« PředchozíPokračovat »
BY HAROLD T. PULSIFER
The wind no longer sings to me,
Nor is there any sound
Or spring rain on the ground.
And lift my head to hear
That never meets my ear.
All echoes of my tread.
Drift like the formless dead.
Only the changeless pantomime
Of stars in still review
And worlds that once I knew.
Down the unending days
I walk through soundless ways.
If you are silent, - be it so!
Is the one grief I know.
BY LYMAN ABBOTT
HAMPTON REVISITED FRIEND of mine recently met a soldier in khaki on a kindled the Civil War still existed, and the passions engendered train, and in the conversation which ensued said: “ It is by that war had not been extinguished. Those prejudices had
a great thing to be able to go abroad and fight for your ben intensified and those passions had been kept alive by the four country.” “Yes," replied the soldier, “ and it is also a great or five tragical years of reconstruction which followed the war. thing for you who must stay at home to make and keep it a General Armstrong, at the time when the Institute was born, country worth fighting for."
was offered the presidency of Howard University, one of the My object in this article is to describe a work which for half few institutions of the so-called higher learning for Negroes a century some men and women of faith and courage have been worthy of the name of university. It was characteristic of him doing to make and keep this a country worth fighting for. to prefer the more difficult task. The reasons for his choice he
expressed in a letter to his mother: In 1868 General Samuel C. Armstrong, then in charge of Negro refugees from the Civil War, opened, near Old Point We are ahead and alone ; the ground is new; the enterprise is Comfort, Virginia, a school for Negroes, with two teachers and
as full of bad possibilities as of good ones—most embarrassing fifteen pupils. About eight years after that date I visited this
conditions will occur from time to time; all is experiment, but
all is hopeful. The success of this will be a guarantee of a dozen school. It then occupied two brick buildings, one used as a
more like it in the South. I have to face the fact that a manual dormitory and assembly hall, the other used for academic pur
labor school has never yet succeeded in the North, but the power poses. There were also, I think, a few cottages left over from of prayer and faith is strong—in these we will conquer. earlier days. Visiting it now, half a century later, I find 140 buildings and 1,100 acres of land, 1,838 pupils, including those In spite of the fact that no manual training school bad sue who attend a summer school, 2,022 graduates, 7,500 students ceeded in the North, General Armstrong made Hampton Instiwho have gone out from Hampton after having taken a partial tute from the beginning an industrial school. There were two course, and an endowment of $3,000,000. Of these buildings fundamental principles underlying bis enterprise. The first one is a church with a seating capacity of about fifteen of those principles was : the object of education is not scholarhundred ; another an auditorium with a seating capacity of ship-it is preparation for life; and if you are to prepare students about twenty-five hundred-a memorial to Robert C. Ogden- for life, you must find where they are and begin with them there. which will probably be ready for occupancy on the semi- The Negro never had schooling, but he did have an education. centennial anniversary next fall. These two buildings were He had been brought up in a kind of industrial school. The erected by contractors. I believe all the others, with the women had been servants-cooks, housemaids, and nurses. No possible exception of one or two cottages, were erected by the Northern man can paint the portrait of a Southern Negro students, who have thus demonstrated the efficiency of their mammy or understand the strange and warm affection between industrial education. For they are masons, carpenters, house- that mammy and the white children she nursed and cared for. builders, tailors (they make all their own uniforms), and print- The men had been farmers and mechanics. They did not know ers (they print all the publications of the school). These are much-the farmers and mechanics of that age had not much not their only trades. Practical instruction is given in over a technical knowledge, whatever their race—but Negroes dit dozen different industrial callings. The interest on the endow- know something about soils and seeds; and they knew how ment is, of course, quite insufficient to meet the expenses of the to plow, how to plant, how to gather crops, how to mend school, and most of the pupils are unable to make any consider- harnesses and repair furniture ; in short, how to do the ordi able money contribution to their education. The aim of the school nary mechanical work of the village and rural life of the South. is to do for these boys and girls what the States do for stu- They were largely its farmers and mechanics. dents of a similar grade-give them the tuition ; and as most of General Armstrong began with that fact. He believed tha: the parents cannot provide them with board and clothing, the these people needed first domestic science and agricultural and school furnishes them with work which enables them to provide mechanical instruction, and to supply that want he made his these necessities for themselves. The work of farming, buildingmission. From the beginning academic instruction was made and repairing is done by the students, and they are credited with subordinate to the making of men and women who could render. the cash valuation of their labors. It is necessary for the school, in their community and in their age, the kind of service that in addition to receipts from its endowment and tuition fees, to was needed in that community and in that age. raise one hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars every year
Abraham Lincoln once said that in every man there is on by voluntary contributions. These financial campaigns are one brain and one pair of hands, and the presumption is that it is th: of the chief tasks of the directors of this unique institution ; and plan of the Almighty that that brain shall control that pair & they are also, as I shall presently indicate, one of its chief con- hands. The object of General Armstrong was to put the inte tributions to the Nation's welfare.
