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needed and at the same time make the raising of prices too the other house had come to seek his fortune. Her thoughts, high unprofitable.
when they went back, went back to bondage and oppression ; The character and form of a tax bill will be largely deter- his thoughts, when they went back, went back to an imaginary mined by the spirit in which it is drawn. It is the business blessedness from which only the lack of a few dollars was of the leaders in Congress to see that the spirit in which excluding him. they draw up the forthcoming Revenue Bill, which will sup- And the war, mused the Happy Eremite, had like a bolt from ply a large part of the money for our second year of the war, heaven split open and revealed the heart of each. To one it is the spirit, not of punishment, but of justice and good sense. brought only misery and resentment and bitterness, for his eyes
had been fixed so steadfastly on the treasures of the old hcine
that he had never thought to seek after the peculiar treasures A KEEPER OF THE LIGHT
of the new. But to the other it brought exaltation and the
passionate longing to give. The Happy Eremite read the letter and read it again, stirred “Of such as you, dear lady,” murmured the Happy Eremite, by its quiet acceptance of responsibility.
“ the foundations of America are made. And the blood in the “We are particularly fortunate, we think,” the lettt. ran,“ to veins is neither here nor there. The vision is all.” have all the members of our family united in being loyal Americans. Alfred expects to go to France shortly as a surgeon, Helen left with a hospital unit last week, and Hans is sending
HELP FOR RUSSIA all superfluities to me from Camp McClellan, which indicates the early departure of his regiment. Harry belongs to the Pub- Should we help Russia? Can we help Russia ? In what way lic Service Reserve and has also volunteered for five other posi- may we help Russia ? These questions continue to grow in tions, so you see we are right in it. I am doing all my own importance. The President, in his recent speech in New York, work and practically earning the money for Liberty Bonds, expressed his belief that we should help Russia and avowed his Red Cross, etc. Knitting fills up spare moments.”
intention to carry out that purpose. He did not at that time He folded the letter, feeling huge respect for the woman who intimate what course was the right one to pursue ; but there had written it.
have been indications that the Administration is weighing the For she was what is known as a German-American.
question carefully and intimations that it is inclined to waive its There could be no mistake about the classification. Her father former attitude of opposition to any course of action in Siberia and mother had been married in a little Saxon town at a time involving Japan so far as that feeling might interfere with the when all Saxon towns, small and great, were slumbering in the adoption by the United States of practical measures of relief. drowsy dusk of political reaction in the middle forties; she Sympathy for Russia's dreadful fate and hope and faith in a herself had been born there, coming to America and to Grand future Russia which shall be democratic in the true sense are Street-quite gorgeous in those days—to live in a little Ger- universal in America. Assuredly, in the forward march of many created by her father's vigorous “ Hier wird deutsch civilization Russia is bound in time to become a strong democgesprochen.” She had run as a child and as a girl with German racy. The Russian people in large numbers, probably in an boys and girls; she had married a Saxon more completely Ger- actual majority, know that the rule of the Bolsheviki is not an man even than herself; she had belonged to German singing extension of democracy, but a class absolutism which is at the clubs and German sewing societies ; her children had grown up, same time weak and cruel. as it seemed, in a German world.
But it is not enough to hope and believe in the future. What And now here she was, moving toward seventy, giving the material aid can we give Russia now? The first reply is that work of her hands, the flesh of her flesh, and the blood of her the way to help Russia is to beat Germany. Today Russia is blood for the downfall of a German conqueror.
under German bonds. Vast and valuable parts of Russia are For it happened that her father had been one of those in the under actual German control and subject to German demands. little Saxon town whom the flame of democracy had kindled. These divisions, such as the Ukraine and Finland, are even He had been a Forty-eighter. He had seen a great light, and she more vassals of Germany to-day than are Austria and Turkey. had kept it burning.
