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JAPAN, GERMANY, RUSSIA, AND THE ALLIES
AN AUTHORIZED INTERVIEW WITH COUNT MASATAKA TERAUCHI, PREMIER

OF JAPAN, BY GREGORY MASON, OF THE OUTLOOK STAFF

W

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HAT are the chances for an alliance between Japan large section of British public opinion has been favoring Japa-
and Germany?" I asked Count Masataka Terauchi, nese intervention.
Premier of Japan.

For the past four or five weeks the conflict between these two “ That,” he replied, “will depend entirely on how the present opposing views has been a delicate and momentous thing to watch. war may end. It is impossible to predict the changes which the At first it seemed that the sentiment for intervention was irresisconclusion of this war may bring. If the exigencies of interna- tible, but it began to wane, and lately the non-interventionists tional relationships demand it, Japan, being unable to maintain have seemed to be gaining. But of course these are not irrev. a position of total isolation, may be induced to seek an ally in ocably non-interventionists at all. Count Terauchi, Baron Germany; but, as far as I can judge from the existing condition Goto, and, as I understand it, the American Government have of affairs, I see no such danger. In other words, I believe that not come out against Japanese intervention finally; they have Japan's relations with the Entente Allies will continue unaltered merely pleaded for present caution, arguing that the time is not after the present war.”

yet ripe, that the situation in Russia, grave as it is, is not yet This remarkably frank statement by the Premier of Japan grave enough to justify the risks of military intervention by is an accurate presentation of certain new possibilities which Japan in the territory of an ally. concern the Allies, and America in particular. These new pos That is what I mean when I say that, whether Japan does sibilities have been created by the collapse of Russia. That col now intervene or not, the effect of her restraint during the past lapse has ended the remoteness of Japan. If Russia does not four or five weeks will not have been lost. In case she does inget back to her feet, the Far East will be next door to Europe. tervene Japan will find that her moral position bas been greatly If Russia does not recover, then over Russia's remains Germany strengthened by the fact that she has been patient, that she has and Japan are destined to meet. Will they meet as rivals or as proved to the world her forbearance with Russia-in short, that friends?

she has proved her disinterestedness in advance. Whether the world will see a strong Russia again“ will depend To the formation of Japan's present policy toward Russia a entirely on how the present war may end." Whether such a veritable hodgepodge of elements contributed. She was entirely Russia would be autocratic or democratic “ will depend entirely unprepared herself for gauging the meaning of such a spree of on how the present war may end.” And whether the exigen- radicalism as Russia has been indulging in. Her statesmen had cies of international relationships" will demand a Germano had intimate personal and political relations with Russians of Russo-Japanese alliance if a strong Russia be saved, or a Ger the autocracy-men like Witte, Stolypin, and Sazonoff. But mano-Japanese alliance if Russia be lost, “will depend entirely they knew none of the revolutionary group, and the reactionary on how the present war may end,” and on a few other questions Russian Ambassador, who has been held over in Tokyo from with which America is greatly concerned, since they relate to the days of Czardom, has not helped them to understand. Thus her policy toward Japan.

Japan has looked to her allies for interpretation of Russia, and Whether there is to be a German-Japanese alliance opposed has found them confused. France has looked at Russia almost to the French and Anglo-Saxons or not depends very largely on entirely, it seems to me, from the standpoint of her own purely America. But I am anticipating.

national interests. The French advocacy of Japanese intervenWith three or four weeks to pass between the writing and tion in Russia seems to have sprung from fear for the French the publication of this, and with history being made at a gallop, investments in Russia, for surely France cannot believe that such an article must be written with a historical perspective. such a limited military expedition as Japan could send would Before this can be published Japan may have sent an army into appreciably relieve pressure on the western front. The warm Siberia. But whether Japan intervenes in Russia or not, the democratic sympathy of Lafayette must be alive in France following interview with the Premier of Japan will have interest to-day, but it has been strangely inconspicuous in the attitude as interpreting the frame of mind of Japan's leaders toward à of France toward Russia. problem and during a crisis which will have a place in history, England from the beginning has had a rather limited underwhatever the future may bring forth. The events of the winter of standing of the Russian Revolution, yet England has seen Russia 1917–18 in the Far East have been of exceeding consequence. more clearly than France has. England has been too much Since the first of the year Japan has been feverishly consid- inclined

