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in the organization 334,710 Scouts and 87,000 Scout-masters, Pruden, the commandant of the school, and, we believe, the assistant Scout-masters, and other officials. Every Scout is senior chaplain in the United States Army, has collected funds justified in being proud of the fact that he is an active member and erected six well-equipped buildings as recreation centers, of one of the most efficient and useful of the war organizations which are provided with phonographs, pool tables, small games, a in the United States.

library with periodicals, free stationery, and opportunities for

writing. In addition to the special instruction there have been THE WAR: A WEEK OF WAITING

held drills both in marching and in horsemanship-quite neces

sary, since the efficiency of the chaplain depends in no small The long-expected new German offensive had not made its

measure on his being able to endure fatigue and hardship and appearance at any one of the points selected by theoretical strate

to make long marches both on foot and on horseback. It is gists up to May 21—that is, exactly two full months since the first offensive began. Reports continue to come in that General

hardly necessary to add that the school has no theological color,

Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Jew all being members of the von Buelow is gathering and drilling an enormous force behin?

school and sharing equally in its privileges and advantages. the German fighting lines, and that he or Mackensen may at

This is the first time that such a school has been organized in any time strike in one of at least three directions, with the

connection with the American Army, and we believe it is the probability, in most opinions, leaning toward an attack on the

first time that such a school has ever been organized in connecline of the Allies somewhat to the south of Arras.

with any army. The necessity for it is apparent, since the duties However that may be, in the week under consideration the

of the American chaplain are in some important respects widely advantage in the fighting has been on the side of the Allies.

different from those of the ordinary parish priest or minister, One despatch sums this up by saying, “In every recent blow by and for these duties some special equipment and training is surely the Allied troops they have made definite gains.”

The most nota

necessary. ble point scored was by the French troops in Flanders, where

Pictures of Chaplain Pruden and of other chaplain instructors on May 20 they advanced along a front of over two miles in the Locre region ; that is, at the southwest end of the line between

are shown on page 195. Ypres and Mont Kemmel. This attack was directed toward the

BOOZE OR COAL? lower slopes of Mont Kemmel. It resulted in the penetration of German third-line trenches and the capture of about four hundred A few weeks ago The Outlook, under the questioning title prisoners. On the previous day Australian forces struck a similar “ Booze or Coal ?" reported the fact that a thousand coal oper: blow in capturing Ville-sur-Ancre, a village south of Albert.

ators in a mine at Pittsburgh unanimously asked the United Probably the largest and, it is believed, the most costly to

States Government to close saloons within a radius of five miles Germany of its airplane raids upon London took place on May

of each mine. These operators believed that it was impossible 19. The number of machines employed was obviously very large, to get full production from the mines unless a stop were as it is stated that five squadrons of German airships were in

put to drinking by the miners. Other significant facts and action. At least four of these airplanes were brought down in a

records from the coal-mining districts were reported in connec battle lasting two and one-half hours, in which anti-aircraft guns

tion with this action. The conclusion was drawn that this situaand British planes were active. There are reports that three other tion as regards drink among the miners, who are now making German airships were destroyed. The casualties were mainly larger wages than ever before, could best be straightened out outside of London or in the outer districts of London. Of the by establishing dry zones about mining centers, just as dry zones thirty-seven people killed, nineteen were women and children; have been established in places where soldiers in large numbers the number of the injured is stated to have been one hundred

have been stationed. and sixty-one. In this connection is published, apparently.

A friend of The Outlook, a man of ability and special knowlthrough official sources, the statement that during ten days edge in manufacturing affairs, in a personal letter doubts before this raid on the western front British airmen brought whether the booze” has very seriously interfered with the down one hundred and sixteen German planes, as against a loss coal output. He points out that the production of coal in the of thirty-eight British planes.

year 1917 was many thousands of tons larger than in any previ General Pershing is now sending regularly signed commu

ous year, and calls our attention to news reports and comments niqués about the activities of the American troops abroad. which show that the shortage in cars has prevented the increase They contain thrilling incidents, some of which show remark- in product from being even greater than it was. The car-supply able activity of American airmen in the Toul sector, and question and difficult industrial problems between working others relate individual instances of heroic conduct by American miners and the companies seem, in his judgment, to give the soldiers in thrilling detail. Such an incident was that of two real reason why production and distribution did not increase brave colored privates, Johnson and Roberts. They fought still more and are not now equal to the enormous demand twenty Germans in a hand-to-hand encounter, using bayonets and for supplies, especially in the manufacture of war material. bolos against grenades, "preventing," says General Pershing,