What Germany wills in these countries must be done. The rest The Happy Eremite remembered the cheerful friendliness of of western Russia is nominally under Bolshevik rule. Practi. her home when he had run in and out of it as a boy, the sim- cally, Germany is in a position to enforce any demand she may plicity of it, the democracy of it; with all the German customs make. It would be exceedingly difficult for the United States and the German speech, the plain Americanism of it; the to send soldiers, munitions, provisions, or money to Russia by ignoring of caste, the emphasis on simple human worth.
any avenue of approach through Russia's northern or western And then he remembered another house where counts and or southern borders. These avenues are closed and marked barons had come to eat and drink and tell extraordinarily inter- Verbcten." esting tales of travel here and adventure there. The master of The only other way of approach is from the east. Japan must this other house had been a stalwart part of the later outpour- inevitably take a large part in any such action. Japan has the ing from Germany that followed hard times in the early men, the ships, and the financial means, and Japan is near by. eighties. No tyrant's lifted gun butt håd driven him forth. He But Japan does not desire to act alone. She has said officially had come, a half-unwilling seeker of fortune in alien lands, daz- that she would act only with the consent and aid of her allies. zled by the splendor of the New World, yet always conscious The one course open to aid Russia and balk Germany is for the of the glorious, the tender, the romantic memories of the Old. Allies to combine whole-heartedly in such a movement. It is
To the Forty-eighter America had been the Promised Land quite possible for us to send a small army to the Siberian coast where the milk and honey of liberty were not wanting ; to the of the Pacific from our western coast. To this might be added other it had always been half a place of exile, to be left behind British forces (a small British force is already in Vladivostok), again on some not impossible golden day.
possibly also some French and Italian forces. The combined The Happy Eremite had loved this other house also. He had army might be increased by a force not inconsiderable in numliked the counts and barons with their brilliant talk, though he ber by gathering together from the East the Russians hunted had wondered a little why, when the master of the house grew out of their own country by the Bolsheviki, while in America prosperous, he should spend his summers always at German itself there are thousands of Poles, Russians, and other Slavs watering-places to revel in German beauty with German gen- who might be recruited in a separate body. Thus a joint expeerals and German Geheimräte.
ditionary army might be formed in which the Japanese soldiers The daughter of the Forty-eighter never thought of spending would be in the majority, but which would have for its purher summers in Germany. She just went to the seashore or the pose the protection of Russia, the encouragement of those hunmountains like an ordinary citizen, rocked on hotel piazzas with dreds of thousands of Russians in the eastern part of the Empire her kind, and went driving in four-seated mountain wagons on who are bitterly opposed to Bolshevist rule, and, as a secondary dusty roads to get the view through the Kaaterskill Clove. motive, the annoyance of Germany in the rear of its present
Her father and mother had come for liberty. The master of military activities. This army might before long become the
nucleus of a great revivified Russian army. This plan is be This is true whether we regard the leaders of the Bolsheviki lieved by many students of the situation to be sound in principle as conscious agents of the German autocracy or not. There is and practical in detail. It cannot be carried out without the evidence that some of them have received pay from the Imperial approval and active co-operation of the United States. If there German Government. For example, there was published in the is any better plan for getting material and military aid to “ Petit Parisien ” last February the following document. InasRussia, it remains to be put forward.
much as that journal is the organ of M. Pichon, the Foreign The interviews.lately obtained by Mr. Gregory Mason, staff Minister of France, the document may be accepted as authentic: correspondent of The Outlook, with Count Terauchi, the Prime
Order of March 2, 1917.
The Imperial Bank to all representatives of German banks for Japan (the latter appears in this issue of The Outlook),
By the present we inform you that demands for money for
pacifist propaganda in Russia are about to be made from that
country via Finland. Their demands will be made by the folthe Bolsheviki menace even our own nation, ... Japan is eager lowing persons : Lenin, Zinovioff, Kamenoff, Trotsky, Sumento lend strong support to a buffer Russian state between her son, Koslovsky, Kolontai, Sivers, Mereain, whose accounts have self and Germany." Count Terauchi, in the interview with Mr. been opened by our Order No. 2754, in the agencies of the priMason, declared that “ Japan's relations with the Entente vate German banking establishments in Sweden, Norway, and Allies will continue unaltered after the present war." He also
Switzerland. declared that in any movement in Siberia Japan would want
All these demands must be confirmed by one of the two sig. co-operative action. Since these interviews were had, and,
natures : Dirschau or Wolkenburg. At sight of these authorized indeed, only a few days ago, despatches to London papers quote
signatures the demands of the above-mentioned propagandists in
Russia will be considered as regular and immediately executed.