to accept the interpretation of Russia furnished by the ering the new relationship which would arise between her and British Tories and Imperialists. Lately, however, British Labor Germany if Russia should make peace and disintegrate. And and the British Liberals have forced a saner view to the front. since it became evident that the Bolsheviki were going to make And England seems to have been a good deal influenced by peace, Japan has been on the point of undertaking armed inter President Wilson's judgment of events in Russia, which has vention in Siberia.

been much more accurate than that of any other statesman, and Whether she does intervene or not, however, the effect gained remarkably accurate, considering the obstacle of distance and by her restraint during the past month or two will not have been other difficult circumstances. lost. The reaction in Russia toward Japanese intervention Then to the formation of Japan's policy toward Russia a to-day or to-morrow would not be what it would have been yes number of conflicting internal currents are contributing. terday. Japan and her allies have gained by her caution and Japanese politics are the most difficult politics in the world to patience; and that cantion and forbearance have been largely understand. I certainly do not pretend to understand them. Prime Minister Terauchi's.

But the present facts are that both the two major parties which That Japanese troops are not already well into Siberia as I contend for supremacy in the lower house of the Japanese Diet write this is due mainly to three influences--the personality of are opposed to intervention. Apparently their motive is a fear Count Terauchi, the personality of Baron Goto, Minister for that intervention will increase the prestige of the present MinHome Affairs, and the opposition of the United States. Opposed istry and lend it a new lease of life, whereas both the Seiyukai to this alignment have been the forces favoring immediate inter and Kenseikai parties are counting on an approaching dissoluvention-Viscount Motono, the Japanese Minister for Foreign tion of the Terauchi Ministry as å benefit to them. Similarly, Affairs, the entire Japanese War Office, with most of the lead elements in the bureaucracy opposed to Terauchi fear intering officers of the army and a good many of the navy, plus vention. The Genro, or Elder Statesmen, are also vrging the France, and to some extent England. France has been for it Government to go slow, but their advice is more likely to be both the public and the Government. The English Government, based on a sincere judgment of what is best for the country. however, seems not to have finally committed itself, though a Moreover, Terauchi himself is inclined to avoid intervention,

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through an opinion which is the exact opposite of that held by front, our Government gladly consented to safeguard the peace the political parties. He fears that intervention will lead to of the Far East so as to enable Russia to deliver her utmost some national calamity, and thus weaken, instead of strengthen, power on the western front, with no apprehension about the his position. The Japanese public has been excited by false or East. Thus the Japanese Government has good will for Russia exaggerated reports of events in Russia, including the alleged and entertains deep sympathy for her in the deplorable complimassacres of Japanese by Germans and Bolsheviki; but, on the cations which have arisen in Russia's internal administration whole, the Japanese public has been about equally divided. since last year. So we by no means desire to make an enemy of There is no real public opinion in Japan.

Russia, even if Russia's condition should get from bad to worse. The most marked clash on this issue has been that between Though the Bolshevik Government should shake hands with Premier Terauchi and Home Minister Goto on one side, Germany, yet there would be many Russians whose views are and the Foreign Minister and War Office on the other. The sound and reasonable and who regard us as their friend and army has been tugging at its leash like a starved bulldog ally, so that we should be loth to despatch troops thoughtlessly. scenting meat. And Viscount Motono has been almost equally and thereby make an enemy of the Russian people. eager for seizing what seems to him a golden opportunity for "What we fear deeply is the possible advent of the German Japan.

