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On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
“ The Administration: An Appraisal " is the title of an article to appear in The Outlook next week. It contains an estimate of the men in leading executive positions—such as Mr. McAdoo, Mr. Daniels, Mr. Baker, Mr. Hoover, Mr. Hurley, Mr. Baruch. It is vigorous, spirited, and pungent in style, and at the same time judicial in tone. It points out defects with great frankness, and it is cordial in its appreciation of merit. It renders a judgment as to the part politics has played in the prosecution of the war. It describes the hampering effect of red tape, and puts the blame squarely where the writer believes it belongs. It gives reasons and relates facts. It is anonymous, because its author has a responsible position under the Government, and therefore cannot write with freedom on the subject he treats unless his name is withheld.
In a succeeding issue, the same author, writing under the same general title, will have an artiele on the question whether a War Cabinet is desirable or possible, concluding with an estimate of the Administration as a whole—its merits, its shortcomings, and what it needs to do to meet the test which it is destined to undergo in the coming critical months.—THE EDITORS.
: THE SUBMARINE CAMPAIGN ON
had a lightless (or near-lightless) night. The possibility of OUR COAST
air raids supported by submarines and of submarines bombardIt is natural that the appearance of German submarines ing coast cities has long been foreseen. along the American coast, and their activity in a radius of less The captain of the four-masted schooner Edward H. Cole than one hundred miles of New York City, should excite and gave a thrilling and intensely interesting account of his experidisturb us perhaps in a degree more than commensurate with ences and those of the crew. They were given twelve and onethe naval importance of the campaign. Up to the time of half minutes to take to the boats, and escaped with practically writing, the destruction caused by these undersea boats has nothing but their clothes, while their ship was destroyed before been that of several schooners, one or two coastwise pas- their eyes by bombs placed within it. Even more exciting was senger steamships, and two or three other small steam vessels. the story told by Captain Holbrook, of the schooner Hattie Ďunn. So far as is positively known, there has been no destruction of He was held 'eight days as a captive in a submarine. He reports life. Sensational as all this undersea activity is, and puzzling as that the submarine was constantly receiving wireless messages, are the problems as to where the submarines came from and what some of them almost certainly from points within the United they may do next, it may be said that all of the injury they have States. Generally speaking, the submarine officers treated their inflicted up to date is much smaller than would have been the captives decently as compared with the brutality so often shown destruction of one large transport loaded with American troops. by German submarine officers abroad. Captain Gilmore, of
No one is a better judge of the situation than Mr. Franklin the Edna, states that the submarine he was in was about 300 D. Roosevelt, the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. He is quoted feet long. If this is so, it is not of the super-submarine type which as saying that he believes that the submarine captains are under report has said Germany had built for use in distant waters; orders to cause terrorism by sinking as many ships as they can nor was the submarine which sank the President Lincoln. without regard to the military damage done. He explains this Whether or not these submarines have a base in Mexico or by saying: “I think the German strategy is obvious. By their whether they have made the voyage directly over from Germany campaign of terrorism they evidently hope to make us withdraw is a matter of conjecture. Naval officers say that it is incredible our ships from European waters, or at least fifty per cent of that a base exists in the United States. Theorists have many them. In this they will be disappointed, for the best protection arguments to adduce for various solutions of the mystery. The we give to our shipping comes from the presence of our war new super-submarines are said to have a cruising radius of eight craft in the war zone.”
thousand miles, which would give them time to come to this So far the submarines on our coast have sunk the captured country, carry on a campaign for some days, and then return ships by bombs or gunfire, not by torpedoes. In all cases, so without taking in new fuel. far as we now know, the crews and passengers of the ships were But even this kind of campaign would seem to be one more for allowed to take to the boats, and it is not known that in any show and effect than for actual injury. The very fact that these case the submarines practiced the atrocity of shelling the boats, submarines were satisfied to pick up small merchant ships rather as undoubtedly other German submarines have done across the than to lie in wait for transports indicates that they know that - sea. Many crews and passengers are, however, still to be heard the system of guarding transports makes any attempt to attack from as we write, and special fear had been felt for the fate of them almost suicidal. With the warning now at hand, the danger the 360 or more persons aboard the Carolina, a passenger liner to transports is even less than before. When we consider the running between Porto Rico and this country. A wireless mes- numbers of transports used on the Atlantic and the hundreds of sage from her on June 2 said that she was being shelled and thousands of men who have been taken over, we may congratuthat passengers and crew had taken to the boats. Passengers late the American and British navies that such splendid protecfrom the Carolina to the number of over 300 were later landed tion has been afforded. or picked up at sea. Certainly three, probably five, submarines The loss of the President Lincoln on her return voyage from have been operating on our coast. On June 4 New York City France was a serious injury to our transportation facilities so far as the loss of one vessel could be, but it is a trifle compared first in one direction and then in another. But if the Allies can with what her loss would have been if she had been torpedoed on check each of these repeated pushes before their line of defense her outward voyage when filled with thousands of soldiers. As is broken through or their armies crushed, it is more than likely it was, none of the returning convalescents were injured, and, that Germany's series of offensives will in time wear down its while twenty-three of the crew and three officers are reported own man power and ability to attack, until the balance as be missing, and it is said that one officer was taken prisoner by. tween the two contending armies is restored to the state where the submarine, the disaster was very much less tragical than it was when the Russian collapse made it possible for Germany was at first feared.