No. 7433, Imperial Bank.
their course, proved themselves the enemies of popular liberty. opinion that such an expedition as we have just described would When, before the French Revolution, the nobles tried to diseventually detract from Germany's strength in the west. Cer perse the States-General, it was not because the members of that tainly this would be the case if, as many hold, the expedition assembly who represented the people were improperly chosen; should occupy the Trans-Baikal and there aid the liberal it was because the nobles feared any representation of the Russians to gather a force to fight any opposition that should people. When, likewise, the Russian Soviets threw the first and confront them either from the Bolsheviki or from Germany. only legal national Constituent Assembly out of doors, it was Eastern Siberia itself also must be guarded and saved from not because its delegates were not fairly elected ; if it had been, the baneful German control which will surely threaten it if the Soviets would have proceeded to institute new elections for measures are not taken in advance.
delegates. It was because the Bolsheviki and their tools had a If there remains yet in this country any feeling that Russia minority of the delegates in the Assembly. The Bolsheviki, in as a nation can be helped by aiding the Bolsheviki, it is a mis short, insisted that, not the majority, but the minority, should taken belief based on a total misconception of the political nature rule. Lenine, Trotsky, and the other prophets of the new phiof Bolshevik rule. Careless thinkers who believe that the cure for losophy hate the bourgeoisie worse than they do the capitalists ; the ills of democracy is more democracy have wrongly regarded they even call a peasant who owns a bit of land a bourgeois. Bolshevism as an extension of democracy. It is just the reverse. Lenine declared, not merely that the proletariat should rule, but The Bolsheviki are not the exponents of a new, peculiarly Rus that no one outside the proletariat should have anything to do sian, type of democracy. They would bring about—and have with the Government or be allowed a seat in the Constituent already brought about-class war and despotism by the prole- Assembly. All this is as far as the North Pole from the South tariat. The rule of the unfit—the domination of all other classes Pole from anything resembling democracy; it is purely and by the class that is least enlightened--is not democracy. It is not simply despotism by a single class. even Socialism. It is class tyranny of the worst conceivable It is to rid Russia of this despotism and to help put her on sort, and so long as it prevails there is no hope for Russia. the road toward democracy that America's help is sorely needed.
NLY a few months ago I saw him-young Peter, the He is in the trenches. And he has not had his boots off, he shipping clerk in our concern, a stalwart lad of twenty writes, sometimes for a whole week; and when he sleeps the
four, eager to get into the great war. He came over to rats race over him. But he is not afraid. He will give the Boche my desk to say good-by to me, no longer in the dirty little a run for his money! He will help to make this world a better apron he wore when he worked out in the shipping-room, but place to live in. He will do his bit for democracy and truth. clean and well set up in his khaki, a lieutenant now in the Oh, so modestly he writes down the words! There is seemingly Army of the United States of America.
no comprehension on his part of the big work he is doing. He How good it was to see him, after his training-camp life, the merely alludes to it because he knows how interested we are in fire of patriotism in his eyes, a flame in his heart, and some him--our Peter. Now and then there is a simple French word. thing undreamed of before in his soul! And to think that our Think of our Peter speaking—and writing-French! Peter, young Peter was going away to fight for us--one of the millions who hardly got through the grammar school, and read only the to serve Freedom! How strange life is, since this boy who had baseball reports, and loved Briggs and Goldberg, and went to known only shipping receipts, tags, figures, and horse-play was the movies with his best girl or his mother of an evening! now going forth with a musket in his hand instead of a pen! I think of modest Peter so often now. And yesterday, when And to France! It seemed incredible. I shall never forget how I went out to my comfortable luncheon, in good company, and proud we were of our Peter as he marched out of the office. the tea dripped into the saucer so that I complained to the head Some of the girls cried as they watched his broad back and his waiter, I suddenly had a vision of him—in No Man's Land, manly, fearless stride. I confess that I choked, and perhaps I with the rats racing over him while he lay worn out after days preferred just then to turn and look out of the window. and nights in the foul trenches. And I was ashamed of myself
, That was only three months ago. And to-day a letter has and wondered if I could ever complain again. For what matters come from him-in No Man's Land. Our Peter, our young anything in these desperate days to me-save our young Peter Peter! He is in that country of barbed wire and bombshells. out in No Man's Land ?