influence in the East, and we will have to be prepared against The long and short of it is that there are two Governments possible emergencies, for Germany may push her influence in Japan-one composed of the Premier and the Home Min- too far eastward. But if Japan be obliged to take military ister, the other composed of the Foreign Minister and the War action in Siberia, such action will be taken simply because Office. On the issue of Russian intervention the first has of the necessity of maintaining the peace of the Orient, and had the backing of the United States, and the second has been will never mean aggression or territorial ambition on the part supported by France, while England and Italy have been hesi

of Japan. tating, though apparently slightly in favor of intervention. The “ As regards your second question, namely, as to whether influence of Viscount Ishii, the new Ambassador to America, Japan wants to act singly or in concert with other allies, I has strengthened the stand of the Premier and Home Min- would say that Japan would want a co-operative action. If any ister. It is now quite apparent which of Japan's two Govern- of our allies should desire to participate in Japan's military ments is the stronger, and there have lately been rumors that expedition, Japan would be only too pleased to welcome such Viscount Motono is contemplating resignation.

participation and assistance, but we fear that such participation Such are some of the stronger cross-currents through which would be impossible now. Great Britain and France are concen Japan has had to steer her way during the past two or three trating all their power on the western fronts, so that they will have months. To complicate matters, the question has been, not no surplus strength to spare for an expedition to the Far East, simply whether to intervene in Russia or not, but how to As to the United States, she is also doing her best in lending intervene if intervention is agreed upon. A good deal of the her man power to France and in otherwise working for victory, British sentiment for intervention has apparently been based on and we fear it will not be very easy for her to send very many the assumption that British or American troops would co-oper- troops to Siberia. ate in the expedition with the soldiers of Japan. American and Then in what manner would you have the United States French opinion has been more inclined to prefer having Japan help you?" I asked. go it alone, so far as active military operations are concerned, “In case Japan is to make a co-operative move into Siberia,” but with the Allies helping financially. After talking with many

said the Premier, "she will desire every possible assistance you prominent Japanese, including several members of the Govern- can render. The material and financial help which the United ment, I have come to the conclusion that with the Japanese it States can afford us is precisely what Japan will need." is a question of intervening in Siberia alone or not intervening Count Terauchi surprised me by the considerable amount of at all. Their pride is injured by the suggestion that Allied troops animation he put into his discourse. His usual expression is a be sent to co-operate with them, and justifiably so, it seems to cold inscrutability which a professional gambler might envy.

He seldom betrays emotion in his face, and behind that mask The first question I put to the Premier when I saw him at he makes his plans and maps his courses, unmoved by praise or his official residence recently related to this point. At that mo- hostile criticism. Yet, despite his stony exterior, he is deeply ment intervention was hanging in the balance, soon after Trotsky emotional, and weeps easily. He is very sincere and loyal and had signed the preliminary agreement of peace at Brest-Litovsk. patriotic and kind. His bad points are said to be narrow-mind

“Does Japan intend to intervene in Siberia ?” I asked. “ And, edness and a lack of ideals. He is a frank materialist. And he if so, would she prefer to act alone or in co-operation with her is reputed to be very much afraid of Socialism. Co-operation allies ?"

between such a man and a man like Trotsky is hard to conCount Terauchi does not speak English, and Mr. Yusuke ceive. So I asked him : “ Supposing that Japan intervenes in Tsurumi, the son-in-law of Baron Goto, had kindly volunteered Siberia and that the Bolshevik Government, if still in power. to act as interpreter. Mr. Tsurumi not only speaks excellent should show a willingness to accept Japanese co-operation in English but writes it. He was the editor in charge of producing restoring order, would Japan help the Bolsheviki to re-establish the authoritative “Official Guide to Eastern Asia," published

a strong state ?” by the Imperial Government Railways of Japan. Mr. Tsurumi He did not answer directly, but said: understands the American point of view; he is an ardent friend “As I have already said, Japan bears every good will toward of America and an adınirer of President Wilson, whose election Russia, and in this war has been supplying her with arms and he urged in America during the last Presidential campaign. munitions to help her win victory. We had hoped with all our Through Mr. Tsurumi Count Terauchi replied:

heart for Russian victory. But, unfortunately, in March of last “I have not as yet formed a definite opinion about this year Russia was plunged into the vortex of revolution, and from problem. Nor would it be of any practical use if I had made up it resulted the unexpected Kerensky Cabinet, which has since my mind, because intervention cannot at once be put into prac- been replaced by the Lenine Ministry, which we see now signtice. The opinions of the Allied nations must first be heard. ing peace with Germany. For all that, we still believe that a Besides, we can hardly form an unerring estimate of the real great many Russians are influenced by a rational faith in the situation in Russia. Though a treaty of peace has been signed recuperation of their country and in the principles of humanity, between Germany and Russia, what concrete result may it bring ? and therefore our sympathy for Russia remains unchanged. It Will the Russian people continue to submit to the guidance of is our belief that Russia will regain her national footing, which the Bolshevik Government? Even if the Bolshevik Govern- she seems to have lost for the time being. And when she does, ment succeeds in getting rid of Russia's obligations toward her it is necessary, in the interest of Japan, and Japan's allies too. allies, how do we know that the Russian people's will is repre- that Russia should be protected to the best of our ability. For sented by that Government's conduct? Japan once waged war Japan, in particular, it is very desirable that Russia should lie with Russia, but to-day there is between the two countries abso- between Japan and Germany; so we will not stint our aid to lutely no ill feeling. At the outset of the present war, when her, but will give her all possible help. We feel sincerely sorry Russia proposed to send her Siberian troops to the western for Russia-sorry that so great and powerful a nation as she

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should have come to such an indescribable predicament in con Berlin-Tokyo connection through Russia. Some Americans are sequence of revolution.”

possessed of the opinion that there is a possibility of Japan's Well, suppose the war should end with Germany in posses- forming an alliance with Germany after the war, if the conclusion of the Russian Baltic provinces,” I asked, “and with Japansion of the present war should favor such possibility. What is occupying eastern Siberia as a result of Japanese intervention. your Excellency's opinion about this ?”, What, Count Terauchi, would Japan think of the constitution ** That will depend entirely on how the present war may end,” of a new and smaller Russia, established on the territory lying said General Terauchi. “ It is impossible to predict the changes mainly between Moscow and Irkutsk ?”

which the conclusion of this war may bring. If the exigencies " It is Japan's sincere hope,” replied the Premier, “ that of the international relationships demand it, Japan, being unable Russia should be reborn into a strong, well-ordered state. We to maintain a position of total isolation, may be induced to seek believe that the existence of Russia as an independent nation an ally in Germany; but, as far as I can judge from the existing will constitute an effective barrier against the encroachment of condition of affairs, I see no such danger. In other words, I be German influence toward the East, and therefore will be a lieve that Japan's relations with the Entente Allies will continue great factor toward promoting the peace of the Orient and of unaltered after the present war. Last winter I was asked by a the whole world. That is why we strongly desire that Russia certain American gentleman whether there was any danger for should continue her national life forever, even though she were the future of American-Japanese friendship, when I did my best to become in territory a smaller country.

to explain the situation. If the United States should take such The Premier touched a button and a “boy” brought in tea. a step as would endanger the independence of China, Japan I recognized the boy " (he has six children) as one who had could not of course look on idly; but it is clear that the United worked for me and who had been discharged. His glance at me States will never do anything of the kind. Therefore there is was full of dignified scorn, as if to say: " Ah, you see how the no fear of the American-Japanese friendship being in any way gods have regarded your injustice to me. I have exchanged a threatened. I was born in the year following the arrival of plebeian for a Prime Minister."

