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MUSIC A NECESSARY PART OF THE SOLDIER'S
BY WALTER R. SPALDING
THE United States of America is at war, and upon the along other lines of thought and action, and that at bottom
victorious outcome of this war depend the preservation there was no reason for believing that the military experience
and perpetuation of our National ideals, and even of life of Americans would be different from that of all other human itself. This whole matter of war-making is so novel and the beings. For instance, during the last quarter of a century the transforming of a peace-loving and peace-abiding people into general feeling has spread abroad that America was quite a fighters demands such a prodigious change in sentiment and musical Nation; and it is true that in the large cities of the daily life that much confusion
of thought on the part of our Eastern seaboard and quite far into the Middle West there is a citizens was to be expected. The object of this article is to good deal of listening to music in the form of opera and conexplain the fundamental relationship which exists between the certs, given, for the most part, by imported musicians ; but waging of war and the essence of music, and to set before the when we reach the great heart of the country, we find that the people of the country the actual methods by which this com- natural instincts of the people are almost entirely starved, or, at bination is actually worked out in the various training camps any rate, very poorly nourished. For a musical nation is not under the direction of a special Committee appointed by the one which merely listens to music made by others, any more than Department of War. The ground, I think, will be cleared for a people is athletic if, instead of exercising themselves, they detailed explanation if at the outset certain undoubted facts are watch others indulge in gymnastics. A musical people is one stated.
which considers music such an indispensable food and tonic for As we live in a modern age, it is natural that an efficient their own spirits and imaginations that they sing and play in fighting American army should be trained through the utilization every activity of daily life just as freely and naturally as they of all the discoveries of modern science, for only in our times have laugh and speak. For many centuries this has been true of all flying-machines, submarines, long-distance telephones, huge field the great European nations—the Italians, French, Scotch, guns, been considered an indispensable part of military equip- Irish, Scandinavians, Russians, and others and the result is the ment. In regard to other matters, however, just as intimately great body of folk-song and folk-dance which is the priceless related to the making of a good soldier, such as discipline, heritage of all these nations. Just why the American has not precision, courage, good physical condition, our age and our yet become a singing animal (as Aristotle said every one was a American soldiers are not different from what men and soldiers social animal) is a difficult matter to explain, although, doubtwere centuries
One of the chief factors for inspiring men less, if sufficient time were taken, reasonable causes might be who are fighting for a high ideal with the acme of fire, courage, suggested; but, at any rate, it is a fact. Surely one of the and devotion has always been music; and in making this asser- most direct products of this war will be the bringing home to tion I am supported by the century-long experience of all the the whole body politic of the value of music; for by means of great military Powers of Europe; in fact, if we begin with the the stress of war, which is bringing the whole country together, legendary Tertæus in Grecian history, and work down through a love of music may be carried into the most remote parts of the Middle Ages to the great armies of modern times, we find that the country. no army bas ever been without the stimulating effect of instru- Good regimental bands have always furnished one of the mental and vocal music, and that all great commanders, such as most sympathetic bonds between the body politic and the GovAlfred the Great, William the Conqueror, Charles the Bold, ernment of any given country, and we earnestly hope that more Napoleon, and others, have utilized this art. For even a hasty and more, both during the war and after it, we shall have in examination will convince us of what a genuine relationship America a number of such bands which shall consider it their exists between the qualifications of a good soldier (the demand pleasure and duty to play at all public and patriotic meetings, for precision, co-operative action, alertness, initiative) and the especially on National holidays, thus impressing upon all citiinherent characteristics of music (rhythm, life, unified action, zens the stimulating effect of martial music. fire, and imagination).
In a number of the camps in the Middle West and in Texas Our Government, among
other means which it has we were told by officers and song leaders that there were drafted adopted for the training of the American soldier, wisely holds men who had come in from remote towns and settlements who that music should be just as much a part of the equipment as had never seen any musical instruments, such as a pianoforte weapons, uniform, and rations. All our soldiers are to be and violin, and who had no idea that men could make pleasing trained to sing, for every one has been endowed to a greater sounds with their vocal organs in connection with the uttering or less degree with a voice, and those with more specific musical of words. Men would often come in who, when they were asked aptitude are to be instructed in playing on brass instruments, to sing, would say, "No, we aren't going to sing. No one can both classes thereby being brought into frequent contact with make us do anything silly like that,” whereupon the song leader the uplifting and refreshing power of music.
