurry While the boys swarm down the road to the dock and get and get their camp fixed up. So they trotted hopefully after themselves ferried across to Valcour Island we will try to get him and found that as yet they had no camp, that their tent was in acquainted with this quartet of typical American lads, for a bag, that their floor was a pile of boards, and, what was a good already they are keeping together, having been told that they deal worse, that they would have to manufacture beds for themare to live in the same tent all summer.
selves of narrow boards and canvas or they would not have any. The Blue Book would surely mention Arthur first, for he was Now the fact is that such a proposition appeals very strongly the son of a New Yorker of quite appalling wealth ; a pleasant- to most red-blooded, normal boys. It was only Frank that actulooking lad, though poorly set up physically—a fact well dis- ally sulked. He had never had to do anything for himself in his guised by his loose-fitting and obviously expensive
clothes. He life, and his spoiling had not given him a hopeful attitude. was already a little homesick and still bewildered because there Arthur, too, had had much done for him, but he had still a little had been no man to arrange his clothes for him that morning. initiative left. John was really quite interested, and Bob, the one
Then there was John, son of a prominent professor. John severely practical member of the group, was pleased as Punch. had seen few men who were not professors, and he not only It would take a long story to tell about the putting up of that talked but actually looked not unlike a professor himself. He was tent and the building of a floor under it, most of which time anything but a practical boy, but was philosophical enough to Harris sat cheerfully on a neighboring stump and seemed intertake things as they came. So he was not homesick, but, on the rested, but not over-helpful. Bob knew what to do with a saw, contrary, mildly interested in what was to happen.
but Arthur and John had never seen anything much more danThe third, Frank, had been so pretty a boy that all his gerous than a tack-hammer before, so that they wielded their female relatives had petted and spoiled him half to death, and hatchets and drove in nails with more good will than science. so had almost every one else with whom he had come in contact. What is more, when their tent
was up they found building that The result was that, though normally a bright boy, he had never floor really good fun; all but Frank, who sulked, and wanted it done more than half his best in all his life. He didn't have understood that his folks did not intend to make a carpenter of to. His folks found it a severe financial problem to pay the fee him! Also, when it came to making their simple canvas cots he and send the boy to the camp.
made his so carelessly that it fell down in the middle of the If it had depended upon paying a fee, Bob, the fourth boy, night. To complete that particular story it should be said that would not have been there at all
. He was the son of a factory he banged it together again next morning, only to have it fall foreman, a well-set-up youth who was obviously pleased with down again in the middle of the next night. Then he was wroth, the world and all that was in it; quite the reverse of Frank, and his latent capacity, which was of high grade, coming per
force into active being, he made himself a bed of white birch some kind, though they almost never do anything practical with logs-six inches thick-that would have held up an elephant. them, and for the reason that they do not gain very helpful re
And here's a vitally important point which should be recog- sults through their measuring. This is because their judginents nized by all who are concerned with the great problem of under- are based on height-age combinations. If you will examine military-age training. Boys of this age are marvelously quick nearly all standard tables of physical measurements, you will at acquiring a facility of this kind, far more so than their older see that they take it for granted that an individual of a certain brothers of military age, and, as not only does such work develop age and height should have a certain weight and certain girths. some very
fine elements of character, but construction of various In other words, we have too long accepted the principle that the kinds comes into the daily experience of a modern soldier, is it only normal type of build is the “ average” type of build. But not likely that hand construction of a really practical kind the fact is that it is quite as normal and proper for some to be should be a more important factor in under-military-age training slender and others to be stocky as for still others to approach than the bare formal drill that so many high schools and com- the average. Therefore the only fair kind of judgment would munities seem to believe to be the one essential ?
be one recognizing the normal physical type of each child, and They were right in the midst of cot-manufacturing when a then judging him according to his type. When our four boys passing messenger announced that their trunks had arrived and were examined and measured, it was up to the examining phythat they had better go and get them. Not only Frank, but sician to find if they were all healthy, and, if so, whatever their Arthur as well, were dismayed when they found that they were weight was it was taken as proper. It was found that Arthur supposed to carry those trunks themselves or bring them in a and Frank were slender, that John's build was more like the wheelbarrow. But Bob and John went forth, found a wheel- average, and that Bob was distinctly a heavyweight. Then they barrow, and brought up their trunks while the other two discussed were judged accordingly. Tables of standards were at hand, their wrongs. And, as boys are keen imitators, the example proved arranged on a height-weight basis. That is, when a boy's height sufficient, and, with many groans and stops for rest, Arthur and weight were found, the same combination was found in the and Frank brought theirs to their tent too. Promptly all four tables, and there would be the other measurements the individtrunks were opened, clothes were hauled out, and in a few min- ual should have to be well developed for his type of build. In utes all were arrayed in a very cheap but suitable costume, and scoring, each boy started with 100, and points were added to or now it would have been quite impossible to tell which was the subtracted from 100, depending on whether a measurement went millionaire's son and which the factory foreman's.
