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TO MAKE PLAIN WHO'S BOSS
Ireland in the Columbus Evening Dispatch
HE IS NOT THROWING AT US, BUT HE IS HITTING US
THE IRISHMAN HITS HIS BEST FRIEND
Rogers in the New York Herald
SHALL IT RUST IN ITS SCABBARD? "THE ORDERS HAVE BEEN CHANGED AND I AM TO GO
BACK TO FUNSTON”-General Wood, June 2
THE PEOPLE'S RAILWAYS AT LAST
Hermann-Paul in La Victoire (Paris)
DURING THE OFFENSIVE
The prayer before the map of the front THE FRENCH CHILDREN'S HEARTS ARE ALWAYS
WHERE THEIR FATHERS ARE
Holland in John Bull (London)
OBJECTOR AN“ OBJECT” LESSON " This little pig stayed at home”
Holland in Reynolds's Newspaper (London)
Williams in London Opinion
THE IRISH ATTITUDE
THE BULL MAY GET THERE FIRST
From the Lustige Blätter (Berlin)
THE DAUNTLESS THREE " To face the foe our fathers go, Then up spake Gus and Bertie, That Britain may be free!
“Young Britons bold are we, So who will stand at my right hand, And we will stand on either hand, And keep the books with me?" And keep the books with thee !"
The Paris Cat: "What the good French people do for my
comfort is really touching."
A GERMAN VIEW OF THE BOMBING OF PARIS
AN ENGLISH CARTOONIST SATIRIZES THE SLACKERS
great many people in this country as a most serious misfortune. apparently welcome to the investors whose capital has built up Justly or not
, it will have the effect of producing upon the minds the private express companies from very small beginnings into of many who are concerned for the protection of the unprivi- a huge and necessary transportation system. leged the impression that our laws and our Constitution and our courts are somehow hampered by system or a habit of thought or something else that prevents or impedes justice.
MEDALS AND PRIZES IN JOURNALISM It seems to be out of accord with the recent tendencies of the
AND LETTERS decisions of this great Court. In our judgment, this decision On June 3 the awards of the medals and prizes for prewill rank with that rendered in the Knight case and in the eminence in American journalism and letters during 1917 were case of the New York bakeshops as an example of the need announced. These medals and prizes were established by the for judges who know life. An illustration of this is the phrase will of Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York “ World in Mr. Justice Day's opinion that this is “a purely local and founder of the Columbia School of Journalism, of which matter.” In their effect, at least, the conditions of manufacture
Dr. Talcott Williams is Director. caused by child labor are far from local. The State that limits The gold medal for the most disinterested and meritorious itself by restricting child labor finds itself underbid by a State public service rendered by any American newspaper during that does not so limit itself. Therefore the State that exploits 1917 was awarded to the New York “ Times” because it had its children is benefiting at the expense of the States that do published intact the official reports, documents, and speeches of not. The very purpose of the Inter-State Commerce clause in various European statesmen in critical times when it was necesthe Constitution was to make it possible for local matters to be sary to interpret to America the war aims and the spirit of our readjusted in the National interest.
allies and our enemies. In this decision, whether they agree with it or not, Americans A similar medal for the best editorial article written during will, of course, at once acquiesce. It is the law, and to it the the year, the test of excellence being moral purpose, sound reaNation must adjust itself. Let us remember, however, that the soning, clearness of style, and power to influence public opinion Supreme Court has reversed itself on more than one occasion, in the right direction, was awarded to the Louisville “ Courierand it is perfectly conceivable that the time may come when
Journal for its editorials “ Væ Victis” and “ War Has Its another Child Labor Law, framed in somewhat different terms, Compensations.” Our readers will not be surprised to learn that but putting, like this Child Labor Law, all States on an equals these articles were written by the veteran editor of that paper, ity, will receive the sanction of the Supreme Court.
Henry Watterson. One thing is certain—that no single decision of the Supreme The prize of $1,000 for the best review of the public service Court will prevent the movement for industrial freedom which of the American press in 1917 was divided between two has been one of the distinctive characteristics of the past two members of the outgoing class in the School of Journalism, decades in this country.
Miss Minna Lewinson and Henry Beetle Hough.