There are pertinence and force in this statement. We have " by their bravery the capture of any of our men.” General Per- never supposed that the drink question was the only one in shing has also allowed it to be known that American troops are volved. But under the present circumstances we must not think now with the British forces on the Flanders front. It was already of past years, but rather think of one hundred

per cent of

pos known that many Americans were brigaded with the French on sible production for the future. In other words, our criterion is the Picardy front. A tragic incident of the week was the death

not what was done, but what could and should have been done. in action of Major Raoul Lufbery, the most successful aviator

If "booze” had not interfered, far larger quantities of coal in the American air service. He was as valiant as he was

could have been mined. skillful; seventeen victories stand to his credit. The German plane The importance of this question is just as great to-day as it which defeated Major Lufbery was an enormous, high-powered was last year--in point of fact, it may be greater. Statements armored triplane or “air-tank an apparently new kind of

that come from the Fuel Administration and from other sources air weapon which must be equaled in Allied air production. indicate that a danger of a shortage in coal next fall is far

from negligible. The facts quoted in our former article show A SCHOOL FOR CHAPLAINS

beyond dispute that one of the things that keeps production

down is drinking. Take, for instance, one company's records One interesting feature of our army life of which not much

of one hundred employees, half of whom were drinkers and half has been said in the press is the organization of a School for of whom were not. The first lost eight days a month each on Chaplains. The first session of this school was held at Fort the average; the others, less than one day. Monroe, on Old Point Comfort. The future sessions, we believe, A valued correspondent who has made a special investigation are to be held at Fort Hamilton, near New York City. Each of the actual situation writes to us: session lasts about six weeks.

The objection is raised that coal cannot be mined without the Lectures are given to the chaplains on international law,

cars to ship it away in. I can see no reason why coal piles as military law, and military rules and regulations, and confer

well as culm banks should not rear their heads in the coal regions. ences are held under the direction of experienced chaplains on If cars are wanting, let the mine operators plan a system by general subjects connected with their work. Chaplain A. A. which the coal can be mined and stored on the surface. Unques

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tionably it can be done. If the mines were run to capacity and all chairmanship of Mr. Howard Coffin, drew up involve infinite miners worked to capacity, we should be astonished at the out- details and are liable to unexpected delay. Apparently no adeput. It would far exceed any output yet seen-even that of 1917.

quate provision was made to supply deficiencies caused by such

delays. Even before winter set in there were rumors of unexIf booze does not interfere with coal production, why do mine

pected obstacles encountered. A year ago in April and June The operators take the trouble to go to court and to fight booze as

Outlook printed articles which forecast some of the problems strenuously as they are now doing ? Here is a newspaper item dated October 18, 1917: “Steps

that the Government does not seem to have foreseen. In January were taken to-day by leading manufacturers of munitions and by of this year there was reason for much concern, and The Outlook coal operators of the Piitsburgh district to have the Federal printed an editorial with the title “ Is All Well with Our AirGovernment create dry zones in the vicinity of their plants and plane Programme ?” The trouble has been in the development mines. The Bessemer Coal and Coke Company, the Superior

of the Liberty Motor. The development of it has been hampered Fuel Company, and the Ford Colliery Company said that the by red tape. Hundreds of changes in the plans and specificaoperating efficiency of their mines has been lowered two thou

tions have been made during the manufacture of parts for the sand tons a day on account of illegal drinking places.”. Another is dated November 5, 1917. It is from Shamokin :

motor. Many of these changes have been in the nature of “ The Susquehanna Collieries Company, which recently took

refinements which some experts believe wholly unnecessary. over the Pennsylvania Collieries Company, between this city and Whatever the causes of the delay have been, however, there is Mount Carmel, to-day started a campaign against intoxicating no question that there has been delay, and that it ought to have beverages being delivered in its mining villages. ... The company been provided against. In the meantime our Government has declares it will prosecute all who tempt its employees by offering failed to provide other motors which could be used until the drink in wholesale quantities. . . . It is understood that the Liberty Motor was proved to be a success. In the article by Mr. Reading Coal and Iron Company will issue a similar order.”. Driggs of June 27, 1917, it was pointed out that the Hispano

