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To Win the War

The Outlook

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Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company

TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 119 June 5, 1918

No. 6

The University of Chicago

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Important to Subscribers

The President Makes Taxes Attractive.. 211 Men of Draft Age to Fight or Do Real

211 New York's Anti-Loafing Law..

212 The New Battle of the Aisne...

212 Other War Happenings of a Week...... 212 General Wood.....

213 Italy Three Years in War...

213 The Red Cross Drive : The Nation's Response...

214 A Timely Warning:.

214 Lynching....

214 Cartoons of the Week ...

215 The Latest Manifestation of Prussianism 216 The Soldier's Future.

216 The Railways......

217 The Aircraft Investigation...

217 A Garden and a Garden... .

218 Soldiers' Music...

218 Bach at Bethlehem ..

219 Editorial Correspondence Pies and Doughnuts : A New Kind of War

Munitions Furnished by the Salvation

220 Special Correspondence of The Outlook from

Raymond C. Starbard, Adjutant, Salvation

The Farmer Boy A-Soldiering.......... 222
Special Correspondence by Charles Moreau

Music a Necessary Part of the Soldier's

223 By Walter R. Spalding How Australia Answered the Call.. ... 225

By R. Hugh Knyvett, Australian Intelligence and

Scouting Officer
Current Events Illustrated...

227 The Comptroller of the Currency: The Man and the Job..

230 By Theodore H. Price Weekly Outline Study of Current History 232

By J. Madison Gathany, A.M. The New Books.....

232 The Nation's Industrial Progress.. 234 Past History Rewritten.

209 Phantoms..

209 By William Hamilton Osborne, of the Vigilantes By the Way...


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(From "Life") The world was to be finished in seven days, and the question arose as to who should have the contract. After some discussion it was agreed to place the order in the hands of two gentlemen, neither of whom had any authority to decide anything. One of these gentlemen, who had some expert knowledge of making worlds, having read several books on the subject and taken a course in college, secured the aerial space for a planet and proceeded with the initial construction. On the morning of the second day, however, he was rudely interrupted by a message from the second gentleman, who stated that he had just been informed of a number of improvements that must be incorporated into the original scheme. On the morning of the third day these were countermanded and a complete new set substituted. This required making a fresh start. At the end of three months, the world not having yet been begun, some one suggested that possibly any world, rather than none at all, would have been better, and telephoned to headquarters. This led to the famous order that any one in the universe who dared to say anything derogatory to the Administration would be considered as giving aid and comfort to the enemy.


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VIGILANTES In Seattle, Washington, during one of the Red Cross Drives, I was one of an audience of three thousand people that crowded a huge motion-picture theater on a Saturday night. There was a special appeal made from the platform for immediate contributions. The result of this appeal was the immediate subscription of thirty thousand dollars—or ten dollars a head, for every man, woman, and child in the audi

As that large audience surged out into the brilliantly lighted street, I noted that the street was occupied by a goodly company of soldiers, drawn up at attention, saluting the audience as it went by. There must have been five hundred of them. I stepped to the curbstone and approached the commanding officer, who saluted as I


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Who,” I queried, “are these menwhat are they doing here?”

The officer smiled—his eyes flashed. “ These,” he said, “ are the five hundred members of the National Army whose lives are going to be saved because your audience this evening contributed thirty thousand dollars to the Red Cross Fund.”

He finished speaking to me. He turned and gave an order. On the instant the five hundred soldiers vanished into thin air. And then I realized that they weren't there -they hadn't been there at all, save in my imagination. They were phantoms.

But—were they phantoms? Do they exist? They were not in that street ranged up before that theater—are they anywhere? They are not phantoms—they do existand they are somewhere to-day, either in the trenches or about to enter them. They may be in France-they may be here, but they are real, those five hundred men whose lives will be saved by that audience who subscribed that evening their average of ten dollars apiece. How many men there whose lives will not be saved because there's nobody to put up the cash? Are they phantoms, too? Let us hope they are.