For the best example of reporter's work during the year, the
test being accuracy, terseness, and the accomplishment of some “THE AMERICAN RAILROAD EXPRESS COMPANY”
public good, the prize of $1,000 went to Harold A. Littledale, The title above is the name which the “ Annalist” (the of the New York “ Evening Post," for the series of articles financial weekly published by the New York “ Times”) has published in that paper exposing the abuses in, and leading to created for the new Government express company. As every- the reform of, the New Jersey State Prison system. We learn body knows, the transportation of packages and merchandise that Mr. Littledale is now fighting in Flanders. He recently for which the ordinary railway freight was too slow has been distinguished himself by sticking to his tank until the Germans conducted for years by private express companies. The four were within forty yards, and then blowing it up. great companies doing this business, which in Europe has been For the best history of the United States published during largely done by parcel post, and directly by the railways, are the year, the prize of $2,000 was awarded to James Ford the American, the Wells Fargo, the Southern, and the Adams Rhodes for his “ History of the Civil War.” Express Companies. The Government has announced that on For the biography which best sets forth patriotic and unand after July 1 these companies will cease to do business as selfish service published during 1917 the prize of $1,000 went to private corporations. The Government has consolidated them William Cabell Bruce, the author of "Benjamin Franklin Selfand will operate them as a branch of the Government railways. Revealed.” Offices, wagons, and other equipment will be used in common For the American novel published during the year which by all the lines, and the present President of the American best depicts the atmosphere of American life the prize of $1,000 Express Company, Mr. George C. Taylor, will be the operating went to Ernest Poole for the novel “ His Family.” President of the new Federal organization.
Similarly, the prize of $1,000 for an original American play The general system of conducting the express business under performed during 1917 in New York City which best reprethe new Government merger will be similar to that of the rail- sents the educational value and power of the stage in raising ways. Mr. Taylor will be Director-General McAdoo's first the standard of good morals, good taste, and good manners executive officer, and under him will be regional operating offi- went to Jesse Lynch Williams, the author of "Why Marry ?” cers. The stockholders of the old companies will still retain their holdings, and it is believed that they will obtain a reasonable return on their investments. If under the new system
A PERSONAL ANNOUNCEMENT profits should increase, there is an arrangement for a division Mr. Theodore H. Price, who for several years has been a of the profits between the Government and the stockholders. valued and regular contributor to The Outlook on financial and It is not yet announced what will be the new relation, if any, of economic matters, has been appointed Actuary of the Federal the American Railroad Express Company to the parcel post Railroad Administration under Secretary McAdoo, Directorsystem.
General of Railroads. As our readers know, Mr. Price is The “ Annalist” recalls that Mr. John Wanamaker, when the founder, editor, and publisher of“ Commerce and Finance," Postmaster-General of the United States, put in epigrammatic a financial and economic weekly of New York City. He has form the conflict between the private express system and the resigned the editorship and turned the paper over to be conparcel post system. “ There are four reasons," said Mr. Wana- ducted by his associate, Mr. Richard Spillane, who has also been maker, why we cannot have a parcel post service in this coun- a contributor to The Outlook. At this writing we are not sure try. They are the Adams, the American, the United States, and whether Mr. Price's Government activities will prevent his conthe Wells Fargo Express Companies.” When the parcel post tinuing his special work for The Outlook, but we hope that we system was put into effect in 1913, it took away what the shall get at least some first-hand comment on railway and affili• Annalist " calls the “unbridled power and amazing pros- ated subjects. The term “ actuary of a railroad” is somewhat perity” of the express companies. The present solution of new. It is defined by Director-General McAdoo as follows: amalgamating all these companies under Government control is His [the Actuary's] duties will be to compile and analyze unmistakably welcome to the shippers of the country, and is statistics and make reports concerning the va us economic
problems connected with the functions of the railroad adminis- sweaters, wristlets and caps, used by our men
over there." tration.