Wherever the experiment of barring booze from workers has been tried the impiovement in output, be it of whatever sort it

Suize motor of the French airplane known as the Spad was availmay, has been so marked that there is no room for argument as

able for our use, was highly successful, and could be used to start to the detrimental effect of booze. And the mine operators find

with. Again, in January of this year, The Outlook editorially the same result.

urged the necessity of making in large numbers motors that could be made at once. There were then, and still are,

factories in this country making airplane motors for our allies, and all AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION

that was needed was to assure those factories that the United

States Government would take sufficient quantities of their T is significant that the first exercise by the President of the motors to justify the enlargement of their plants. Now we powers granted to him by the Overman Law is his reorgani- understand orders have been given which ought to have been

zation of the air service. By executive order the President given months ago has taken from the Signal Corps of the Army the task of pro- At such a time as this, when there has been failure, the natural ducing airplanes, and has assigned it to a newly created Bureau inclination is to cry, Fraud. Against the men engaged in our of Aircraft Production under the Director of Aircraft Produc- aircraft procluction plans there have been raised by Mr. Borglum tion, Mr. John D. Ryan. This action, we may be sure, is the and others accusations of dishonesty, selfishness, greed. We result of the dissatisfaction of the country with the progress of think the country values as it should the unselfishness and our air programme; and it is only one of two steps which the patriotism of men who have been rendering absolutely essential President has taken to allay that dissatisfaction and to undertake service with inadequate and in some instances no compensation. a remedy for its causes. The other step was the appointment of In such a vast undertaking there may have been individuals his political opponent in the last Presidential election, Charles engaged who were greedy and selfish, and perhaps a few who E. Hughes, to act with the Attorney-General of the United have been dishonest. The real cause of the delay, however, has States in making an investigation of the “very serious charges been, we are convinced, not primarily dishonesty, but incompeof dishonesty " which have been made in connection with the tence. The failure has been the failure of men over-optimistic, production of aircraft."

too sure of themselves, too ready to take chances, too much Both these actions on the part of the President are plainly engrossed in their own plans, and too little inclined to make welcome to the whole country. The appointment of Mr. Hughes provision against failure or delay. They have too much aimed came first, and was hailed with expressions of delight and with at perfection, and, missing perfection, they have reached nothing. praise.

Like General Gough in northern France, they have been so The significance of this twofold action on the part of the sure of their first line that they have not prepared their third President can be made clear, perhaps, by a brief review of what

line of defense. has happened in the plans for aircraft production during the It is highly desirable to unearth dishonesty and to punish past year.

fraud. The appointment of Mr. Hughes and his acceptance of Early in the summer of last year the Aircraft Production that appointment is an assurance that the process of searching Board (a branch of the Council of National Defense, and there- for dishonesty will be thorough. But that is not enough. And fore a body to make plans, not to exercise authority) had drawn the Senate of the United States knows that that is not enough. up a programme for producing aircraft. It arranged for the It is for that reason that Senators have been considering a reso building of airplane training camps, an immense task ; it made lution to empower the Military Affairs Committee to make a estimates as to the financial needs, and it worked out a pro- thorough investigation of the aircraft situation in order to find gramme for the manufacture of planes and motors. Since air- out what has been holding up aircraft production; for it is not planes are bulky, it planned to devote the building of airplanes merely dishonesty that we want to rid ourselves of, but incommainly to training planes to be used in this country, and to petence. And, what is more, Congress, which provides money, provide for the building of fighting planes out of American has the right to know how efficiently money has been expended. material by American workmen in France, because it was be- Against this inquiry the President has set his face. We are sorry lieved that there would be a more economical use of tonnage in that he has not welcomed 1.. "t is to his interest that his Adthe export of raw material and men than in the export of ministration should be relieved of the encumbrance of incompefinished planes. It also recognized that American manufac- tents; and it cannot be relieved of them unles3 they are discorturers were specialists in quantity production, but that the air- ered. He has taken very necessary action in reorganizing aircraft planes in use abroad were not designed for manufacture by production and putting it under the charge of a tested execuquantity production but by careful hand labor; and it therefore tive. We think it would have been still wiser if he had been undertook the designing of a motor that could be standardized willing to supplement that action with action co-operating with and made in quantities. For this purpose it assembled a number the Senate Committee on Military Affairs in getting at the truth. of motor engineers, who worked out, or rather undertook to work Not for many weeks have we felt so hopeful about this counout, this United States Motor, or Liberty Motor, as it came to try's aircraft production as we do to-day. There has been imbe called.