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The Outlook



JUNE 5, 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries


supply, the President made it plain that the people of the counIn an eloquent and persuasive address to Congress on try are worthy of Congress's trust. “Politics is adjourned," Monday of last week President Wilson laid before Congress and

said the President. The elections will go to those who think the people the task that lies ahead of them in providing money

least of it; to those who go to the constituencies without exfor the war. Taxation is an intricate and difficult subject and planation or excuses, with a plain record of duty faithfully and has been made unnecessarily intricate and difficult by the laws disinterestedly performed. which Congress has passed, and it is proof of the earnestness not only united in the resolute purpose to win this war, but are and fighting spirit of the American people that they have paid ready and willing to bear any burden and undergo any sacrifice their taxes cheerfully even while protesting against the com

that it


be necessary for them to bear in order to win it. plexity and inequality of the tax laws. Now the President has

We need not be afraid to tax them, if we lay taxes justly. found it necessary to tell the people that they will have to pay

I have always been proud to be an American, and was never more taxes, and he has done it in a way to evoke a patriotic and

more proud than now, when all that we have said and all that even enthusiastic response. He has placed the payment of taxes we have foreseen about our people is coming true. The great on the high level of service to the country and the cause for days have come when they see at last the high uses for which we are fighting. And he has reconciled Congress to the

which their wealth has been piled up and their mighty power disagreeable duty of laboring over a tax bill in the heat of a accumulated, and counting neither blood nor treasure, now that Washington summer while Congressional elections approach. their final day of opportunity has come, rejoice to spend and to The reason for the President's effectiveness in this speech is be spent through a long night of suffering and terror, in order that by it he has made even clearer

than in his Red Cross speech that they and men everywhere may see the dawn of a day of in New York that he is bent on leading this country to victory, righteousness and justice and peace.” and he expects the country to te powerful and united. Recognizing the weariness that must be consequent upon


MEN OF DRAFT AGE TO FIGHT OR DO REAL WORK almost continuous sessions of Congress since months before we entered the war, and the natural inclination for members of The phrase generally employed to describe the new order Congress to wish to be in their home districts as elections draw of Provost Marshal Crowder is brief and forceful. But " work near, the President told Congress that “we dare not go to the or fight” does not precisely describe the scope of the order. Its elections until we have done our duty to the full,” and that purpose is to secure for the country the services of all men who “the facts are tonic and suffice to freshen the labor."

are of the draft age. They must either enter military or naval There are two duties that the President has laid before Con- service or they must do some form of work which is distinctly gress: one is to prepare the tax for next year early, so that the of value to the country in its war effort. This means that young people may know how much of their earnings of this year they men of the

draft age, but exempt from going to the front because must lay aside for the Government's use; the other is to remedy of physical inability or dependent families, must be employed in the inequalities which mar the present Tax Law.

doing things that are necessary either directly to push the war Warning the country that the four billions now provided for or to provide those useful things which civilians must have. As by taxation will not be enough to meet the increasing cost of the a matter of course, those who

are exempted from fighting be war, and that raising too large a proportion of revenues by loans cause they are already at work in providing what is necessary would cause demoralizing inflation, the President does not for war are not affected by the order. There are many forms of attempt to go into details by telling Congress, for example, employment which are perfectly proper and often commendable, whether it should pass an additional revenue law or should but which are not of economic or war consequence. In these make a new tax law that would take the place of the existing employments it will now be necessary to use men who are not law, but contents himself with pointing out three objects of within the limits of the draft age—that is, between twenty-one taxation-incomes, war profits, and luxuries.

and thirty-one. He was emphatic in stating that the way to deal with profit- Just how far this distinction will be carried is not certain. eers is to take their war prefits by taxation and remain deaf to Probably the rule will become more and more drastic as time the profiteers' lobbyists.

goes on. The new provision becomes effective on July 1. One There is no doubt that the duty of Congress is not to add an effect will undoubtedly be to expand the number of forms of ell to the present tax structure, but to tear the present one work in which women may be properly and efficiently utilized. down and build a new one in its place; and we think this is a In England, as is well known, this has been carried to an astonfair inference from what the President says.