ligence in the brain and create the nerve that would carry When the school was opened in 1868, the prejudices which instruction of the brain to the hands. It was his object to make.
not merely skilled workmen, but intelligent workmen. There is the South and the South to the North, nor any three men as a great difference between the two.
much as General Armstrong and Dr. Frissell, its two principals, From that principle Hampton has never departed, though and Booker T. Washington, its most eminent graduate. both its academic and its industrial standards have been gradu- Its service in uniting the churches has been not inconsiderally raised until it has become the greatest and, I think, the able. When Hampton was founded, the Christian Church in best trade school in the country, if not in the world. The stand- America was divided into competing and often conflicting ards have been raised, but the essential principle has not been denominations. The day of conflict between the Protestant dedeparted from.
nominations has passed, but not the day of competition. General That essential principle has produced and been accompanied Armstrong, the son of a missionary, had the vision of a prophet by another, that the black man and the white man must live which enabled him to see that the Christian spirit is stronger side by side in the same community, and it is essential that than the denominational spirit. At the beginning of his work they should live as friends and not as enemies.
he was supported by the American Missionary Association General Armstrong's prophecy that the school would produce then an undenominational, now a Congregational body; but he a dozen like it has been more than fulfilled. It has produced very soon assumed the entire financial responsibility for the more than a dozen. Hampton has been like a hen. It has school and proceeded to create for it, by systematic campaignhatched out a large flock of chicks, of the same blood, the same ing, a body
of financial supporters whom Dr. Frissell's organizbreed, the me character, as the mother hen. Wherever men ing genius enabled him to develop into a permanent, though and women have gone from Hampton into these other schools constantly changing, constituency. This constituency includes they have carried the industrial spirit, the fraternal spirit, and members of all denominations, the teachers and workers at the spirit of service with them. Wherever these schools have Hampton include persons of the most widely divergent theo been planted, there the Negroes have won the respect of their logical opinions; and its pupils, most of whom are professing white neighbors, not by uemanding respect, but by deserving it; Christians, or become so before they graduate, represent all the not at once-it takes time to kill prejudice—but gradually. And principal denominations among the colored people of the South. with that respect they have won the friendship of their white Thus the school is distinctly a Christian school ; and it is neighbors. It is sometimes said, “The South knows the Negro.” founded on a definite Christian creed-the oldest creed in the The old South did not know the new Negro, because the new history of the Church, so old indeed that the Church seems to Negro did not exist; and the new Negro and the new South had me to have forgotten it. It is substantially this : the grace of to become acquainted with one another. They have become God hath appeared unto all men, teaching us that we should acquainted through the Hampton spirit—the spirit of service live soberly, righteously, godly, hopefully-looking forward to and of intelligent co-operation.