Commodore Perry in Japan ; the memorable event was soon As Count Terauchi sipped tea and smoked he asked how I followed by the Harris Treaty, which opened Japan to the interthought the Allies would regard such a buffer Russian state course of the world. Had Commodore Perry then fired guns on between Germany and Japan. He seemed much interested in Japan, there might long have remained feelings of enmity in the this. As the tea warmed him he nodded his head and smiled. bosoms of the Japanese; but from beginning to end he adhered Then, with his high cheek-bones, narrow eyes, arched eyebrows, to the principles of justice and humanity in his advice as to the and high bald head, he looked like a fine old Mongolian mon opening of Japan. There were some far-sighted men in Japan arch, some chieftain of ancient China. His high-pointed crown who saw real advantage in following his advice, and the result is his most noticeable physical characteristic, and is accentuated was as fortunate as could be desired. Thus from the very beginby hostile cartoonists till it looks like the head of Fukurokusin, ning of Japan's intercourse with America she was our benefactor, one of the Seven Gods of Good Luck worshiped in Japan, not our enemy. Years have passed since then, but there is no whose“ dome" is a yard high. This tall cranium and his mask reason to suspect any change in the cordiality of the neighborly like countenance give Terauchi an appearance of dignity and relations. It is true that Japan has a little military strength, shrewdness which is indicative of his real character. I have sel but that she should send her army across the Pacific and land (lom seen such a high head, unless it be that of Francisco Villa. it in America is quite impossible; and I presume it would be (Mr. Mason made two visits to Mexico for The Outlook in 1914 very difficult for the United States to do the same against Japan. and 1916, and personally interviewed both Villa and Carranza. I believe there is no reason to anticipate war between the two -THE EDITORS.]

countries. What possible harm can there be to have Japan de Terauchi's friends call him the “ Kitchener of Japan.” He is veloping on this side of the Pacific and the United States growlike the late “K. of K.” in that he combines great military abil. ing on the other side ? The possibility of Japan and America ity with high administrative genius; he is like Kitchener in his breaking off into war has never for a moment entered my mind. solemnity of face and in his reputed dislike for women. Also And if you ask what is the best way to maintain in perpetuity like Kitchener, Terauchi began at the bottom of the ladder and this cordial American-Japanese friendship, I would say, let has been a War Minister and a great colonial administrator. us go on in the same manner as we have been doing during the Terauchi's work as Governor-General of Korea is compared to past sixty years." that of Kitchener in Africa and India.

“ I would like to ask a question bearing on Japan's future, Terauchi is a stickler for discipline. All this time that we had your Excellency,” I said, taking up the thread of conversation been talking poor Mr. Tsurumi had been standing, and he * The Anglo-Saxon peoples are to-day feeling a strong liberal remained standing throughout the interview, which lasted an idealism. Perhaps there are a good many Anglo-Saxons now hour and a quarter. He told me afterwards that he had expected who feel that their race has already got about all the territory Count Terauchi would ask him to sit down, but the stern old it needs for the development of its interests, particularly on the soldier did not do it. However, as Count Terauchi considers Pacific, where the Anglo-Saxons have most of the Pacific coast attention to discipline the highest trait in a man, Mr. Tsurumi's of North America, Hawaii, the Philippines, Australia, New suffering may be rewarded.

Zealand, and footholds in China. On the other hand, intelligent I asked the Premier how far into Siberia Japan would go Americans and Britons are beginning to realize that a country in case she intervened, and whether she would be prepared to which is growing as rapidly as Japan, and which has proved its penetrate European Russia if strong German resistance should right to be ranked as a civilized nation, ought not to be denied be encountered. He said : “ Your question touches a strategic the privilege of normal expansion. Japan's population is outproblem. You must understand that you cannot extend the thea- growing her territory. Where will she find an outlet ? A Japaters of war to indefinite lengths. There is a limit to Japan's nese magazine writer has recently suggested that Japan might military power, and, besides, Japanese military strength is estab make an arrangement with France by which Japan would take lished on purely defensive principles, so that it is impossible for over part or all of French Indo-China. Other Japanese have us to undertake responsibility for such extensive fronts. As we mentioned the possibility of extending Japan's territory northknow it to be impossible to get reinforcements of half a million ward. Now, America desires the preservation of the territorial or one million troops from America, Great Britain, and France to integrity of China, but intelligent Americans would not be fight in Russia, we could not hope to advance so far as European grudge Japan an accession of territory somewhere else if it Russia. The best policy in war is to fight nearer home, dealing could be arranged justly. It has been suggested that the war with an enemy who has come a long way into unfamiliar places. might end with Germany holding the Baltic provinces of Russia. It would be difficult to predetermine how far we should go. France regaining Alsace-Lorraine, and France making an