to put practically its sole effort on the western front. Just what the relative losses in these offensives have been is not
known, but the very nature of the German attack involved THE THIRD GERMAN OFFENSIVE
terrible expenditure of man power: The third large effort of the German forces on the western Despite the fact that the new drive has been pushed on in the front to drive back the Allied armies, and thus to form a broad direction of Paris, military critics generally do not think that wedge of conquered territory extending beyond the former Paris is now in danger. They hold that it is more likely that a comparatively straight line in the west, moved rapidly to what fourth German drive on some different section of the line will appears to be its culmination for the present during the week follow than that the German effort will attempt to smash ending June 4. The section of French territory gained, if it through the Allies' forces and move directly on Paris. The were supposed to be turned on the map so as to have its point battle of the Marne in 1914, and later the failure at Verdun, toward the west instead of the south, would present to the eye has probably taught Germany the lesson of the folly of being a figure very much in shape like that of the ground taken by precipitate. the Germans in the Picardy drive, and not very different from The lessons of all the conclusions to be drawn from the new it in dimensions. On the date given the apex of this figure rests drive and the comments which come to America from England on the north side of the M2: ne near Château Thierry, and about and France drive home again and again the pressing demand forty-three miles from Paris. The base, or widest part of the that American soldiers, American airplanes, and American ships section, extends from Noyon southeasterly for about fifty miles must be forthcoming with despatch and in large numbers if to a point north of Rheims. Soissons, of course, is included in victory is to be assured to the cause of the Allies. this section.
Americans are justly proud of the capture and retention of At the end of the week under discussion the reports strongly the town of Cantigny by American soldiers. German papers assert that General Foch has brought enough reserves into admit that our regiment was outnumbered two to one, and the action to check the drive effectually. Attempts of the enemy to capture of two hundred German prisoners was a fine stroke. widen the section toward the west on June 1 met with little The dash and steadiness of our soldiers are highly praised. success, and a specially vicious thrust forward at the very point 'or spearhead of the offensive failed altogether. On June 4 it was announced that French and American forces had driven GENERAL WOOD the Germans back across the Marne with heavy losses at a
The daily newspapers give rather full reports of the parting point where a crossing had been forced. The fighting has been
of Major-General Leonard Wood, U.S.A., from the Eighty-ninth fiercest in the region lying between the Marne to the south and
Division of the National Army in accordance with the orders of the Ourcq, here running parallel to the Marne at a distance of
the War Department. It is not announced where the Eightyabout twelve miles to the north.