provement already. And if the President were co-operating with Such plans as the Aircraft Production Board, under the the Senate, there would be nothing to mar the record which he has made by concentrating authority in a responsible Director one as remote from true civilization as the other--than Guizot of Aircraft Production.

has portrayed that contrast in these anticipatory portraits
drawn nearly a century ago.
A state in which “

every man does

very nearly just what he IS GERMANY A CIVILIZED NATION? pleases and differs little in power from his neighbor; but there

are very few general interests, very few public ideas, very little What do we mean by civilization ?

system,” is an accurate description of the Bolsheviki idea of François Guizot in his History of Civilization,” which is a liberty; how quickly such liberty generates irresponsible des recognized classic in historical literature, answers this question. potism the recent history of Russia once more illustrates, as it A scientific definition, he truly says, is insufficient. To under- often has been illustrated by past history. stand what man means by civilization we must study the history Not less accurate is Guizot's prophetic description of Gerof man. With great artistic skill he causes pictures of certain many. It is true that the German people do not pay fer states of society as they have existed in the world's history to taxes; but their external life is easy, their material existence is pass in rapid review before the reader. These historic miniatures, happily regulated for them by their masters; the common peo not of man but of social states, are marvels of graphic por. ple are treated like flocks of sheep, well kept and materially traiture. From them he educes the meaning of civilization as happy, but without moral and intellectual activity. Material it is understood by the common sense of mankind; for “it is existence, happily regulated for the people by their masters, common sense which gives to words their ordinary significance, constitutes the German idea of the state; it not only regulates and common sense is the characteristic of humanity.” The mean- their social conduct, but also determines their opinions and furing of civilization is comprised in two statements. Civilization nishes their moral law. To see a people treated like flocks of involves progress, development; it presents the idea of a people sheep, well kept and materially happy but without moral and marching onward, not to change their place, but to change their intellectual activity, inspires in the hearts of the German condition. And this progress, this development, “is the perfec- at home a curiously naïve self-conceit and in the hearts of tion of civilized life, the development of society, properly so pro-Germans abroad an equally naïve admiration of German called, of the relations of men among themselves.' But this is efficiency. But if Guizot is right, neither the order of not all. The human species is something more than a mere ant- Germany without liberty nor the liberty of Russia without hill in which all that is required is order and physical happiness. order is entitled to be called civilization. Civilization also includes the development of the individual man The present war is waged by the Allies to protect civilization himself, of his faculties, his sentiments, his ideas. Civilization from assault by an uncivilized state. It is quite in harmony " is the progress of society and the progress of humanity.” with the character of that state that it conducts its campaign

Of these two, the progress of the individual is the more im- against Belgium and France in 1918 in the spirit in which the portant, because it is the ultimate end of civilization. “Human Kaiser in 1900 directed his troops to conduct their campaign societies are born, live, and die, on the earth; it is there their against China : “ As soon as you come to blows with the enemy destinies are accomplished. . . . But they contain not the whole he will be beaten. No mercy will be shown. No prisoners will man. After he has engaged himself to society, there remains to be taken. As the Huns, under King Attila, made a name for him the noblest part of himself, those high faculties by which themselves which is still mighty in traditions and legends to he elevates himself to God, to a future life, to unknown felicity day, may the name of German be so fixed in China by your in an invisible world. . We, persons individual and identical, deeds that no Chinese shall ever again dare even to look at a veritable beings endowed with immortality, we have a different German askance !" destiny from that of states."