would ask them merely to sit down and listen to a group of men The Commission on Training Camp Activities recently sent who were singing some of our National songs, oftentimes accomseveral members of the above Committee to make a tour of panied by a military band. In every case it was noticed that investigation in the training camps, and in this trip some four- after a few moments these same bashsul objectors were singing teen camps were visited and much opportunity secured for their heads off. important inferences as to the outlook upon music by the people It was of great interest to observe the effect of racial tendenin different parts of the country. Every member of the visiting cies in different parts of the country. Many of the Far Western Committee was filled with enthusiasm and patriotic zeal by see- States, as is well known, were largely settled by Germans, ing the spirit and the devoted work of our young fighting men, Scandinavians, Poles, and Hungarians, and in the home environand the generals and all the officers are doing superb work to ment of all these races music had always been an indispensable see that America is so represented just as soon as possible as to element. When offshoots of these racial stocks came to this new be a worthy ally by the side of France, Great Britain, and Italy. vast country, and had to spend their best energies in the grim
When we came to investigate thoroughly into the condition struggle for existence and getting ahead, it seems as if their of music, we found that we had to face facts rather than theo- inborn love for music became incrusted, or even sometimes ries; but we all felt that if things in many ways were not as partially crushed out; but it is evident that it is still there and we would have them it was simply because, for special reasons only needs the impetus of some great emergency to bring it out. which in time can be eliminated, the people had been started The American people, in fact, west of the Mississippi, although
as a whole they have had nowhere near the advantages of the W. Kirkpatrick Brice, Chairman ; Lee F. Hanmer (ex officio), Mrs. George Eastern sections of the country in listening to music and in Barrell, John Alden Carpenter, M. Morgenthau, Jr., Treasurer, Walter R. Spalding, Owen Wister, Frederick S. Converse, Wallace Goodrich.
musical training, are far more hungry for music, and, as soon as
they have any opportunity for musical expression, take advan Every one must have read of the stirring effect upon the tage of it in a more whole-hearted, spontaneous fashion. At Italian soldiers during last autumn's campaign when a large the great training camp at Fort Worth, Texas, where the military band stationed on a high peak, under the leadership of regiments from Wisconsin and Michigan were in training, we our New York conductor Toscanini, played fiery marches while heard a remarkable performance by ten regimental bands of the men were charging in the valley below. forty players in each band, composed largely of Americans of General Pershing has sent back from France an official recomGerman and Scandinavian blood, under the leadership of a very mendation that our regimental bands should be substantially talented German-American, Steinmetz. They played with a enlarged and trained to the highest point of efficiency, for, in fervor and musical skill which should be an inspiration and his opinion, nothing contributes more to the fighting morale of model to every other section of the country.
the men. Our Committee has in its possession a similar recomOne of the most difficult problems to adjust is the balance mendation from many of the officers of the Army. between music in its recreational aspects and music as a means Instances of the tonic value of music might be multiplied intowards increasing military efficiency-and hence to be treated definitely. We are convinced that a victorious American army as a regular part of the military schedule. Our Committee must have its spirit fed with the most inspiring instrumental wishes to make it perfectly clear that, although there is no and vocal music which can be obtained. An interesting matter objection to the soldiers, when they are out of hours, having all for speculation, and one which we are earnestly considering, is the music they like and of whatever kind they like, yet when they how much genuine American material is available for this purare being trained to fight the music should be of a dignified and pose, and how many original songs this crisis in our National exalted tone, worthy of being used by those who are offering life is likely to produce. Compositions (both words and music) their lives in support of a high ideal or are taking the lives of for our soldiers would comprise not only those of definitely others who are opposing that ideal ; for it is true that a great martial character, but also those of a quiet sentiment--for exmany well-meaning people in our country have as yet no con ample, those having for their main theme the influence of family ception of music beyond its recreational use, and it is also true and home and country. The stress and strain of our Civil War that through various agencies in the training camps, such as the brought forth “ The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” “John Y. M. C. X. (which is worthy of great credit in its own partic- Brown's Body,” and “ Dixie;" but when we add to these some ular field), the whole subject of music at first was taken up of our beautiful and touching Southern plantation songs, such as from the recreational side. However we may theorize as to the "“ 'Way Down upon the Suwanee River," "Old Black Joe," and justification of war, it is a serious and dignified operation, and so on, we are about at the end of purely American material. our American soldiers should be taught to sing and play the We are all justly proud of “ The Star-Spangled Bapner,” as it most stirring martial and patriotic tunes of America and of all is our own, but even from the standpoint of practical effectivethe Allied nations. Our universal experience with the soldiers ness it cannot justly be compared with the “ Marseillaise,” with in the training camps was that they welcomed music of this “Men of Harlech," "Scots Wha Hae wi' Wallace Bled," and kind-such tunes, for instance, as “The Battle Hymn of the several of the great martial tunes of the French, the Irish, and Republic," “ The Star-Spangled Banner," "The Marseillaise, the Italians. As we are partners in an actual military alliance “Men of Harlech," " Scots Wha Hae wi' Wallace Bled,” and with several of the great European nations, it would seem just many others. The military authorities all indorse them, and all that we should also employ some of their music, especially as that is needed is a strong public sentiment which realizes that they have been doing the fighting for us now for several years. in this war, the greatest in history, we must utilize music of the This does not mean that original American music will not be most fiery and sublime nature. The great composer Beethoven welcome. The Committee earnestly believes that in time we shall said that the prime function of all music was “ to strike fire become all aglow with patriotic fire, and that this unified spirit from the heart of man ;” and that may well be the creed of will manifest itself in inspiring music. But there is not much every American soldier.