ahead or below standard. Arthur's score was 68, also his pos They were nearly all day getting their tent in order and their ture was extremely bad. John's score was 90, Frank's 85, and cots made, and in the meantime other tents had been going up Bob's 105. all about them-not in rows, as in a typical military camp, but When each boy's record was made out, it was indicated just here and there along the shore, or half hidden in the trees. So where he went below standard, so that a fellow would know if it that each little tent was more or less of a camp itself. Now all were his arms, or his chest, or his shoulders, or the like, that kept this was quite contrary to arrangements usually thought neces- him below average. Also it was advertised that there would be sary
and desirable in military camps for boys; but we never seem two competitions that summer, to be judged at the end of it: to remember that boys are not men at all, and that a system one for physical perfection and one for physical improvement. suitable and proper for men is not necessarily so for their younger Such things appeal to boys mightily, and when a boy is shown brothers. Folks who apply the machine-like army idea to the just what he needs he is most likely to do it with real enthuyounger generation do not understand the younger generation, siasm. Through such means a school for boys in New York and they also miss very great opportunities for developing raised its average standard from 90 to 101 in a year and a half. independence, resourcefulness, and initiative.
That means something when you consider that sixty-five per So much for the first day. Night found that part of the island cent of our recruits are refused for physical causes, and that if dotted with many tents, all equipped with boy-made canvas cots, they had had rational physical training, with individual study and inhabited by a boy population that was very, very tired and such as our four boys had at the camp, only ten per cent would quite ready for sleep at sunset.
have been refused. But our schools, public and private, act as The next day came more surprises. So far there had been though the needs of children, physically, were exactly similar, and few signs of what most of us look upon as “ military” about the that group exercises or the usual futile class calisthenics will do camp, except for the uniform, and that was not particularly all that is necessary. Group exercises and group games are valumilitary either. But after the plunge and the breakfast the able, but alone they will not reduce our sixty-five per cent of rejecvarious tent leaders warned their charges to get their goods in tions to ten per cent. Does it not seem that individual physical order, and before many of them had an idea as to what it was training, then, is a far more important matter for under-miliall about a couple of uniformed men inspected each tent, inside tary-age training than any amount of formal military drill ? and out, inspected its setting up, inspected the cots, looked And yet we hear of municipal and State programmes for underunder the cots, had each trunk opened and examined down to age military training, and all one can find in them is plans for the very bottom.
formal drill and group exercises. Formal military training can John, the precise and philosophical, got through this ordeal wait. It is ridiculous even to think of it if the majority of those with honors. Bob's trunk, though scantily supplied, looked who take it will not even be able to pass the physical examinarather haphazard; but Arthur and Frank had dumped their tion when they are eighteen. clothes out and then dumped them in again ; and they knew a lot So our boys were measured and given their standards, and more about looking after their clothes when that inspection was told what to do about their low scores. Arthur and Frank were over than they had known previously. The whole performance quite scandalized over their grades. Few things hit a boy harder displeased Frank-not with himself, but with the system. Bob than this. It will even get down under the results of bad trainwas honestly chagrined; and Arthur, who had much real pride, ing and of mistaken view-point, so that these two secretly vowed tried to get the hang of it, though he thought looking after not only to get their scores up, but even, if possible, to beat that clothes a rather undignified performance.
disgusting Bob, who visibly swelled over his superior 105. There was still much to be done about the tents to make While this measuring was going on a great quantity of rough them homelike. Harris, their counselor, began making himself
lor, began making himself lumber and shingles arrived by the simple trestle dock. When an easy chair. Bob promptly followed suit. John thought he all the boys were impressed into carrying it piecemeal up across would like to make a table. The other two hung around and the parade-ground and tennis courts to the top of the slant, our looked on.
four found a boy of fifteen with the plan of a considerable buildThey got another surprise in an hour or two. They were ing in his hands, more or less directing where to put the stuff. summoned to “Headquarters,” a green and white bungalow They found that this lad had planned a new mess hall, the old that some fifteen-year-olders had planned and built the previous one being small, crude, and otherwise inadequate. year, and there they were called on to strip to the last stitch. There had been a number of competing plans, but this one Then followed the usual medical examination. Then they were was considered the best; and it was done in detail, even to the measured from head to foot. This measuring performance is framing. The young architect
, however, was an old hand, having wurth looking into. Many schools take physical measurements of had such training at camp since he was twelve. That afternoon