This analysis and description of civilization is, as we have said, derived from and based on miniature portraits of certain CONCERNING A MAN WHO FLED states of society which have been seen in the history of the world and to which the common sense of humanity has refused

TO PATAGONIA the title civilization. Two of these miniatures are the following:

“ The President of the Argentine First, suppose a people whose external life is easy, is full of

Has gone to Patagonia.' physical comfort; they pay few taxes, they are free from suffer- It sounds like the latest hit on Broadway. But it was nothing ; justice is well administered in their private relations in a ing of the sort. It was a sober news item on the front page, word, material existence is for them altogether happy, and happily telling how the President of the Argentine had temporarily regulated. But at the same time the intellectual and moral

deposited the state seal and all the other cares of office on the existence of this people is studiously kept in a state of torpor

head of the Vice-President of the Argentine and set sail upon and inactivity ; of, I will not say oppression, for they do not under

the blue Atlantic, bound south. stand the feeling, but of compression. We are not without instances of this state of things. There has been a great number

" The President of the Argentine has gone to Patagonia." of small aristocratic republics in which the people have been The Happy Eremite read it and grinned. Then he read it thus treated like flocks of sheep, well kept and materially happy, again, to make sure that it wasn't a joke. There it was, with a but without moral and intellectual activity. Is this civilization? date line and all, a sober cable message among tales of moving Is this a people civilizing itself?

accidents by flood and field, the sinking of an Austrian battle I take a fourth and last hypothesis: the liberty of each indi

ship, a notable speech by Balfour, troubles in Ireland, troubles

in aircraft, groans from Picardy, howls of disillusionment from vidual is very great, inequality among them is rare, and, at all

Russia : "The President of the Argentine has gone to Pataevents, very transient. Every man does very nearly just what he pleases, and differs little in power from his neighbor; but

gonia." there are very few general interests, very few public ideas, very

The grin of the Happy Eremite expanded into a long chuckle little society in a word, the faculties and existence of individ

of sheer delight. “Lucky devil!” he murmured.“ Who wouldn't nals appear and then pass away wholly apart and without acting if he had the chance ?" upon each other, or leaving any trace behind them; the succes- For it happened that to the Happy Eremite Patagonia was sive generations leave society at the same point at which they not a geographical fact at all, but a mythical land beyond the found it ; this is the state of savage tribes ; liberty and equality farthest rim of the farthest sea ; the jumping-off place where are there, but assuredly not civilization.

men's heads do grow beneath their shoulders and, according to The first of these miniatures is so accurate a picture of Ger- the German phrase, “ cats and dogs say good-night;" a land of many, the second of Russia, that we might suppose them to be mists and enormous terrors and here and there hidden glades photographs taken during the last few months of existing states where the apples of the Hesperides grow. sitting unconsciously for their portraits, did we not know that The President of the Argentine had gone to Patagonia! Guizot's lectures were delivered in Paris in the years 1828, Perhaps in the Argentine politics were hot and the Opposition 1829, and 1830. It would indeed be difficult for any writer to- was saying unbearable things. Perhaps in the Argentine there day to portray more clearly and effectively the contrast between were yellow journals making scathing remarks. Perhaps in the the Socialism of Germany and the individualism of Russia—the Argentine there were preparedness orators and pacifists on every street corner and German propagandists in every news- the story of the colonies one of "embezzlements, falsehoods paper office. Perhaps in the Argentine there was some envoy sensual cruelties, assaults on women, horrible ill treatment,” and most extraordinary, successor to Luxburg, making life miserable he added that “officials and officers who stink materially and for a frantic Executive. Under those circumstances, mused the morally are no good to us in the colonies, not even if they were Happy Eremite, a President of the Argentine might look with royal princes.”. When the Herreros, goaded beyond endurance, longing eyes toward Patagonia.

turned on their oppressors, the retribution dealt out to them Or, he mused, perhaps there were none of these things in the made their country one vast graveyard. Thousands, driven into Argentine. Perhaps there was only the daily flood of terrifying, barren waterless regions, perished of hunger and thirst. The heart-breaking news from Picardy and Flanders, the cold and rest, when they did not escape into British territory, were made succinct despatches, the little tales of heroism like sudden prisoners, and were either forced to labor or were kept together flashes out of pitch-blackness, the benumbing accounts of un- in prison camps, where the death rate was appalling. It is speakable agony and need.