SOLDIERS AND SAILORS' INSURANCE
IVERY one wants to see our soldiers and sailors financially will be sufficiently elastic to deal mercifully with men in
free from care as to their own future and that of those debt.
dependent on them. Last autunn the Administration What do we mean by allowances ? Thay are payments from the devised a clever insurance plan to this end and Congress passed Government not from the soldier's pay. Their amount depends the necessary legislation. The Administration thought that on the number in the man's family and their relationship. These perhaps twenty-five per cent of our soldiers and sailors might be so-called family allowances, not to exceed $50 a month, are to be induced to take out insurance, but no one in the Administration paid during the period from enlistment to death or discharge, or in any other set of men dreamed that ninety-five per cent if the soldier or sailor applies for such benefits for his dependent would. And yet such is the fact.
family. For example, suppose the soldier or sailor has a wife To operate a plan for any large Governmental endeavor a but no child, the allowance is $15 a month. Suppose he has a bureau is generally established. This might seem a fairly easy wife and one child, the allowance is $25; a wife and two chilthing to do. But it is not. That is, not now. First of all, it is dren, $32.50, with $5 a month for each additional child; these difficult to get office space. In the case of the War Risk Insur allowances to dependents to be paid only during the period of ance Bureau, which administers the Government insurance for compulsory allotment. its soldiers and sailors, an old hospital in Washington was first Since the 20th of last December the Bureau has mailed more used as its headquarters, the Bureau of course having no building than 2,380,000 checks for allowances and allotments to the famof its own. Then, as it grew, the Bureau used the lower floor of ilies of soldiers and sailors, representing an aggregate disburse the National Museum, and then a dance hall above a market. ment of about $74,000,000. Checks are now being sent out
In the next place, no one knows in these times just how rap- at the rate of 700,000 a month. The difficulties in connection idly the personnel of a bureau may grow. Few supposed last with issuing these checks promptly may be gathered from the autumn that this spring some thirty-five hundred persons would fact that approximately 200,000 changes every month in the now compose the Bureau force. Yet so it is. There is an enor- amount of allowances and allotments must be noted on account mous amount of detail to attend to, and an enormous amount of the promotion or reduction in rank of the soldier, change in of clerical help is consequently necessary.
the personnel of families, and other causes. There is some detail which the ordinary_man in the street The department of allotments and allowances constitutes tie could hardly appreciate unless told about it. Just to keep track first general domain in the War Risk Insurance Bureau's purof all the enlisted men who bear the name of Smith takes a view. There are two others : first, life insurance, properly 80 good-sized squad of filing experts. They are armed with 110 called—that is to say, the provisions for the families or dependcard-index trays, for much more than a hundred thousand ents of soldiers and sailors who die in the service ; and, finally, Smiths are listed. There are, for example, 1,060 John Smiths, disability insurance. about 200 John A. Smiths, 1,560 William Smiths, and some
LIFE INSURANCE 200 William H. Smiths. Take Brown, for instance. There are over 1,000 John Browns alone. Take such names as Miller or
To go into these departments a little in detail, suppose in the Wilson ;' there are about fifteen thousand of each.