ishing extent. Another effect which will be distinctly beneficial At this time, which the President called “the very peak and and much needed will be to " comb out” idlers and loafers, crisis” of the war, when “hundreds and thousands of our men, and thereby do for the Nation as a whole what is being done carrying our hearts with them and our fortunes, are in the field, by the special laws which have been passed by some Statesand ships are crowding faster and faster to the ports of France of which we speak on the next page. and England with regiment after regiment, thousand after Among the classes of service in which the young man of draft thousand, to join them until the enemy shall be beaten and age will not be allowed to work are those of clerks, store salesbrought to reckoning with mankind,” at this time especially men, domestic servants, waiters, elevator men, bartenders, footwhen the expected drive on the western front has begun, the men, butlers, kitchen helpers. Actors are specifically exempted; President found a fitting occasion to impress it upon Congress baseball, the next most popular recreation to the theater, is not. that there must be “ no pause or intermission,” and that our Another class subject to this order is rightly and positively noted ship programme, our munition programme, our programme for as that of idlers. This includes also gamblers of all kinds, making millions of men ready, are “mere plans upon paper

mere plans upon paper employees of bucket shops and race-tracks, fortune-tellers, and unless there is to be an unquestionable supply of money. palmists. We do not imagine that the Government will find

In calling Congress to the arduous task of providing this very many thousand young men in this class; but, however many of them there may be, and however difficult it may be to lay THE NEW BATTLE OF THE AISNE hands on them, every one heartily hopes that they will quickly

At last, on May 27, the Germans have attacked anew and be in khaki or in overalls.

in a new quarter-on the Aisne front. The country will accept the new plan, although with perhaps The offensive was, in fact, a double one, for simultanea little grumbling because of the undoubted inconvenience ously German forces struck at a vital spot in the defensive involved. The universal purpose of the American people is to line in Flanders, on the line between Locre and Ypres, and win the war. There has been almost a total disappearance of

near to the former place. If the enemy penetrates this line, a the element of objectors and lukewarm upholders of the flag. comparatively open road lies before him toward the sea. But a One evidence of the change for the better in this respect is the cheerfulness with which inconveniences and minor deprivations back and smashed by the Allies that it is quite likely that

serious attack here by the Germans on April 29 was so battered are now accepted.

the attack in this section on May 27 was more or less of a cover,

and that the attack in the south was the main object. At all NEW YORK'S ANTI-LOAFING LAW

events, up to May 28 the attack in Flanders has been of no

avail. Besides having to be prepared to adapt himself to Gen- The battle of the Aisne is still going on as we write. Field eral Crowder's order after July 1, the idler in New York State Marshal Haig reports on May 28 that the enemy's attack had after June 1 will have to beware of the police and other carried him across the Aisne to the west of the British sector, peace officers. This is the result of a statute which illustrates the

and that the enemy was developing attacks of great strength on fact that legislation in one State not infrequently affects a neigh- the whole Aisne front. General Foch is said to be throwing in boring State. This has just been shown by the experience of

his reserves at the juncture of the British and French forces. the New York City Mission Society. It has a Bowery mission. Apparently the German attack is along a front of about twenty ary whose prime duty it is to minister to the lodging-house miles, and the farthest depth of advance at this writing has population. In the Bowery, between Cooper Union and Chatham been five or six miles. The Germans claim to have occupied Square, the lodging-houses have about seven thousand beds for the entire Chemin-des-Dames, the famous highway which runs men. In the winter those beds are always full. Last winter,

east and west parallel to and just north of the Aisne River. however, the Bowery missionary reported repeatedly that the Over this “ Ladies' Road ” the French and Germans have fought lodging-houses were half empty. This was doubtless owing to desperately more than once in the past. the fact that in this present period any capable man can find