“ Count Terauchi, you may permit me to ask a very bold, arrangement with Japan by which Japan would get French straightforward question," I said, “ for I should like to dispel Indo-China. Quite apart from any allusion to the present crisis the misunderstanding that is prevailing among certain sections in Siberia, toward which the world knows Japan is disinterested, of Americans. Now that the Berlin-Bagdad dream has been which would Japan prefer as a colony to absorb some of her shattered, certain German newspapers have begun to talk of a growing population a piece of land in such a northern region

as Siberia or a colony in the south, such as French Indo- The report of the interview was then translated by a gentleman China ?”

approved by Mr. Tsurumi. All the remarks of the Premier " Japan is increasing in her population at the rate of about half quoted above are in the exact phrasing of this authoritative a million a year,” replied the Premier," and it is indeed a prob- transcribing. Thus they are as “official as they could be. lem that we should well consider ; but it is not likely that we As I understand them, the salient points brought out in my shall be pressed for the lack of land to live in during ten interview with Premier Terauchi are these : or fifteen years to come. For there is still much room in First, unless the German menace to the Far East through Chosen and also in Hokkaido which can be used for our coloni- Russia grows considerably stronger than it is at this writing, zation. Manchuria, though it is not part of Japan's territory, Japan will not intervene in Siberia except with the warm can relieve much of our surplus population. The Japanese approval and with the assurance of the economic support of all people do not take kindly to the idea of emigration, because her allies. The advice of caution given by the Japanese Amthey have long been used to the mild climate at home, and dislike bassador to Petrograd, who has just come out of Russia, strengthboth the torrid and arctic regions. Neither freezing Siberia ens the party which is for extreme prudence in the question of nor the scorching south is very tempting to the Japanese. As to intervention. any questions depending on the disposal of Alsace-Lorraine, they Second, if Japan does intervene, she would prefer to have no must await the decision of military power."

foreign troops co-operating, except, perhaps, small detachments Here Count Terauchi brought the interview to an end, of Chinese, although she would consent to Allied co-operation remarking that he was overdue at the Diet. He shook hands if the Allies insist. But she would want, and would need, with his left hand, for his right has been of little use since his generous assistance in the form of munitions and money from right arm was wounded in the Saigon Rebellion forty years ago. Great Britain and America.

At the beginning of our conversation the Premier had re- Third, if Japan does intervene, she will have no intention of marked that he was not speaking for publication. When asked going beyond a limited objective, probably Irkutsk, which she to relent, he said that he would get Mr. Tsurumi to write out would approach over both the Siberian and Amur Railways. his recollection of what had been said and submit it to him in Japan, in short, has no desire to meet the organized armed Japanese. Then, if it met with his approval, it would be given forces of Germany, for which she has a most wholesome respect. to me and translated. This was done. Mr. Tsurumi's remem- Despite the possible wording of her explanations, her intervenbrance of the conversation proved almost dictographic. He tion would be undertaken almost solely to stop the spread of wrote it out in question and answer form like a catechism and anarchy and German intrigue toward the Far East; that is, it submitted it to the Premier. After reading it Count Terauchi would be purely a measure of national self-defense for Japan. submitted it for the consideration of the Foreign Minister and Thus it would probably have very little effect toward relieving of the Minister for Home Affairs. When they had approved it, the pressure of German arms on the west front.

Fourth, Japan is much exercised over the definition of her future relations with Russia and Germany. Her present relations with Russia are handicapped by great lack of understanding on the part of Japan. The interviews just now being given out by the Japanese Ambassador to Russia on his return home

are almost the first public utterances made by a Japanese pubFERK

lic man indicating any understanding of the fact that the radicalism and liberalism of Russia are genuine, widespread, and ineradicable, and that they are not merely the effusions of a few “professional agitators." Japan's misunderstanding of Russia

has been aided by the fact that Reuter, the British news service, 호

has fed the Japanese public with cabled_excerpts of the 34

Russian views of the Tory newspapers of England like the 12

London " Times" and the London “Observer," and has notice 4

ably not given the Japanese a fair glimpse of the opinion on this issue held by British labor and British liberalism, the ele ments which are really running the war in England. More