likelihood of music coming out of America which can be comOne of the strongest arguments in favor of the use of music pared with the tunes cited above until we have plunged into in distinction from other recreational activities is that in music the war with the same “do or die ” spirit which has been so the men are actually using their powers and doing something gloriously manifested by our allies. themselves. It was evident in each one of the training camps Just a word in closing as to the specific duties of the Nahow much more eager the men were to sing and play themselves tional Committee on Army and Navy Camp Music. We are than to listen to music made by others. And this general princi- planning to establish a song leader and a band supervisor in ple is true in many other fields; the soldiers prefer to organize each of the training camps and naval stations, and in many their dramatic shows, as a general rule, although, to be sure, of these posts competent men have been at work now for they like to be delighted by good performances given by others. several months. This musical work is a part of the miliThe whole essence of music is that it is a constructive art rather tary schedule and is carried out by orders from headquarters. than one depending upon mere passivity.
The generals and staff officers have been most enthusiastic What we need to win this war is a flaming patriotism and co-operative, and, with very few exceptions, take a great instead of an amiable and acquiescent tendency to academic interest, particularly in their regimental bands, and realize the discussion; and music arouses men to do their utmost, to go bracing effect of singing among the men. An eloquent indorsethrough hell itself, more than any other tonic available. Both ment of the value of music toward increasing military efficiency mythological legends and historical records corroborate this is the following statement from Colonel È. M. Markham, of statement; and when we consider the effect of music upon the the 303d Engineers, Camp Dix, New Jersey. The whole and so-called lower animals, there is no reason why man, the highest chief
purpose of our Committee is to work hand in hand with of all the animals, should be an exception. On a tour of inspection the military authorities and to prove to them that music is we would often pass by a paddock crowded with tired-out horses able to justify the good opinion which they have already formed with heads down and drooping tails ; but let a few buglers pass of it: by, when, presto! the horses would neigh, prance about, and act “The army camps, of all places in the world, are the last as if entirely made over. The newspaper accounts of the war where cheap music should prevail to the practical exclusion of have spoken often of the great inspiration music has given to that of better grade. There should be a sustained effort to the Allied soldiers, both to key them up for a charge and after introduce more thoughtful music, which may well be interwards, often when on retreat, to infuse them with new strength spersed with advantage to all concerned with the less stable sufficient to reach a place of safety. During one of the battles variety. In all ages good music has been depended upon to in France a large body of retreating men were so exhausted quicken valor and invite unity. Uniformly it has been of the that they were on the point of lying down, when one of the com highest service in the creation of a purposeful spirit, and I am manding officers rushed to a near-by village and bought all the quite certain, as I have several times previously declared, that toy instruments, such as mouth organs, available. By means of it can well replace a considerable amount of routine drill. This tunes on these humble instruments the spirit of the men was so is not so revolutionary as it sounds, for once such a spirit has revived that they pulled themselves together and marched ten been instilled the soldier is sufficiently eager to perfect himself miles to a safe line of defense.
in his routine duties. Music has always been a force to quicken
endurance and to unify the mass spirit of men to the highest processes are required, the value of music should be carefully degree.