It is too early to predict results or to analyze motives as to work. About six weeks ago, however, the Bowery missionary

this new offensive. The number of divisions engaged and the reported that the lodging-houses were “crammed full. ” When

length of the front do not favor the theory, still held by some, asked why, he replied: "Jersey legislation.” This meant that that the entire attack is a blind to a new offensive in Picardy or under the new anti-loafing and compulsory labor law of that Flanders. On the other hand, it would be hard to co-ordinate State a large part of the New Jersey crowd that did not relish

German gains made in the Aisne sector with their former gains steady work had emigrated to New York City, where it might farther north. Indeed, it may be argued that the present pick up odd jobs and rest betweentimes.

offensive indicates that the Germans have given up for the The number of loafers, not only in New York City, but also present the project of pushing through to the coast, and that throughout New York State, since the New Jersey anti-loafing they are trying to impress the world and divert attention from law went into effect has perceptibly increased. It will be, a substantial failure in the north by attacking fiercely in a therefore, a satisfaction to citizens of the Empire State to realize region where, to use a commercial expression, “ they can make that now they have an anti-loafing law of their own. Governor the best show with the least cost. Whitman's signing of the necessary legislation was the prompter It may be that the German people at home will take the because, as he says: “I am informed that if this bill is not

gains here as promise of a new march on Paris, which is only signed, many undesirable persons will continue to come to this fifty-five miles from Soissons, not far south of the Aisne. But State from New Jersey in order to escape the operation of the others will remember that Germany has been south of the Aisne law in that State."

before-yes, and south of the Marne also-and that at the same The New York State Act is modeled in many of its features

time she was then in possession of Amiens. The Allies drove on the laws now in effect in other States. Like those in Mary- her back then, and believe that they may and will drive her land and New Jersey, it applies to men between the ages of back again. Every one knows that the defection of Russia eighteen and fifty-the West Virginia law is more drastic, the

meant an expansion of Germany's man power and gun power ages being from sixteen to sixty. By the provisions of the New on the west this summer. The Allies have for the present the York State Act, every man in New York State (and, according hard and trying part of holding firm, fighting for every inch of to the Act, any male person found in the State is a resident) ground, and biding their time until the added weight of Amerbetween the age limits mentioned must be able to prove that he ica's “ force to the utmost,” to use President Wilson's words, is engaged in some lawful, useful, and recognized occupation. has become a mighty factor. The only exempt classes are students preparing themselves for a definite occupation and workmen out of employment because

OTHER WAR HAPPENINGS OF A WEEK of temporary labor differences. But no person is excused from accepting employment on the ground that the compensation is Apart from the new German attacks, the war news inadequate if the wage is that usually paid in the locality for the week contained the record of incidents both encouraging that class of work. Persons of wealth are not excused from and sorrowful. Thus, the torpedoing by submarine of the work, and the State Industrial Commission may assign them British transport Moldavia in the southern part of the English to tasks if they plead ample income as a reason for non-employ- Channel involved a total loss of fifty-five American soldiers, ment.

two of whom were non-commissioned officers. The Moldavia In particular, loitering in streets, saloons, depots, hotels, was carrying about five hundred soldiers, but whether she was pool-rooms, and other places of congregation will be considered on her way from England to France, as was at first said, or prima facie evidence of violation of the law. Penalties are a was proceeding in another direction, has not been officially fine of $100 or three months in jail, or both.

told. The American soldiers who were lost were in the depths The Act should immediately interest those who make their of the ship near the part pierced by the torpedo. They had living by gambling or by selling drugs, as well as the so-called no possibility of escape. As the attack took place in the “ lounge lizards,” station loiterers, confidence men, “ cadets,” night, it appears that they should not have been in this part of corner gangsters, and hotel rounders.

the ship, and should not have been allowed to be there, because New York State and New York City are liable to become one of the primary rules of transporting troops is that soldiers uncomfortable instead of comfortable places of residence for must be on deck or as near to it as it is possible to be when the these persons.

There is no other State or city in the whole ship is passing through submarine-infested waters. country, we believe, where the operation of an anti-loafing and There have been extremely favorable reports of the progress compulsory labor law will be morr welcome.

made by the Allies in combating the submarine menace. There

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