first there is the case of a man in the service, no matter whether When something happens to some one, it is not always easy
an officer or a private, who dies, leaving a widow. She receives to trace it unless explicit and complete information has been
$25 a month. A widow and one child receive $35 a month; a · given concerning each name. For example, a case arose with
widow and two children, $47.50 a month. Suppose there is no regard to John J. O'Brien. On consulting the index, there widow, but that there is one child dependent; the compensation appeared no less than 262 John J. O'Briens—and with more or
is $20 a month. Suppose there is a widowed mother only; the less inadequate information. Help was discerned when it was
compensation is $20 a month. The maximum monthly comdiscovered that this particular John J. O'Brien's wife's name
pensation is $75. was Mary. But, on consulting the index again, it was discovered
Any soldier or sailor, if he applies within one hundred and that out of the 262 John J. O'Briens fifty of them had wives
twenty days after enlistment or after entering active service, or with the name Mary.
if in service already, after the passage of the Insurance Act, may Among letters received by the Bureau was one which said:
take out a policy as high as $10,000. In many of the units of “ Please tell me if Mr. John Smith has put in application for
the various camps every man has contracted for the full $10,000. a wife and three children.” Another was : Child born Eliza
The Government has provided that these policies shall be paybeth wants allowance.'
able only in installments. More than 1,100,000 letters had been received in five months,
DISABILITY INSURANCE and there is now a daily average of 11,000 letters, taking a force of more than one hundred women to sort and distribute.
There remains the department of disability insurance. In case It has been necessary to establish a school within the Bureau for of total disability resulting from an injury or disease contracted training letter writers under a group of experts and supervisors. in our active service, the sufferer receives a $30 monthly penThe first name in the catalogue, one may not be surprised to
sion. If he has a wife and no children, the amount is raised to note, is Aab. He is closely pressed by one Aabel. The last $45 a month, and is further increased according to the number name is Zyny. We could hardly get farther down the list than of his dependents. If he needs a nurse, an additional sum, not that.
over $20 a month, may be added. If he is permanently bed
ridden, or if he has lost both hands, both feet, or both eyes, his ALLOTMENTS AND ALLOWANCES
pension is $100 a month without any additional allowance for There are more than two million cards in the allotment and an attendant. Let us suppose that the soldier or sailor has taken allowance files of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance. What out a $10,000 policy; he gets $58.50 a month as long as he lives ; do we mean by allotments? Involuntary allotments are assign- if he dies within twenty years, the balance of payments may ments of pay which the soldier or sailor is obliged to make to be paid to his dependents. wife or children dependent upon him. Allotments to any other So much for total disability. Partial disability—that is, for person are voluntary. The allotment cannot be more than half instance, the loss of an arm, a leg, an eye, hearing, or cases of the man's pay, but it must not be less than $15 a month. If the chronic rheumatism or bronchitis—is provided for in proporman has no close dependents, he may, if he chooses, allot any tion to the sufferer's earning capacity. Moreover, he is not only portion of his pay to certain others.
entitled, he is required, to have, without charge, the GovernAgain, so that the soldier or sailor may not come back to ment's medical hospital and surgical service, and such supplies civil life penniless, the Government may require him to deposit as may be needed-artificial limbs and trusses, for instance. half his pay. For this deposit the men receive 4 per cent In both total and partial disability cases, no compensation interest. This provision is subject to the regulations of the Sec- will be paid for injury or disease caused by the sufferer's willful retaries of War and the Navy, and their regulations doubtless misconduct. This of course clears the Government from any
possible charge of the slightest responsibility for the misconduct tine—it is a throbbing, live reality. Put your whole hearts and of any man in the service.
souls into the duties to which you have been assigned, and think
of yourselves as being arrayed in the great war, side by side with CURIOUS CONDITIONS
the fighting men in the trenches of France. These provisions form the most comprehensive measure of I am relying on each one of you for co-operative assistance. insurance protection ever offered to fighting men. To our own
WILLIAM C. DE LANOY, Director. men there is thus afforded a proportionate consolation and courage not otherwise obtainable.