reckoned that only some 20,000 Herreros remained out of 80,000 Good God, why wouldn't a man want to go to Patagonia ! after the atrocities of the Herrero War. The Happy Eremite wondered hungrily how much the fare was. Humanity has stood aghast before the revelations of German

And then suddenly it occurred to him that he had heard of cruelty and bestiality in dealing with native races whose lives the President of the Argentine before. He was, he had read the nation held in trust, and the people who tolerated these somewhere, it seems, one of the few men living who, standing misdeeds will never be given a chance to repeat the experiment. unhampered, with no pistol at his breast, between the forces of As ïor the commercial confidence about whose renewal the Teudespotism and the forces of liberty, free to choose his side, had teic world is showing some natural nervousness, that is in chosen to choose neither—and to be neutral.

rermany's own hands. First, her people must make up their That, said the Happy Eremite to himself, decided the mean- minds in what voice they are to address the rest of the world. ing of that mysterious voyage of the President of the Argentine Sliall it be, for example, in that of Baron von Freytag-Loringto Patagonia.

hoven, the deputy chief of the German Imperial Staff, whose The President of the Argentine probably knew what he was " Deductions from the World War," written for home conabout. It was not at all improbable, thought the Happy Ere- sumption, has recently been published abroad? If so, it must mite, that Patagonia was the only comfortable place left in the be concluded that the experience of the war has taught Germany world for a neutral.

nothing, and that she will face the years of peace obstinately clinging to such prepossessions as these : “ We misconstrue

reality if we imagine that it is possible to rid the world of war GERMANY AN ECONOMIC OUTLAW by means of mutual agreements. ... The ideal of a state co

extensive with humanity is no ideal at all. ... As regards us The “ Journal of Commerce,” published daily in New York Germans, the World War should disencumber us once and for City, is one of the ablest commercial journals printed anywhere all of any vague cosmopolitan sentimentality. If our enemies, in the English language. It is conservative without being both our secret and our avowed enemies, make professions of reactionary, liberal without being lunatic, wise without being this nature, that is for us sufficient evidence of the hypocrisy highbrow, and international without being impractical. When which underlies them. . . In the future, as in the past, the it says deliberately that no decent or intelligent American can German people will have to seek firm cohesion in its glorious do business with the present German Government, or with the army and in its belaureled young fleet.” If the expressed conGerman people so long as they sustain that Government, the victions of economists like Professor von Schulze-Gaevernitz assertion means something more than mere idealism. This is are to be interpreted in terms of declarations like these, they the ground the “Journal of Commerce" takes in an editorial will not carry much weight either in or out of Germany. It is entitled “Germany's Deferred Repentance,” which it printed quite true, as the professor avows, that nothing has so estranged in its issue of May 17. It is a view which we think every wise the world from his countrymen as the system of government American business man should understand and hold as his own. they have maintained up to this time. It is equally certain that We are therefore glad to print the editorial entire in our own in this system of government has lain rooted the lack of symeditorial pages, as one of the best statements we have seen in pathy and the mistrust which the German trader has had to so small a compass of the economic policy which the American meet everywhere. But the distrust can only be accentuated, and people should pursue towards the Hohenzollern dynasty and the lack of sympathy become more profound, if, in the face of its followers.—THE EDITORS.