ninth Division is now stationed, but before General Wood left Assuming that for the present the position remains practi- he reviewed the division and said good-by to the officers. We cally as it is, while Germany again reconstitutes its forces and
quote as follows the account in the New York “ Times :" gathers munitions for a new drive, the question must be mooted in the councils of the Allies as to what direction that new drive
From headquarters General Wood, accompanied by the officers will take. The question at once brings out the strong point of
who had been of his staff and had been the closest to him during Germany's general offensive plan on the western front. The
the long months when the division was being whipped into shape
at Camp Funston, walked to the parade field to review for the credit for forming the plan is variously assigned to General last time the Eighty-ninth Division. Hutier and General Ludendorff. In brief, it consists in making The review was a splendid spectacle. Every unit of the comthe most of the natural advantage afforded by the fact that the mand was in line. The soldiers never appeared to better advanold battle-line in the west took a sharp bend eastward, turning, tage. Tears were in the eyes of some of the staff officers as the as it were, on Montdidier as a pivot. Thus, if we take, last unit passed and General Wood saluted the colors. say, Mons or Maubeuge as the central point of an imaginary "A magnificent body of men. There are none better in any irregular circle, it will be seen that German forces concen
army in the world,” said General Wood to a staff officer as this
last unit in the long column swung by. trating in that vicinity can be moved with equal facility northwest in the direction of the Flanders drive, westward
General Wood was asked before he returned to Camp Funston
if he would say anything regarding his conference with Presiin the direction of Amiens, or southward in the direction dent Wilson last week, at which conference he was supposed to taken by the third drive. It is equally true that points of have asked the President for field service either in Europe or at attack might be selected with equal advantage between any. home. two of the places named ; thus it is very possible that a move “ All that I feel privileged to say regarding my talk with the might be made from the point of concentration westward below President,” replied the General,“ is that he was very courteous Arras in the direction of Albert. Not only is it extremely diffi- and very considerate.” cult for the Allies to know in advance the direction a new Ger
General Wood absolutely refused to discuss the report that
his detachment from the command of the Eighty-ninth Division man drive will take, but it is quite possible that the German
was made by Secretary Baker at the request of General PerGeneral Staff itself does not know until practically the last
shing. minute—that is, within a very few days of the actual move. The I am leaving for Camp Funston to-morrow,” General Wood choice may then be made in accordance with the latest informa- said, “where I shall give the best that is in me to the training tion obtained as to the disposition of the Allies' forces and the of the boys who will be ordered to that camp. We have got to comparative weakness of the different fronts.
win this war, and I intend to do everything that I can to make To oppose this general plan the Allies must be as ready to that victory, which I am sure is coming, certain and decisive.” defend one sector of the curve as another, and that from the
Asked what he thought of the situation on the French front, outer and longer side of the curve. They cannot decide posi
General Wood replied :
“ I think the line will hold.” tively that the drive is coming at one point rather than another, and until it becomes clear to them what the German plan of General Wood is universally recognized as one of the best attack is they must hold their reserves in readiness to move to judges and critics of military affairs in this country. His attithe endangered section-and this takes time.
tude and opinions as expressed above give encouragement to all Immediate success, so far as occupying new ground is con- Americans in this time of serious war crisis. In last week's cerned, is pretty certain to follow the German plan of striking Outlook we announced that General Wood had been assigned
to administrative work in San Francisco. According to the fabricated ships are of standard construction, the parts being daily press, that order has been modified, and he will again take made at a number of different steel mills and quickly put up his work of training at Camp Funston, where he so well together or “ assembled” at the shipyard. Thus the full manuprepared the Eighty-ninth Division for its great task overseas. facturing capacity of the country is utilized, and it is estimated
that by 1919 our annual output of ships will equal or surpass
the 5,000,000-ton mark. MAGNETO OR BATTERY IGNITION
The launching of the Agawam marks a new era in the shipIn the Special Correspondence printed elsewhere in this building industry. It proves the practicability of building ships issue Mr. Henry J. Haskell says: “It would be well for the wholesale,” according to a standard design—just as a number reader to bear in mind that every statement to be made in this of automobiles are “ assembled,” all of the same model. article will be challenged." Among the statements which Mr. This achievement is the more remarkable when we consider Haskell undoubtedly expects to be challenged is the following: that only nine months ago the site of the present Newark Bay
The men who designed the [Liberty] motor believe battery shipyard was an impassable swamp. Within these few monthsı ignition to be superior. The battery spark is sharper, the mag- the land was filled in and twenty-eight shipways erected, upon neto spark more prolonged and harder on the spark plugs. which an equal number of ships are being constructed.