Yet the operation of these provisions has already brought There is one person, however, whom we have not yet conto light some curious and sometimes poignant conditions. sidered-that human parasite, the shyster lawyer and claim
For example, a number of men have actually remonstrated agent. Take the recent Tuscania disaster as a case in point. against making an allotment to their wives. In a great many Relatives of persons on the Tuscania whose lives were saved of these cases, however, it is probable that the wives can get were put to the torture of being notified that their relatives and along themselves.
next of kin were lost. Indeed, so keen for business have been Again, by voluntary allotment a man could provide for his the claim agents that they have not hesitated to notify the next widowed mother under the automatic insurance which has now of kin of the loss of an entire ship-load when half the number terminated. But suppose she is no longer a widow and is mar- have been saved. Why should these leeches longer be permitted ried again, but has been deserted; she might need her son's to sap the blood of anxious but unsuspecting people ? support more than ever. She could not get it. There are many In the War Risk Insurance scheme there are just two places cases of dependent mothers not widows and disabled fathers where claim agents and attorneys are recognized. During the dependent on their sons. A bill in Congress is proposed to recent discussion of the subject in the House of Representatives remedy this injustice.
Mr. Treadway, of Massachusetts, a leader in insurance reform, THE COST
clearly pointed them out. One is in the preparation and execuMany ask : What is all this Government War Risk Insur- tion of the necessary papers, for which not over $3 is to be ance scheme going to cost ?
charged for the purely clerical service. The other is in connecThe cost has been estimated at some $700,000,000 during the tion with a possible lawsuit, in which the attorney's fees are first two years of its operation. While we may remember that
not to exceed ten per cent of the amount recovered. Any perany estimate is based on conditions which may change, we must
son who shall solicit or receive anything more shall be punished surely remember, as Mr. Arthur Hunter, of the New York Life by a fine of not over $500 or by imprisonment at hard labor for Insurance Company and President of the Actuarial Society of not more than two years, or by both. On May 10, 1918, the America, has said, that no cost is unfair or excessive which does Senate passed unamended the House bill providing for this. justice to the men themselves and to their dependents.
In the collection of any benefits granted by the War Risk
Insurance Act there is no necessity for the employment of any QUALITY REQUIRED IN BUREAU WORKERS
claim agent or attorney. The process of such collection is simple To administer all these provisions of War Risk Insurance a and the Bureau of War Risk Insurance is prepared to give any force of Bureau workers is required, not only, as we have seen,
and all assistance required ; in fact, on the back of each certifiremarkable for quantity, but necessarily remarkable for quality. cate issued for the insurance the beneficiaries are advised not It is not easy to get the right kind of workers for the War
to employ claim agents or lawyers, and are requested to come Risk Insurance Bureau. That it has found them is certainly a direct to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, the only expense feather in the cap of the Treasury Department. The type of being for notarial fees. man required is admirably shown in the following letter from The American Bar Association, we are glad to add, proposes the Director of the Bureau :
to co-operate with the Treasury Department in keeping a sharp To my Friends :
eye out to detect any claim agent, attorney, or other person who Co-Workers in the Bureau of War Risk Insurance:
violates the law. The name of any such should be sent to the Every letter, every claim, every inquiry handled in the Bureau
American Bar Association, 1712 I Ştreet, Washington. In of War Risk Insurance represents a vital human problem, and should be treated by you as such. Delay, inefficiency, or indiffer
every district there is a Local Advisory Board, whose duties ence on your part in handling any one of these important mat
have been to help registrants in filling out their questionnaires. ters may result in anguish and privation to the wife, mother, or
The American Bar Association is communicating with the children of a soldier or sailor.
Chairmen of these Legal Advisory Boards, requesting them to All America's fighting forces and their families depend upon organize the lawyers within their districts to render service this Bureau of the Treasury Department to carry out the provis- free of charge to the dependents of soldiers and sailors who ions of the most comprehensive, the most humane, and the most have claims under the War Insurance Act. As Mr. McAdoo, liberal measure of protection ever adopted by any nation. If you
Secretary of the Treasury, says: " A great service can be renregard any work before you as merely “ another case,” or any application, card, or inquiry as merely “ a piece of paper,” you
dered by making these facts clear to the dependents of soldiers are undermining the spirit and purpose of this great act, retard
and sailors who are being approached by unscrupulous persons. ing the war efficiency of your Government, and bringing untold
Patriotic service is being rendered not only by our men hardships upon many people.
abroad in the trenches, but also by men at home who are serving The work on your desk is far more than ordinary office rou- grạtis claimants under the Insurance Law.