the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ. So Hampton has been a meeting-ground for the races. Black Soberly—that is, with power to control ourselves. While I was men and white men, Southern men and Northern men, have at Hampton this spring a fire started in the roof of the Whittier come together and joined forces in a common enterprise in School building, occupied by day scholars of junior grades. The Hampton. That was not at once. It was the result of a gradual girls were at luncheon in an upper room. One of them saw growth; but the growth was such that a few years ago every smoke and flame in the roof above. She did not cry, “Fire! fire!" Southern State—there may have been one or two exceptions- She walked over to the teacher and whispered to her that the sent its State superintendent of white schools to Hampton to house was on fire. The teacher called three boys to her and sent study the Hampton school, understand the Hampton spiritthem to the principal, and they did not run down the stairs crying, learn the Hampton methods, and carry back what he learned “Fire !” but went quietly to the principal and whispered the news to his work in the Southern schools. A farm-demonstration to her. All the children marched out of the building in order. work which Hampton has carried on by its extension system, Hampton is imparting to its pupils the power of self-control. which I have no room to describe here, has inspired similar Righteously—that is, according to the Golden Rule. Last agricultural demonstration work in the white farms, first of year a Southern gentleman took me to see the house which Virginia, then of other States. A great Negro organization was Hampton graduates had built for his residence. The plans had formed in 1909, not to clamor for the rights of Negroes, but to been made and the specifications drawn up by a white architect. promote the interests of the community. This Negro organiza- The gentleman told me that it was very hard to get the tion created a clean-up day, and that "clean-up day," a product architect to superintend the work while it was going on. The of Hampton, set an example which has been followed not only architect told him that the boys knew as much as he knew in Southern States, not only with Negro people, but also in about building and that they did not need to be watched. Northern States and with white people. The organization of Hampton has taught to its pupils the quality of righteousness. colored Y. M. C. A.'s throughout the South with the hearty Godliness—that is, the spirit of reverence for God. I have approval of the white Associations, the creation of a college attended St. Peter's at Rome, St. Paul's at London, Notre Dame organization in Southern colleges to study the relations of the at Paris, Holy Trinity under Phillips Brooks at Boston, and I two races to each other, the growing recognition by Southern have never heard a service that stirred
heart more with reychurches of their duty to the colored race, the placing of colored erence than the services that I attended on three Sunday nights and white troops in the same camps, with the approval and on this spring in Hampton Institute. Hampton Institute is impartthe recommendation of Southern white men—all have been due ing to her pupils the spirit of godliness. to that spirit of fellowship which Hampton has done so much Every morning at half-past six I heard the cheery voices of to foster. How far these movements have been due directly to the boys as they went from their early breakfast to their classes. the influence of Hampton Institute and its graduates and colo Half an hour later I looked on the bright faces of the girls as nies it is impossible to estimate.
they went to their classes. Hope was in the cheery voices of Thus Hampton has been closing one of the rifts in the Nation the boys and the bright faces of the girls whose ancestors had —the rift between the races. It has also been closing another very little hope. rift—the rift between the sections. General Armstrong said to In Cleveland Hall, the meeting-place of the students, hangs me once when I expressed to him my regret that so much of his a flag with two hundred and one stars upon it. Hampton has time had to be spent in the North raising money: “I do not taught and is teaching her boys and girls the fundamental creed regret it. I would like some endowment, but I do not want of Christendom: how to live soberly, righteously, godly, hopeHampton to have so large an endowment that it won't have to fully-and patriotically. raise money by asking contributions from the North a peril I have been acquainted with Hampton Institute during the which has not yet threatened it—“because," he said, “these fifty years of its growing life, and have been able, perhaps campaigns are doing something to make the North understand better than those who are working in it, to see the influence the South and the white men understand the colored men." which it has exerted upon the Nation. And I believe that it has
For nearly fifty years it has been my business, as an editor done more for the Nation's unity and the Nation's welfare than of The Outlook, to study the course of current events in is realized either by those who have carried on the work or those America. I do not think that any institution in America has who have been the direct recipients of its beneficial influence. done so much as Hampton has done to interpret the North to Hampton Institute, April, 1918.
WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF
BY J. MADISON GATHANY, A.M.
HOPE STREET HIGH SCHOOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I.
Based on The Outlook of May 8, 1918 Each week an Outline Study of Current History based on the preceding number of The Outlook will be printed for the benefit of current events classes, debating clubs, teachers of history and of English, and the like, and for use in the home and by such individual readers as may desire suggestions in the serious study of current history.—THE EDITORS.
(Those who are using the weekly outline should dier," by Thomas Tiplady (Reveln), and not attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any “Over There," by Captain Knyvett (Scribone lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected
ners). questions, one or two propositions for discussion, and only such words as are found in the material assigned.
II-NATIONAL AFFAIRS Or distribute selected questions among different A. Topic: Bernard Baruch. members of the class or group and have them Reference : Pages 64-66. report their findings to all when assembled. Then
Questions : have all discuss the questions together.]
1. Describe the functions of the War
Industries Board. Is there any other war 1-INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
board or council more important than this A. Topic: Holland's Danger; A Reply one? Tell why or why not. 2. For what which is a Confession.
reasons was Mr. Baruch's appointment to Reference : Pages 54, 56.
this Board considered “a complimentary Questions :
one”? Are there many such appointments 1. State in three or four sentences Hol
in this country? Give reasons why such land's danger as outlined by The Outlook. appointments should or should not be 2. Prove the following statements : " Hol- allowed. 3. Explain why Mr. Price believes land's situation has been trying in the that the very reasons why some objected extreme.” “ What such a guarantee (from to Mr. Baruch's original appointment are Germany to Holland] amounts to is known
reasons why he makes an excellent man to all who remember how many times for the place. 4. Tell what you think of Germany has broken her pledged word to
America as a place for developing efficient smaller nations." 3. Treitschke once said :
administrators. 5. Do you think Americans “ It is an indispensable duty of German
are in the habit of appreciating valuable policy to regain the mouths of that (the public men while they are serving the pubRhine] river.” Do you believe that Ger- lic? Discuss and illustrate. 6. Read an exmany has sinister designs on Holland ?