than once the doubtless well-intended work of the Reuter 有

service has actually tended to hinder the winning of the war

for democracy. +

America, on the other hand, has helped to give Japan a T

better understanding of Russia than Japan was apparently able

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to get for herself. Unquestionably, the United States, for all Et

the misconceptions nursed by its tories, has understood radical

Russia better than any other ally of Russia. Moreover, Amer龍

ica's views are having great weight with Japan. There is an

unmistakable and highly interesting drift in Japanese official 3 实 Z

opinion today. This is an inclination toward the view that the

value of the Anglo-Japanese alliance has been nearly exhausted 首

专 En

by Japan, and that a more valuable ally for the Island Empire A E

will be Germany or America. In other words, for her own peculiar purposes Japan is inclining to consider both Germany and America greater Powers than Great Britain. The Japanese seem to feel that England will be so exhausted by the war and so engrossed with making good the economic drain on her own resources that she will have little support to lend Japan's programme in the Far East. There is also an opinion that the

British Empire will break into a flexible group of nations after THE FIRST PAGE OF THE JAPANESE MANUSCRIPT OF MR. MASON'S

INTERVIEW WITH PREMIER TERAUCHI This manuscript was forwarded to The Outlook by Mr. Mason with his own article On the other hand, Japan is impressed by the growing mili

tary and economic power of the United States, although she he went through it all again—some twenty-two pages of does make a proper discount for the usual American boasting. Japanese script—making a change here and there. These changes As for Germany, Japan is feeling that the war will probably indicated a regard

for the most careful use of language, as, for leave the Germans in a position of great strength, and that instance, when he changed the word “ tactical” to “strategic.” this strength will seek development either through central

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the war.

Asia toward India or through Siberia toward the Far East. Japan for this. Incidentally, by this forbearance Japan has Japan fears Germany, and this means that she would be in augmented her stock of good will among the other nations. clined to make an arrangement with Germany for her own Good will is just as important to a nation as to a corporation, protection unless she believed that it would benefit her more to and Japan's supply of it has been rather thin, owing to a few ally herself with another Power.

historic blunders, such as the presentation of the famons Well, America is the most formidable rival of Germany for Twenty-one Demands on China. Japan's hand. It will do no good, however, for Americans to In return for Japan's consideration of the American view scold Japan for tendencies toward Prussianism such as undoubt about Russia the United States must scrupulously recognize the edly exist in these islands Americans will have to show Japan special position and interests of Japan in the Far East, and must that Prussianism doesn't pay by helping to beat Germany; and actively aid the proper and orderly development of Japan. by the efficiency of their own conduct of the war, as well as by America has a great opportunity to guard real democracy in helping to secure a workable democratic régime in Russia, Russia and to encourage it in Japan, to help Japan and Russia Americans can prove to Japan that democracy is not to be understand each other, and to help them both check the menace dreaded as a sort of national tuberculosis.

of Prussia. To accomplish these ends the United States must be The forbearance toward the question of mobilization in in performance as well as in after-dinner promises a true friend Siberia shown by the Government, headed by the professional of both Japan and Russia. That is the unmistakable soldier Terauchi, is a great testimonial to the extent of

testimonial to the extent of end the Kaiser's dream of “ Berlin-Petrograd-Tokyo." America's influence with Japan. America is vastly indebted to Tokyo, March 22.

way to

THE CONVICTION OF A SKEPTIC

BY MARY DEWHURST

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STRANGER in Geneva, New York, notices first the “ What do I think of tithing?" she repeated, as she brought massive gray-stone Methodist church, which dominates the me into the neat, warm kitchen. “Why, if I didn't tithe I'd be

main street and throws its English Gothic tower skyward picked as clean as a bird. I've got to tithe to keep goin”.” with a valiant air. It was built by working people, and so reck “ But what does your husband say about it ?” lessly built that the congregation found itself saddled with a “My husband is a drinkin' man, as I guess you've heard building debt of $82,000, a weekly budget of $230, and an He

says I sha'n't touch a cent of his money, so I take a tenth income of less than one hundred dollars. In two years the debt of what is left after I've paid for food and rent; sometimes it's has been cut to $49,000, and the weekly income is nearly $300. only five cents, sometimes it's ten, but whatever it is it don't The church has more than a thousand members, of whom 350 belong to me. are tithers.” A tither is a person who sets aside one-tenth of his income for Christian activities. These Geneva Methodist When I returned to the church, I found a meeting of a group of tithers are doing more than pay for their church; they are ministers from near-by parishes, gathered to learn the technique pioneers in a financial policy which bids fair to spread through of putting tithing before their congregations. There were sixMethodism.