BY GEORGE W. CABLE TROM a night of calm security I rose, as did thousands that all we have done in this thrice-busiest year of our Nation's about me, to the day's work.
life is but a beginning of what we shall do. It was Paul Jones's But before I could leave my room the steam whistles of cry from the deck of the blazing Bonhomme Richard, magnified all the great industries in the great city and of all the steam- by steam and a million trumpets of brass-" We've just begun to craft in its great harbor began to blow; to bellow and scream fight!” Wild, discordant, terrible it was—it is, for it will ring in and roar and wail in unnumbered voices that presently fused my ears henceforth—our tocsin ! the tocsin of a hundred million into one and rolled down through hundreds of miles of streets people speaking one wrath and one purpose. It was, it is, our into the open country and out to sea.
answer to the great gun in the wood of St. Gobain, shelling the I wondered but a moment, and then I knew. I knew the same churches of Paris on Good Friday. It stoops to no further muckuproar was sounding in every ear from the Atlantic to the ery of argument or negotiation, yet says as definitely as human Pacific and from Niagara to the Gulf, and that it proclaimed voice ever spoke, “ In the name of God and humanity, and of the first rounded twelvemonth of our Nation's share in the war a just and permanent peace to a free world, for civilization. I knew it was our notice. to. the round world
No treaties made this side the Rhine."
AIRCRAFT: A RECORD OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE
In the course of an inquiry on behalf of the Kansas City “ Star," of which he is Associate Editor, Mr. Henry J. Haskell obtained information and reached conclusions which he put into a series of articles for his own paper, and which he brings together here for the benefit of the readers of The Outlook. For a dozen years Mr. Haskell has been a valued correspondent of The Outlook. His good sense, his ability as an observer, his judicial qualities in discriminating between the unimportant and the important, and his skill in writing clearly make him exceptionally well qualified to treat of a subject, like aircraft production, which is essentially complicated and yet is one in which public opinion should be informed and to which public interest is properly directed. On one aspect of this subject editorial comment is printed in another place.—THE EDITORS.
TE brought out the fat lady and introduced her to the confine itself to rough training planes. The foreign motors were
audience, and she wasn't as fat as her pictures on the all hand-work jobs and were not available for quantity produc
billboards, and the audience was disappointed.” That tion. That was one reason why relatively few had been accumuis the aircraft situation as it was summed up by a man who has lated on the western front. The cry constantly went up for been connected with it from the beginning. It probably isn't so more of the heavier bombing planes. The French and English far wrong. If America had made the most elementary prepara- were in shape to take care of the light pursuit planes with the tions in developing an aircraft industry before the war- smaller motors. They agreed with us that it would be worth preparations it is almost incredible we failed to make—the story while if we could design a powerful American motor for quanwould have been very different. But given the situation that tity production, suitable for bombing planes. To whom should actually existed and it is hard to escape the conclusion that, in the Board turn to design such a motor? The automobile indusspite of undoubted blunders, the men in charge have done a try had absorbed a large share of the engineering and business notable piece of work. Avoidable delays there were-delays energy of the country in the last few years. It had been brillarising chiefly from the defects of an inexperienced and rapidly iantly successful. Naturally this industry was the one in which expanding organization. The programme was foolishly over- the Board put its main reliance. Two engineers were selected advertised. Promises were made that could not be fulfilled, and to design the motor, the one primarily an automobile engineer, the public was stupidly kept in the dark when the delays and the other an aviation engineer who had designed successful modisappointments came. But a survey of the available evidence tors for the Dutch Government. They were asked to design a gives reasonable ground for belief that the essential policies' motor on approved lines (resisting the temptation to freak were correct.