regarded." Theoretically music is a gratuity, a luxury ; practically it Let us relight the fires of patriotism by means of the glowing has proved itself to be a necessity. The simple truth is that
power of music; in this way we shall not only contribute vitally one of the vital forces of a nation is its music, and that in toward the winning of the war, but make ourselves a stronger the accomplishment of a huge task wherein all its energizing and more unified people.
th nd and
This article by Captain Knyvett was written shortly before his recent death in this country. A review by ex-President Roosevelt of
a group of young men would sion of Belgium by Germany, the Australian Prime start to walk to the coast cities to enlist, gathering fresh bodies
Minister had cabled to the British Prime Minister in every town throngh which they passed, until they would offering all the equipped and trained troops in Australia for arrive in Sydney or Melbourne a company or battalion strong. service ir any part of the world that was desired. This decision The “Kangaroos,” one of these bodies, marched about five had the unanimous support of the whole Australian nation ; not hundred miles ; like distances were covered by the “ Wallabys that we wanted to fight anybody, not even did we desire to help and the “ Wallaroos.” After a while the Government sat up
and England or fight for France. But instinctively we felt that took note, and arranged to give training in discipline to these already France was fighting our battle.
bodies on the march, and they were organized into
distinct units. In isolation in the South Seas we had been used to doing Some of these country districts have been entirely drained of pretty much as we pleased, without much regard to the feelings their young men. Within fifty miles of my home town there of other peoples. In the proud arrogance of our young manhood, is not a man under fifty years of age. I know a family in which we had insulted another nation, the ally of our Empire, and the father and five sons have all been killed. When recruiting refused to allow them to land on our soil because of the color of in Victoria a few weeks ago, a young lad (nineteen years of their skin. We had slapped in the face the subject princes of age) enlisted, and his mother came to me and said: “His father British India, bolting, banging, and barring our door in their and two brothers were killed in Gallipoli, his other brother is faces, for they were not white.
in France ; he is all I have left, but, had I as many more, you We had so acted in supreme confidence, knowing that there could have them all !" There are hundreds of thousands of acres was no possibility of our being able to defend ourselves did these of wheat that can't be harvested—there is no labor; there myriad hosts of colored peoples that lie on our borders plan to hundreds of thousands of sheep that can't be shorn—there are attack us, but we felt that our Empire and the civilized world no men to do it. recognized that all peoples have a right to govern themselves But there is no thought in Australia of easing up in our conas they please, so long as they do not menace any other people. tribution to the cause. No more than in Great Britain are we
When we knew that Germany had invaded Belgium and holding back to allow America to do her bit. There is no quesattacked France, we realized that here was a nation challenging tion that the toll in deaths from the British Empire, even in that cardinal principle of our political faith, and no small nation the last year of war, will be more than from America. had more at stake in this conflict than had we; and it was de The "I Won't Work” organization recently appeared in grading to our manhood to lie snug in the shadow of the great Australia, and, misreading the failure of the referendum for connavy of our motherland. Now was the opportunity to prove scription into showing that the country was willing to slow down ourselves worthy of our blood and fight in our own defense. a little in patriotism, they forced a general election, saying that
There were some other motives that stirred the hearts of the Australia had done enough, as much as any small country could young men of our land when we flocked to the colors more than be expected to do. They won over a majority of the Senate, three years ago. Some of us felt that big things were being done, causing a deadlock between the two houses. However, a coalition and “ Australia ought to be there.” History was being made on was formed between the best of the Labor members and the a large scale, and Australia had not had much chance to be put Liberals, called the National party, and this party appealed to on the map, and it was up to us to put her there. (I have been the people for support, on the grounds that Australia was pledged asked in this country if Australia belonged to the United States, · to send the last man and the last shilling if need be. “Though and also told that I speak pretty good English for an Australian !) Australia had done more than any other country, even then we Others thought that it would be a good chance to see the world should ask ourselves what more can we do, whereas we have not at Government expense, a sort of cheap Cook's tour. We did done as much as Great Britain, or more than Canada.” not expect a long war, and none of us had any bitterness against Women have had suffrage for over twenty years in Australia, the German people or soldiers.