We know this statement will be challenged because we have The launching of the Agawam was witnessed by several already in our possession a letter from a well-known electrical thousand people, who loudly cheered the first of the fabricated engineer in which he makes exactly the contrary statement. fleet as she slid gracefully into the water. The customary bottle He declares that the Liberty motor overheats because the spark of champagne was broken over her bow by Miss Mary Eurana which ignites it is not of the proper character and is too weak Ward, a niece of Charles M. Schwab, the Director-General of in intensity, and that this is due to battery ignition. The effect the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporaof the weak spark, he explains, is to give a very slow flame
tion. Mr. Schwab, in a brief address, gave high praise to the propagation, which means that the gases under compression executives who had made possible this early launching and to burn very slowly during a very long part of the piston travel, the workmen who had given their best efforts to speed the comthus exposing the cylinder walls and piston-head to the heat of pletion of the work. He announced officially that the Governactual combustion for a much longer period of time than would ment had actually put into commission during the month of a hot magneto spark. We shall not attempt to give the scien- May over 250,000 tons of new ships, which is the equivalent of tific reasons he adduces for the greater strength of the magneto two ships like the Agawam for every working day of the month. spark as compared with the battery spark. We do not want Mr. Schwab also stated that within a short time the rate would to start a debate in our columns over a technical matter which be 500,000 tons a month. most of our readers will not find interesting or even intelli- The name Agawam was selected by Mrs. Woodrow Wilson. gible. We cite this letter simply to show how difficult it is Its literal translation is “ Great Salt Meadows of the Atlantic to give a fair account of our aircraft production programme. Coast”—a happy allusion to the spot where she was built. Ap
There is one other point, however, which does not involve so proximately 27 steel mills, 56 fabricating plants, and 200 foundebatable a question, but which shows the difficulties which our dries, machine, pipe, joinery, and equipment shops are engaged automotive engineers have encountered in producing the in the production of the parts to make up the finished steamLiberty motor.
ship. The Agawam has a dead-weight carrying capacity of about As almost every one who drives an automobile knows, the 5,500 tons. The length of the vessel is 343 feet on deck. The gasoline vapor is compressed in the cylinder, is ignited, and, maintained speed at sea fully loaded will be at least 1092 knots exploding, drives the piston. In the Liberty motor there are per hour on a mean draught of approximately 23 feet. It is twelve of these cylinders, and therefore there must be twelve planned to launch two, and possibly three, ships per week at sparks in succession. These cylinders are set at an angle, six in the Newark yard when in full operation. one row and six in the other. Magneto ignition requires abso- The complete fruition of the plans of the Emergency Fleet lute regularity in the intervals between the sparks. In order to Corporation will usher in a new epoch in the maritime history have absolute regularity these cylinders must be set at an angle of the United States. It will enable this country again to assume of sixty degrees. For reasons which we need not enter into and its proper position as a great maritime power and to take over which are variously reported, it has been decided to set these its share of the carrying trade of the world at the end of the cylinders at a different angle. This means that the cylinders have to be divided into groups with a magneto for each group, and that means extra weight. To avoid this the designers of
CHILD LABOR LAW INVALID the Liberty motor resorted to the battery ignition, which can provide irregular timing of the sparks. It is claimed that this By the closest possible vote-five to four—the United irregular timing causes a harmful vibration in the motor. States Supreme Court has decided that the law passed by ConWhichever system, therefore, is adopted, there will be experts gress forbidding the transportation from one State to another who will point out its disadvantages.
of goods made by child labor (as defined in the law) is not in It is folly for laymen to attempt to sit in judgment on such accord with the Constitution, and therefore cannot be enforced. technical matters. The most that public opinion can do is to The judges who agreed in invalidating the Child Labor Law insist that the experts come to some kind of an agreement, or were Chief Justice White and Justices Day, Van Devanter, else that the authorities decide which expert's advice they will Pitney, and McReynolds. Those who dissented from this opinion follow, and stick to that. One of the dangers of democracy is
and held that the Child Labor Law ought to be regarded as that every man shall tend to regard himself as an expert on all Constitutional were Justices Holmes, Brandeis, Clarke, and matters. What democracy has to learn is to select experts, McKenna. According to the despatches which reach us as we trust them as long as they produce the required results, and go to press, the prevailing opinion, read by Justice Day, holds give these chosen experts a free hand within their field and the that the statute is “an invasion by the Federal power for the reward at least of appreciation.
control of a matter purely local in its character, and over which no authority has been delegated to Congress ;” and argues
if Congress has the power which it assumed to exercise in this THE LAUNCHING OF THE FIRST
statute “all freedom of commerce will be at an end, and the FABRICATED SHIP
power of the States over local matters may be eliminated, and A remarkable achievement in American ship-building was thus our system of government be practically destroyed.” commemorated on Memorial Day by the launching of the Justice Holmes, in the opinion in which all who dissented Agawam, the first of the new fabricated steel ships, at the concurred, declared that “the National welfare is higher than Newark Bay shipyard of the Submarine Boat Corporation. It the rights of any State or States," and pointed out several imis believed that this new type of standardized ship will enable portant cases upholding the principle which the dissenters our ship-builders to overcome speedily the submarine menace regarded as being embodied in the Child Labor Law. by steadily increasing their output. As the name implies, these This decision by the Supreme Court will be regarded by a