teen, most of them young fellows with bluff ways and honest When the Centenary Commission of the Methodist Church, faces. They came from farming communities and had the hard the organization which is preparing for the centenary of its task of persuading the New York farmer that a tenth of his Home and Foreign Missions, asked me to go to Geneva to write produce did not belong to him. I was amused at the naive way the history of its Tithing and Stewardship Movement, I was they ran business and religion together, and at first I was scarcely enthusiastic. I doubted if I would find much of a genuinely shocked at the familiar way in which they addressed “story," and, with war-giving and war-saving in mind, I doubted the Deity. Their homely speech seemed blasphemous until I if I would be sympathetic toward what I found.

grasped the fact that no disrespect was intended and that they Nevertheless I was curious to talk to these people who found but put into practical expression the philosophy of pantheism. it possible to give so much in the face of rising prices, war “A man looks up into Jesus' face and says, 'Lord, I surcharities, and added taxes. How did they do it?

render; all to thee I owe.' And the Lord says, “If you mean My directions led me first to the town's principal shoe store, business, what are you going to give ? where I asked for Mr. Cassatt.

“The Lord's no fool. We get our business sense from him, “We tithers,” he said, proudly, turning to me after waiting along with every other good thing." on a customer, “don't feel that we begin to give until after we “Why wouldn't the Lord take care of the tither? He knows have returned our tenth to the storehouse. I've already paid in he gets his money that way to carry on his work. If he owns a $700 on the church debt, and have pledged a thousand more tenth of a business, he'll see that it don't suffer." in ten years. By that time I hope to wipe off the $2,500 mort When they knelt for prayer, I found I liked their “ Amens gage on my own home.”

and “ Yes, Lords," and "Hallelujahs” chiming across the speak. I tried him with a mean attack.

er's invocation. It all had a lively sense of intercession and “Doesn't your wife ever tell you that you could own your emotional validity. own house sooner if you didn't pay so much on the church?” Later, some of them told of their experiences, especially of

“ No, she doesn't. She's not that kind,” he answered, promptly. the rewards reserved for those who clung to their stewardship, Humiliated, I went elsewhere to seek understanding,

"You'll never find a tither in the poorhouse," one said, and

another, “I'm a parson on six hundred a year; and I found I Mrs. Silver, a young and pretty widow, lives with ber four had to tithe to get out of debt." children in a shabby little house overlooking the big frozen One told of a man in Syracuse who tithed regularly when the lake. She was introduced to me as one who had just joined tenth was only ten dollars a month; he prospered until it grew the Tithers' Association and wanted to give one-tenth of the to a hundred dollars. This looked too big to relinquish, so he dollar a day she earned by sewing bags for the near-by flour-mill. gave up the practice. Disaster followed, until he was brought

“I guess I can give one bag and trust Him to stretch the other to poverty and humility. He began tithing again, and now be nine," she explained. When I spoke of fuel and food and is on his feet financially and spiritually. clothes, she agreed, smilingly, but said:

“I want you to hear the story of Mrs. Gordan,” said one “ There's always money spent foolishly which could be better young minister. “She has a masterful, loud-spoken way about spent by the Lord, and it ain't right to rob him of what's her, which made some of us in the church think she ruled the his.”

house. I guess this story shows who is master. She told it to I went on down the frosty lake road to the home of Mrs. me last night after prayer meeting. Silver's neighbor, Mrs. Hardy.

“““ Gordan,” I says to my husband. “ this week you'll have to

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