the lessons of the war, the system is to remain unchanged and

its spirit is to be perpetuated. It must be accepted as evidence of returning sanity among Then, surely, the pessimistic view of Germany's enemies will the German people that the discussion of the business conditions have to be accepted as the truth, namely, that the militarist to be faced after the war should be taking the place of talk party will go on fighting till the German people stop them, and about the terms of a German-made peace. For in the economic when the fighting has been stopped the German people will discussion there is at least a tacit admission that Germany may begin building militarism up again, because it is the only form not be able to dictate the terms on which peace will be re-estab- of life they know and the only form of government they deserve. lished, and that on her success in recovering the commercial The obvious corollary to a line of argument like that, which good will of her present enemies must largely depend the pros- Germans alone can invalidate, is that unless the door is barred pects for the rehabilitation of her trade. But the disillusionment, ruthlessly to the whole German nation, every country closed to even of the business men and the economists, is only partial. its trade and every sea to its commerce, the whole bloody busiFor example, into the outlook of all of them there enters the ness will have to be enacted over again in the course of twenty certainty not only of a return to Germany of her lost colonies, years. Whether this be truth or not depends primarily upon but the acquisition of more. Now, if there be one outcome of the acceptance or rejection of such generalizations as those of the war more certain than another, it is that Germany will not Baron von Freytag-Loringhoven about the grandeur and subbe allowed to renew the reign of terror she had established in limity of the soldier's calling and the necessity of making it the her South African and Polynesian colonies. No blacker page of keystone of the German Empire. Obviously, against an empire history has ever been written than that which records the Ger- saturated with a spirit like this all the economic weapons which man treatment of Herreros, Akwas, and South Sea Islanders. the Allies possess would have to be used without scruple. That As an outlet for emigration the German colonies hardly figured is to say, there would have to be a concerted effort to deprive at all. Germany's object in colonization was merely to do a the German manufacturer of his raw material and to exclude profitable business ; and there would have been no complaint German products from foreign markets. It must depend altobad this end been pursued justly and equitably. But “ fright- gether on the kind of challenge which the German people adfulness" was persistently employed as the weapon to subjugate dress to the Allied world, whether the latter is found banded and despoil the native races, and the men sent to wield it were together to make them as uncomfortable as possible by way of mostly failures at home or of plainly disreputable character. convincing them that the rest of civilized mankind will not A courageous German, Dr. Schaedler, speaking in 1906, called endure the false idols they worship.





O one can accuse the leaders of the League_to Enforce As was indicated by the welcome given to this last sentence, Peace of being jingoes. Ex-President Taft, Judge Alton these delegates were enthusiastic for winning the war because

B. Parker, President Lowell, of Harvard, Oscar S. of what victory promised to the liberty and the union of the Straus, Anna Howard Shaw, cannot by any malice be misrep- free peoples of the world. It was a natural error on the part of resented as fire-eaters. Some of the people who have associated a workingman in overalls who, while engaged on a job in one themselves with this League have been so pronounced in their of the hotels in which delegates were lodged, remarked to a views of the evils of war that they have been termed pacifists, bell-boy: “ What is this League to Enforce Peace? Ain't that and a few have in times past glorified pacifism. If Germany what the Kaiser wants to do?" That might be a natural inferhas any

doubts as to whether this Nation is in this war to a ence from the title of the League, and even from the slogan finish, she will have occasion to rue her error; for this League which appeared on the Convention posters : “ Win the War of peace-lovers have held in the city of Philadelphia, histor- for Permanent Peace.” But it is an error because really what ically associated with the Quakers, a Convention which must the delegates demanded was not peace first, but liberty. In all have made the Kaiser's ears tingle. There was just one thing the speeches the emphasis was laid on common defense of the that the people who attended that Convention were hungry for, right of free peoples to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiand that was for an expression that adequately voiced their determination that this war be fought to the kind of victory It was made clear time and time again that the only league of that St. George had over the dragon. The delegates took an nations possible is that composed of nations that have a common intelligent interest in discussions of programmes and methods; ideal. What these delegates had their minds on was something but when a master of language excoriated the Kaiser and his abhorrent to the Kaiser-a league of friendship to secure libgang, or denounced the butcheries committed by the Germans, erty. That is why, when Ambassador Jusserand rose to speak or praised the gallantry and bravery of the men who are laying at the dinner which closed the Convention, the delegates rose down their lives in the battle against the Hun, or pronounced too; and that is why they cheered him as he brought his indictthe fate in store for the bandits of Europe, or raised a warning ment against the atrocious Germans, because what those Gerfor all rulers to hear of the wrath that would fall upon them if mans have been doing has been aimed at what America holds they so much as thought of the possibility of an inconclusive dear as well as France. This is what Mr. Herbert S. Houston peace, those delegates went wild.