cellent book of biography, “Famous Living 4. Is Germany's dealing with Holland char
Americans,” by numerous writers (Charles acteristically German? Discuss. 5. Who is
Webb & Co., Greencastle, Indiana). Read Prince Lichnowsky? What revelations did also “ Alexander Hamilton,” by F. S. Oliver he make? How has Germany treated the (Putnams), and “George Washington,” Prince recently? 6. From the facts given by J. S. Harrison (Putnams). in Lichnowsky's story discuss Austria’s
B. Topic: The Vigilantes. relation to Germany. 7. We are told that “ there is evidence in plenty " that “ Aus
Reference : Pages 67–69. tria is becoming increasingly sick” of her
1. Who are the Vigilantes? Whence the relation to Germany. Give some of this evidence. If this is so, why does not
name? 2. Explain the reasons why and Austria free herself entirely from Ger
how the Vigilantes were organized. 3. Dismany? 8. One writer says that “
cuss their purposes and methods of work. stealing, and murder are ingrained in the
4. What is the fundamental belief of the German character.” Give not less than
Vigilantes? Discuss it. 5. Discuss the funcfifteen evidences in proof of this statement.
tion of newspaper and magazine writers
and editors. *6. Tell of the scope of the 9. What, in your opinion, is the only way to beat such a Thing as Germany is? 10. One
work of the Vigilantes. What have they of the very best books revealing the Ger- actually done? 7. Formulate several propman character is “ The Nemesis of Docil
ositions for discussion suggested by this
article. Be able to discuss them. ity,” by Edmond Holmes (Dutton).. B. Topic: American Soldiers in France. III—PROPOSITIONS FOR DISCUSSION Reference: Pages 60-62.
(These propositions are suggested directly or indiQuestions :
rectly by the subject matter of The Outlook, but 1. Give no less than six ideals and char
not discussed in it.) acteristics of American soldiers as set forth
1. Germany is a land of official liars. by Mr. Rogers. 2. What factors and insti- 2. History shows that only speculators have tutions in America, in your opinion, have
been great men. 3. Writing is to the nation done most in creating these ideals and what conversation is to the individual. characteristics ? Discuss. 3. What do our boys in France believe the real object of
IV—VOCABULARY BUILDING this war is? Are there any other objects as (All of the following words and expressions are important? 4. What, according to Mr.
found in The Outlook for May 8, 1918. Both Rogers, are the qualifications for a success- before and after looking them up in the dictionary ful Y. M. C. A. worker in France ? Is or elsewhere, give their meaning in your own words. there an abundance of Americans possess- The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which ing these qualifications? If not, who and the words may be found.) what are responsible? 5. Restate the lead- Involutions (54),; poilu, nationality, ing points made by Mr. Rogers in this arti- country (60); appraise, connotes, priorities, cle. 6. If you want to know about some of Scylla, Charybdis (65); bombastic, flaccid, the real experiences of the soldiers on the insouciance (67); per se, Vigilantes, propWestern Front, read “ The Soul of the Sol- aganda, innuendo (68).
A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application
Why the Franklin Car Delivers
Service Without Waste
HERE was a time when peace and plenty
fostered “hang-the-expense" attitude on the part of the automobile owner. That time has gone.
The national need of economy has brought the whole motor car proposition squarely down to a basis of: Service without Waste.
With the Franklin Car, this standard of Economy is not a new phrase, lugged in to meet the demands of the times.
From the beginning, the Franklin has held to the truth that heavy weight in a motor car is bound to mean heavy expense to run itthat needless weight directly results in needless waste. And today the car that is too heavy for a man's needs, is recognized as making unnecessary demands on the Nation's resources.
For sixteen years, the Franklin has been built on the principles of Scientific Light Weight, Direct Air-Cooling and Flexible Construction. For sixteen years, the Franklin has been piling up remarkable economy records as proof of the correctness of those principles.
20 Miles to the gallon of gasoline-instead of 10; 10,000 Miles to the set of tires- Instead of 5,000; A high resale value-instead of a firesale price. And he inevitably develops a
new standard of motoring. He will never again tolerate the wastage of an inefficient car.
For it is not unusual to own a fine car; nor even unusual to own an economical car; but to own a car that is both fine and economical, is so unusual that it is possible in only one automobile.