Then there are the seasonal exhibits. In a large case, for Mr. Price's appointment is an indication of the thorough- instance, are the winter birds and migrants found in the neighgoing manner in which the Government is proposing to re- borhood of Detroit. At this case a child (or an adult, for this organize and conduct our railways and transportation during bird display has attracted as many adults as children) may be the war emergency.
come familiar with the different species thereabouts. Another
exhibit is that of fur-bearing animals indigenous to the Detroit A PATRIOTIC USE FOR GUIDE-BOOKS
latitude; this gives an opportunity for getting acquainted with
specimens of which the usual city child knows practically A reader of The Outlook, who in years past has done nothing. Moreover, each month there are on exhibition models much traveling in Europe and accumulated a large number of of the birds found around Detroit during that month. guide-books, those made famous by Baedeker as well as others, What seems to us the most marked feature of the Detroit informs us that it occurred to him that these guide-books might Children's Museum, however, is its Loan Department. This is be useful to our armies on the western front in France. He
a result of an arrangement between the Superintendent of therefore sent them to the War Department, and received the Schools and the Director of the Museum. Suppose the pupils of following letter from an officer of the General Staff :
a certain room in a public school are studying about cotton. In Permit me to thank you for the trouble you have taken for order to show the various stages in transforming cotton bolls the War Department in sending to us guide-books containing into cotton fabric the teacher asks for a “display” from the maps of territory now occupied by the German forces. These
Children's Museum. The various objects are packed, sent out maps will be used to the best possible advantage, and your generous action is highly appreciated.
to the school, and set up in the class-room. If the pupil actually
handles a cotton boll and a bit of cloth, he understands the trans If you should know of the existence of material of a similar nature, I would be glad if you would notify the possessors of our
formation wrought. desire to obtain such data, or if you advise me as to such per
At the end of the period for which the exhibition has been sons we will write to them direct.
requisitioned it is returned and is ready to continue its farther There must be many readers of The Outlook who have such journeyings. In this manner bird and animal life, coal, copper, guide-books, with maps, describing Belgian, German, and French
iron, and other minerals and other objects have been handled, territory. We suggest that they send such guide books to
and especially the customs, costumes, and characteristics of vari Colonel A. B. Coxe, the Office of the Chief of Staff, 1156 Fif
ous countries have been graphically illustrated. teenth Street N. W., Washington, D. C.
This thoroughgoing venture in Detroit should be widely imi
tated. THE WHEAT AND FLOUR SITUATION
REPRISALS In rejoinder to recent press despatches, widely circulated HEN a man attributes an evil motive to another, he throughout the country, which have given the impression that
reveals his own character. His accusation is virtually there is no longer need for rigorous saving of wheat and flour,
a confession. What he says amounts to this: I believe the Food Administration promptly declares that every aspect of you have this unworthy motive because I should have it if I the situation intensifies the need for limitation in consumption. were in your place. If present restriction should be relaxed in the slightest degree, This explains the German atrocities. The Germans believe it asserts, serious want for the people of Europe would result that by shooting unoffending civilians, by bombing hospitals, before the new crop can reach the market.
by bayoneting babies, by violating women, they can frighten On June 1, according to the Food Administration's estimate, into submission the people whom they are trying to conquer ; the total available supply was about 56,000,000 bushels. Of and the reason they believe it is that they think others have the this amount, if we are to maintain the absolutely necessary same traits that they themselves have. They know that they shipments to our Army and to our allies, no less than 30,000,000 themselves could be terrorized into submission, and therefore bushels must be sent abroad before new wheat is available they think others can be. A brute may fight bravely, but when for export.
pushed to extremity shows that at the bottom of his heart he is This would leave about 26,000,000 bushels for domestic con- a coward. sumption during June and July. As our normal consumption We must keep this in mind in determining what to do about for a two months' period is about 80,000,000 bushels, it will be German atrocities. The Germans themselves have given us the readily seen that our consumption should be about a third of key to their character. They have told us by their atrocities the normal.
what measures would be effectual against them.