meant when he said that a league of nations was a war measure. There were three or four. pacifists discernible in the crowds This is what Oscar S. Straus meant when he declared that in of the hotel corridor where the delegates gathered, but they the trenches our soldiers and the soldiers of our allies had looked uncomfortable. They reminded one of the pro-German already formed the league. propagandists that fringed the crowds at the political conven- And the voice of labor was heard in the Convention testifying tions two years ago; but these pacifists seemed rather more to this common ideal. On the next page the statement read by lonely and out of place. What they were doing there is hard Mr. Voll on behalf of the American Federation of Labor and the to imagine, unless they thought they could get in their work American Alliance for Labor and Democracy is printed. That through some committee or other. If they thought that, they was one case in which labor's voice was heard. Another was the certainly were even more uncomfortable at the end than they speech of Mr. Winfield R. Gaylord. It was he who said he had were at the beginning. There were many demonstrations of the been asked to speak on labor's attitude to this war, and replied: war spirit of these delegates. A dramatic incident was that which “We have no attitude to this war-it is our war;" and when a correspondent of the Philadelphia “ North American,” Janet the applause died down he continued: “ That is so solemn a Stewart, described as follows:

fact that people are afraid of it. . . . When the Kaiser and the Dr. Lyman Abbott, white-bearded, venerable, and solemn,

Turk challenged democracy, Labor said, “They challenge us.'

We'll win the war--all of us together. Peace between the threw into the midst of the League to Enforce Peace at last night's session tho most burning righteous and relentless profes

nations is not the end for which we are fighting. We are fightsion of wrath a Christian minister has probably ever maile. ing for life.” It is this ideal of liberty, as Mr. Gaylord sug. “ The Archbishop of York has told us,” and the warning right

gested, the very life of free peoples, that was repeatedly set forth arm was lifted high above the heads of the audience, “ has told as the basis of the international league now fighting against us that we must pray for our enemies, even as Christ on his cross Germany and hereafter to continue. asked of the Father that he forgive his murderers, ' for they know Among the most thoughtful statements of the problems with not what they do.'

which the free peoples of the earth will have to deal was the “Yes, for the Roman soldiers who carried out the orders of the Roman Pilate and the Jewish Caiaphas ; the unwitting instru

address of Mr. William English Walling. He pointed out that ments of witting knaves; but—he did not pray for Caiaphas, he

Germany's war was not merely a military war but an economic did not pray for Judas, he did not pray for Pilate.

war, a commercial war, as well. He pointed out that Germany “ I would offer up that prayer for ignorant and unwitting had deliberately undertaken to impoverish France and Russia, criminals; I would not offer it for the Kaiser or for his pals ! with the view not merely to the winning of victory, but to the "I may be tempted to lie to my fellow-men, but I will not lie subjection of those countries to her will for years and


to to my God.

come; and he made it clear that even if the Hohenzollerns should “ Ăny man who proposes a compromise with Germany or a to-morrow be dethroned there would be no safeguard against peace negotiation with this band of brigands is a traitor !"

German domination, for a German Socialist State intent on the They had risen to greet him when he was introduced, risen

same ends that the Hohenzollerns have in view would be no with applause and clappings; they rose to do him honor when he ended, and they rose with shouts of gratitude and approval.

- less dangerous than Prussia is today, and that even with Ger

many democratized the impoverishment which Germany has The speech which is generally acknowledged to have been inflicted already on France and Russia and other countries, an received with the most frequent demonstrations of approval was impoverishment from which it is impossible for them to recover that by Rabbi Wise, described in a newspaper caption as a for many years to come, would insure an advantage to Germany “Rabbinical Whirlwind.” This man has always been recognized and would be a real reward to her for her past crimes. This as an influence in international peace movements ; but there warning of the need of economic defense of free peoples, a warnwas no room in the minds of his hearers while he was speaking ing that comes from a man known as a radical, expresses from for the idea of any other kind of peace than that secured by an one point of view what is expressed from quite a different point overwhelming victory--a victory that would make Alsace-Lor- of view in the statement from the “Journal of Commerce raine, Armenia, and Russia free. And his audience gave way printed on another page. to their enthusiasm when he said : “ We will never, never, never So, from first to last, the thoughts of this Convention were pay a tithe of the debt we owe to England and to France. set on victory, and a victory not merely of our own arms, but a We are going to be allies with England in the coming peace victory of the arms of our allies and of the liberties which those as we are in the present war.”

arms have been defending. With that determination for victory

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