I build your vitality, strengthen your heart and teach you how to stand, walk and breathe correctly,
you should weigh. No charge and I'll send you an illustrated booklet FREE, showing you how to stand correctly. Write me. I will respect your confidence.
THE NATION'S hand, quick judgment, and a reserve of How to Reduce
muscular and nervous energy. Sound eco
INDUSTRIAL Your Weight
nomic principles demand that proper light
ing, ventilation, and sanitary equipment be PROGRESS
provided to keep the labor equipment up to You CAN do it in a dignified, simple way in the privacy of your
the highest standard. room and surprise your family and
Believing that the advance of business is a subject In the construction of modern factories
and ventilation. A leading construction interest. The department will include paragraphs engineer says: “An abundance of daylight You should have work adapted to
of timely interest and articles of educational value is now an accepted essential in factories. dealing with the industrial upbuilding of the Nation. In fact, any added expense that may be Comment and suggestions are invited.
necessary, within reasonable limits, to se
cure a full measure of natural light will be letters and your scales keep you FACTORY SANITATION justified. Well-lighted workrooms unques
tionably make for good health, relieve eyeas 1 reduce you. Don't endure fat when it is so easy to reduce.
ERHAPS the greatest industrial strain, tone up a working corps to insure a If you send me your height and weight I'll tell you just what
problem which American manufac- better product with less effort, and reduce turers have to face during the war the hazard of accidents.”
period is the labor problem. The en- Most of the successful concerns of the Susanna Cocroft
tire world is facing a great economic adjust- present day manufacture their products in Dept. 8, 624 S. Michigan Blvd., Chicago
ment. The relations of capital and labor what may be called “ window-walled buildare rapidly changing, and labor is demand- ings.” In such buildings almost the entire ing more and getting more than ever before outside walls are composed of strips of narin the world's industrial history. With the row steel bars, filled in with panes of factory tremendous rise in the wage scale have come ribbed or wire glass. Such windows may a higher standard of living and a wide- extend from a low curtain wall, two or three spread demand for better working condi- feet from the floor, to the ceiling lines ; for tions. Employers are rapidly meeting these the higher the window space, the better the changed conditions, and are learning to lighting in the center of the building. Of appreciate the necessity of providing com- course the big reason for the window-walled
fortable and sanitary surroundings for their factory lies in the fact that the broad glass in every line of household, educational, busi- employees. With the present scarcity of area gives a maximum supply of daylight, ness, or personal service-domestic workers, labor the workingman is in the happy posi- and thus promotes ideal working conditions. teachers, nurses, business or professional
tion of being able to pick and choose, and These window sections can be opened to assistants, etc., etc.-whether you require working conditions. The wisest and most
he naturally demands the best obtainable any extent desired, thus securing ventilation
working conditions. The wisest and most adapted to the weather conditions. help or are seeking a situation, may be filled
The illustration shows how adequate daythrough a little announcement in the classi- keeping their skilled workmen at almost light is obtained in the plant of the Elecfied columns of The Outlook. If you have any cost. They aim, first, to keep their work- tric Autolite Company, Toledo, Ohio. some article to sell or exchange, these columns may prove of real value to you as they have to many others. Send for descriptive circular and order blank AND FILL YOUR WANTS. Address
Department of Classified Advertising
THE OUTLOOK 381 Fourth Avenue
PROPER LIGHTING MAINTAINS THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF EFFICIENCY men happy and contented ; and, second, to The quality of artificial light and its diskeep them in sound mental, moral, and tribution must also be considered. A difphysical well-being.
fused white light, approaching as nearly as Men and equipment are the two essen- possible the soft yet effective light of day, tials of successful manufacture. Well- is the effect to be sought. In the present equipped plants have a great variety of age of artificial light, when night is turned tools and machinery especially designed for into day, very few have perfect eyesight, the work which is to be accomplished. and abuse of the eyes in trying lights is one Such tools and machines are watched with of the chief contributing causes. Workmen the greatest care and kept in the highest with poor eyesight are a detriment to any state of efficiency. Advanced superintend- business. In order to get the best results, ents are now beginning to realize that the particularly where close measurements and workmen are just as important as the equip- exact work are being turned out, the qualment, and everything that will keep them ity of the light and its distribution cannot in top-notch condition is provided. A skilled be too carefully considered. workman, like the trained athlete, to be at Another most important point to be conhis best and do the best work must have a sidered in a modern factory is the proper clean body, bright eye, clear mind, steady number and distribution of sanitary appli