It is hard for us to believe this of anybody ; but it has
been hard for Americans to believe that anybody was capable THE DETROIT CHILDREN'S MUSEUM
of doing what the Germans have done. We are now beginning More than once The Outlook has called attention to the to believe the incredible. We know, indeed, that the Germans desirability of making museums of art and other museums more have perpetrated crimes so horrible that their description canaccessible to children-indeed, to the desirability of having not be printed, and have perpetrated them openly, defiantly, separate children's museums.
deliberately, boastingly. That these crimes have failed to terOne such was established last year in Detroit. As is well rorize such people as the English and the French, that such known, the Detroit Museum of Art is a foremost institution of crimes will fail to terrorize such people as the Americans, makes its kind. Up to last December, however, pupils of the public it hard for us to believe that there are people who could be schools had enjoyed little acquaintance with it. Since then, frightened and intimidated; but by perpetrating these acts the however, circumstances have changed. In its basement a Chil- Germans have told the world plainly that they themselves could dren's Museum was established and has had success enough to be intimidated. And, hard as it is, we must again come to believe call for additional quarters.
the incredible. Here are installed exhibits of especial appeal to children- If the Germans cannot be made to stop their cruelty
any an Eskimo group, for example, similar to the one executed other way—and so far they have not been stopped—they must by Mr. Dwight Franklin at the Brooklyn Museum, to which be frightened into stopping it. This is the justification for The Outlook recently referred, showing in miniature the reprisals. problems of transportation in the North, together with a view That we shrink naturally from undertaking acts of reprisal of costumes, customs, and native implements. Then there are is no adequate reason for failing to undertake them. We shrank the exhibits of the materials used in various manufactures,
from going to war; but that was a very poor reason for our spinning and weaving, for instance; there are jennies for spin- delay in going to war. Men shrink from exposing themselves to ning cotton, wool, silk, showing the methods from those used by shrapnel and high explosives. Men shrink from the kind of life our grandmothers in making cloth to those of our own time. that the soldiers must lead in the trenches. The very fact, howAs a reminder of present necessity there are also the socks and ever, that men shrink from doing these things makes it all the
more honorable for them to do them, providing the acts them- measure of retorsion would be to make sure that no German selves are justifiable.
submarine officer or seaman found and seized should ever be Are reprisals justifiable ?
heard of again. The mystery of the disappearance of German The better word for the sort of act popularly called reprisal submarines and their crews has been reported to cause among is retorsion. This is defined by Westlake as follows: "Retorsion German sailors a dread of the submarine service. in war is the action of a belligerent against whom a law has Fourth, within such limitations as we have indicated, the par. been broken, and who. retorts by breaking the same or some ticular measures of retorsion should be decided upon, not by other law in order to compensate himself for the damage which public opinion, but by experts who can weigh their relative he has suffered, and to deter his enemy from continuing or merits as effectual means of prevention. repeating the offense." Professor Westlake points out that there is an analogy in national law in the principle that if one party to a contract violates it the other party is released.
PROFITS AND PROFITEERS The reason why retorsion in war is sometimes necessary is very simple. Germany, for example, has broken the laws of Profiteer is a derogatory term applied to one who successfully nations in bombing undefended English towns. How can she attempts to take advantage of his country's necessity to make be stopped ? England cannot stop her by making war on her, money for himself. It is right and just that as thus understood because England is already at war with her. She might try to it should be a term of reproach. The man who is a profiteer stop her by persuading a neutral to intercede or to threaten must be in these days either grossly ignorant or scoundrelly. Germany with war if she does not stop breaking international By this time there can remain only a very small number of law. For two years and a half America, while a neutral, watched people who are ignorant of the acute necessity under which this Germany breaking international law right and left, and, though country is laboring; and there are never many scoundrels. The we finally protested in cases where our own interests were in- profiteers, therefore, must constitute an extremely small, an volved, we failed to take any real measures to restrain Germany almost negligible, minority of the people. until we entered the war ourselves, avowedly for what Germany There is, however, a considerable and far from negligible had done, not to England, but to us. Now if Germany drops number of people who are making profits as a consequence of bombs on the civilian population of New York we cannot expect the war. To call most of these people profiteers' is a demoralHolland or Switzerland or Spain to do what we failed to do izing misuse of language. They are making profits because under similar circumstances. There is only one alternative left. they are producing things or rendering service of special value The offended nation must take measures to make Germany at this time, and they are receiving the monetary returns that realize that her violation of the law of nations will bring evil are inevitable at a time when such goods and such service are consequences to herself, and that means retorsion. Unless in demand. checked by retorsion Germany can continue her atrocities with Let us suppose a case in point. A is the owner of a mine impunity.