and it was asking a lot to call on these women to return to power Since those days we have paid a very heavy price to “make a Government pledged to send from the country the last man. the world safe for democracy.” For, though we have given only There has not been a day in all these three years that there ten per cent of our population, no country could spare
its have not been hundreds of Australian wives made widows, not young men from the work of production. Never a land so a week in all these three years that there has not been more starved for men, and we have given almost half a million out
of casualties in our papers. Every woman in of a total population of less than five million. We have still our country, if she has not seen the name of her near kin there, our pioneering to do--the back-blocks to open up-and we shall has seen the name of some one she knows, and just now women feel
very bitterly the loss of the sixty thousand who have gone form the majority of the voters. forever. These young men, the future fathers of our race, how Yet the National party won every seat in every State in the shall we replace them ? How we hunger for people, this land of Senate, and two-thirds of the seats in the House of Represenlarger area than the United States, with about the population tatives. No Government has ever had such a majority in our
country before. The Australian armies have been raised entirely by the vol It is very easy to misunderstand the meaning of the failure untary system, and the burden has fallen unequally over the of conscription in Australia. There were several things that excontinent . The country districts have
given more than their plain why thousands voted against it. There was, first of all, the share ; as usual, the majority of slackers are in the large cities. feeling that enough men were volunteering, and it is certain Among the most remarkable sights our island continent has that if we had had conscription from the beginning we could witnessed were what are called the snowball marches.” Away not have sent more men, for recruits have come in as fast as
of New York City!
their equipment was ready for them. Many people also thought mediæval history to parallel; in the evacuation they displayed that the soldiers who had enlisted would not fight alongside the exactly opposite qualities of coolness, co-ordination, silence, conscripts, and this was supported by numbers of letters from obedience, imagination; an example of discipline-a body of the troops in France and Egypt published in the papers. men acting as a unit, in perfect response to a single will—such Among some of the despicable methods adopted by the I. W. WE's as has been excelled by no troops in the world. and anti-conscriptionists was the sending of a photograph of a These opposing qualities were required by the different cir. grave “somewhere in France” to every mother who had a son cumstances of each exploit, and in neither case would anything fighting over there. This was done the night before the voting, else have been successful. and no doubt many mothers hesitated to vote that their remain- The men who took part in that landing have never ceased to ing sons should be forced to go or in favor of forcing the sons. wonder how it was accomplished. Those beaches were mined, of other women to go.
were strewn with barb-wire out into deep water (so thick that it When it became known that the soldiers themselves had could not be cut with pliers, and in the end was towed out to voted in favor of conscription, there was a complete reversal of sea by destroyers), were swept by machine-gun and rifle fire, public opinion, and there is no doubt that if the Government held by an intrenched enemy superior in numbers and armament
. were again to submit the issue it would be carried by a large Two-thirds of the landing force was killed in the boats before majority. This is shown by the fact that candidates who came they touched the beach, but the remaining men not only landed out openly in favor of conscription were successful in electorates in that hail of lead and drove the Turks out of their first where the majority had voted against it in the referendum. intrenchments, but scaled cliffs hundreds of feet high and went
There is no doubt that the real feeling of the Australian people miles inland that first day, digging in three miles inland. is that it would be better that we should perish as a nation During six months that little force of amateur soldiers from than be free at the cost of an Englishman's blood, a French- Australia and New Zealand hung on to that strip of land by the man's blood, or the blood of the sons of any other people but skin of their teeth, always against a force superior in numbers, our own. We are fighting for ourselves, in our own defense, for having more machine guns and artillery, with their base behind every Australian has enough intelligence to know that it is in their backs (the city with the greatest resources of any in the France that Australian home defense is being secured. If the East only a few hours away), always with an army in reserve day.is not ours there, what can protect us out yonder ? If Ger- on the Asiatic shore five times as large as the British Expedimany is not destroyed now, it will only be a matter of time be- tionary Force. Of course the Anzacs (Australian-New Zealand fore we shall be helpless under her iron hand in our own land. Army Corps) did not make up one-half the forces on the penin
This was brought home to me very clearly one day last year sula, and there were no troops superior to the Twenty-ninth in France. I was talking to a little French girl in the town of British Division that landed at Cape Helles, or the French Estaires. She was a typical French miss—dainty, petite, refined, colonial troops that landed on the Asiatic shore. vivacious ; her father was one of the Town Councilors- a girl All the stores for the British troops had to be brought from as well brought up and sheltered as any in this land; she had Egypt; the immediate base at Lemnos would not have supported been educated in a convent, with its atmosphere of gentle- a single ship; the