from which coal can be obtained at low cost. There is a great It is generally unavoidable that in retorsion people are made demand for coal. For the purposes of manufacturing munitions to suffer who had no direct part in perpetrating the original more coal is needed than the specially productive mines can offense. Professor Westlake, however, points out that the jus supply. The price of coal in the market must be increased suftification for this is that “ for an individual to suffer by retor- ficiently to pay the cost of producing coal from mines where the sion for the offense of his government implies that for the pur- cost of production is high. A price which will stimulate coal poses of war he is held to be identified with his state.” In the production from unproductive mines will give to A large profits. case of retorsion upon Germany this is doubly justified, because There is no doubt in the mind of every one who knows him it is one of the cardinal doctrines of Germany that every Ger- that A is patriotic. He, in fact, offers his services to the Govman subject is merged in the Empire. Germany cannot hold ernment at a dollar a year and works himself into a wreck for this doctrine for her own benefit and escape having that doc- his country's sake; but his profits from his coal mine keep trine applied to her for the purpose of holding her accountable. coming to him just the same. It is cruelly unfair to 'call A a
We shall not attempt to specify what acts of retorsion should profiteer. be undertaken to check the atrocities of the Hun; but we Suppose, instead of a coal mine, it is a coinmercial or manuventure to indicate certain principles that should govern any facturing business that A owns. It is highly productive, not retorsion undertaken by America.
because of natural advantages, but because of years of highly First, no act of retorsion should or will be sanctioned by skilled management on A's part in the past. If there is a great America which would make the agent of it a personal criminal demand for A's product, the price must be enough to make it or would violate the absolute prohibitions which must be ob possible for B and C and D, who are by no means skilled served at all costs. What the Germans in Belgium and France managers, to produce the goods. It is impossible under such and Poland have done to women, for example, not out of pas- circumstances for A not to profit. Yet it would be cruel and sion, but as a measure of frightfulness, demands the sternest stupid to call A a profiteer. retorsion, but by measures which will leave such horrors as one Yet A ought to be taxed heavily, because it is unwholesome of the Hun's distinctions.
for individuals to reap large profits through conditions created Second, the sole reason why retorsion is ever justifiable is by war, and, more particularly, because the simplest and the that it is effective. Retorsion for vengeance, for the satisfaction justest way by which revenue for the purposes of the war can of one's own vindictiveness, as a vent for even just and noble be raised is by taking the surplus from the very industries hatred of foul deeds, is of no value. Indeed, it is a detriment to which war stimulates. those who undertake it, because it diverts energy which ought In framing a war revenue bill the object should not be the to be directed to effectual ends. Retorsion should be confined punishment of profiteers; much less should it be the punishto acts that will prevent or discourage the enemy from perpe- ment of those who, without being profiteers, have by fortune or trating his barbarity. The use of men and material for acts of skill the goods
skill the goods or the service that commands high returns. The retorsion when such men and material could be more effectually object of a war revenue bill should be to lay the burden of used for the prosecution of military measures is wasteful. financing the war chiefly upon those industries which the war
Third, whenever possible, retorsion should be brought home itself has enabled to bear those burdens. To put it tersely, it to the perpetrators of the outrages which have been committed, should be to make the war as far as possible pay for itself. or to those who are in that class of service identified with the War is productive as well as destructive. It drives men into outrages in question. Prisoners of war, for example, are ordi- efficiency. It should be required to pay for what it destroys out narily entitled to their lives upon surrender ; but the crews and of what it makes. A war revenue bill drafted on this princicommanders of submarines have almost uniformly played the ple will not try to look into the motives of men, but will, whatpart of pirates and have forfeited their right to be regarded ever their motive, approximately equalize the returns from war when captured as honorable prisoners of war. A justifiable business. A war revenue bill thus drafted will very largely
obviate the necessity for fixing prices, for it will allow suffi1“ The Collected Papers of John Westlake on Public International Law,” edited by L. Oppenheim, Cambridge, England, at the University Press, 1914, p. 259. ciently high prices to enable industry to produce what is