father and mother to us;" every ness and modesty. Well, I shall never forget how this little girl drop of water, every ounce of food, every cartridge, every changed into a fury before my eyes as some German prisoners splinter of firewood, had to be brought by the navy. were led past. Her eyes blazed, her face was like paper, and it Well, when it was found that the force was not large enough was as if she held a dagger in her hand. She said, “Oh, how I to accomplish the final purpose of holding the narrows to allow could kill them !” Tell me, men of America, what was it that the navy to get through, we had to evacuate immediately, as would so change such a girl-a girl to whom before the war the on those beaches there is no landing for boats during the winter very sight of blood was abhorrent, who would almost faint at gales, and we could not have existed a single day without landing a cut finger--make her want to slay with her own hands? I'll of stores. So the evacuation was set about, and a great game of tell you. That girl had seen things no girl ought to be permitted
bluff it was. to see while there are men on the earth. She turned to me with Right up to the last day troops were landed every day. A tears in her eyes, ashamed that her feelings had betrayed her, thousand, say, would be taken away at night, then five hundred and she said, “ Oh, how good of you Australians to come over would be landed in daylight-it must have looked to the Turk. here to fight for us !" I turned to her and had to say the truth : ish airplanes as if we were making a fresh landing ; stores were “M’selle, we did not come here to fight for you at all; we taken away by night and the empty boxes piled on the beach came to fight for our own women folk, for we know that, though during the day-it looked as if we were laying in for the winter. you live next door to these filthy beasts, we live in the same Of the many clever things invented on the peninsula one of street, and after they had dealt with you it would be our turn the cutest was a device whereby rifles were actually being fired and the turn of our women folk if we did not come and fight in the front-line trenches after every man had left. The Turks the fight of Australia's home defense here on your soil.” And were absolutely bluffed. When the stores left behind were fired it is for American home defense that you are fighting, or you they thought their shells had done it, and completed the work are not wanted in this fight at all. Germany can and would be of destruction by bombarding them very heavily, so that they beaten without America's help, and I say to you, “Hurry, got practically no loot. hurry, lest this war end without you.”
About the last to leave the actual beach at Anzac was a hosThere was a movement recently in Australia to give the men pital unit (medical officers, padre, and orderlies). It was intended who had had over three years' trench service a six months' fur- that they should care for what wounded there were and be taken lough. It was thought that these men—all that were left of the over by the Turks. A lot of sympathy was wasted on them, for original contingent-must be war weary, that their nerves they came off in the last boats, as there were no wounded at all. needed this rest. Men from Great Britain and Canada can get I have heard in this country that if we had held on a few home on leave now and then, but Australia is too far away, and hours longer we could have taken the Turks' position, as they these men have not seen their home folk for over three years. were out of ammunition. What a pity there was not an Amer. Well, they refused to leave. While they are able to fight no one ican there to tell us at the time! Of course it is just German else shall fight for their mothers, sisters, sweethearts, or wives. propaganda ; the absurdity of it can be at once seen when
These boys were the same that were the last to leave the it is remembered that there was a Krupp factory in Constantifront-line trenches at Anzac on the evacuation from Gallipoli
. nople turning out more per day than was being used. They were what were left there of the men who had made that We Australians, in the freest land on earth, reach across glorious landing, and they requested the place of greatest the Great Ocean of Peace (Pacific) to our cousins in this great danger-the post of honor--and it could not be refused them. democracy, clasping your hands in congratulation that at last
This evacuation was in direct contrast to the landing, but not you have joined us in this great fight for world freedom, and less unique in the annals of military history. Whereas in the none will rejoice more than we Australians that when the great landing these Australians displayed impetuosity, dash, berserker day of peace comes America will stand with uplifted head rage, individual initiative, fierce hand-to-hand fighting (every among the free peoples who have sacrificed for liberty, and that man his own general), for which we would have to go to for American liberty American blood has been shed.
(c) VANDER WEYDE, NEW YORK
AN INTERESTING CHARACTER STUDY OF PRESIDENT WILSON This striking portrait bust of the President is the work of Mr. Jo Davidson, of New York City, for whom Mr. Wilson sat at the White House many times for the purpose of making it. The bust was shown at the Exhibition of the Allied Sculptors at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, New York City, during the past winter. Before this Exhibition, a photograph of a less interesting aspect of this bust was printed in The Outlook. The "win the war" expression of the present
reproduction makes its publication at this time of special pertinence