designs) that would develop 335 horse-power with a weight of It may be frankly admitted that men of the highest standing about two pounds to the horse-power. Later the power was hold views directly contrary to those here expressed. There is raised to 400. This was a higher efficiency than the British no such thing as a “consensus of opinion." Reputable engi- Rolls-Royce or the German Mercedes. It was not quite the neers remain who still insist that the Liberty motor is a failure efficiency of the Hispano-Suiza, a crack French motor of 150 and that the whole policy has been bungled. The greatest con- horse-power, which, however, is difficult to build. After the fusion exists. Is magneto ignition preferable to the battery type ? design had been completed several leading gas-motor engineers Is the angle between the twin sets of cylinders adopted for the were called in to study the design and suggest improvements. Liberty motor hopelessly faulty ? Is its radiation problem There have been heartburnings on the part of neglected engi. solved? Is the motor really practical or is it still in the experi., neers, but there seems little reason to suppose that the best mental stage? To these questions the most diverse answers are engineering ability in the country was not employed on the work. given by highly respectable persons.
The suggestions of these men were incorporated in the design, In view of all these contradictions, it behooves the investigator and then a committee of manufacturers was called in to make sugto walk humbly. The best he can do is to size up his sources of gestions from the production standpoint. Then an experimental information, check them against each other and against the motor was built and finally brought up to about 400 horseknown facts, and make allowance for the personal equation. It power at 1,700 revolutions a minute. Difficulties developed, as would be well for the reader to bear in mind that every state- is always the case with a new motor. There was trouble with ment to be made in this article will be challenged. These con. lubrication. Certain parts had to be redesigned. There were trary opinions, however, have been given careful consideration features that could not be worked out on the
block, but had to in arriving at the views here set forth.
wait to be tried out in flight in high altitudes. Gradually the Let us start with the theory of the most reasonable of the difficulties were remedied and the motor was ready for quantity critics, disregarding the wild charges of sinister influences and production in the late winter. Further refinements and improveleaving the accusations of graft to the Hughes investigation. ments were made and will be made. But the motor in its presThat theory runs about as follows: Admitting the honesty and ent shape is an unqualified success. It has been put through the good intentions of Mr. Howard E. Coffin, Colonel E. A. Deeds, severest tests in the air at high altitudes and on the block. It and the others responsible for the programme, they committed has been run to destruction. The figures have not been given fatal errors in policy. They put all their eggs in one basket out, but the results have been so satisfactory that the engineers and staked everything on an American-made motor. This motor have no misgivings. The motor is now in use abroad and the proved a disappointment, or at least could not be developed in original plane to be equipped with it in Dayton last October is time for this year's programme. Consequently the country was still flying. By the middle of May production had passed the left with no fighting planes. What the Aircraft Board should thousand mark. Two factories were then producing and others have done was this: It probably was justified in attempting to were expected to get into production in June. By July the prodevelop an American motor, but while working on this motor duction should reach one hundred and fifty a day-which is it should immediately have put into production in this country cutting in two the manufacturers' estimates. When it is recalled the best foreign motors. Then we should have had airplanes, that the British official statement last year said that it took at even though the American motor had been a disappointment. least a year to get an air-engine into production, it is evident
This argument, apparently, is unanswerable. Yet it leaves so that the production of the Liberty motor in six months was an many essential considerations out of the account that it is mis- achievement. leading. This is what happened: A survey of the field at the But the Aircraft Board did not put all its eggs in one basket. beginning of the war disclosed the existence of a trifling air- It took into account the possible delay or failure of the Amercraft industry in this country, with very few aeronautical engi. ican motor, and made provision against it. First, it must be neers. (There was a flock of men who thought they were, but understood that it is impossible to bring a foreign motor to this were not.) The airplane motor is radically different from the country and copy it. Certain changes must be made in it to automobile engine. It is as delicate as a watch. The French adapt it to American methods of production. Also, even if the mission last year inclined to believe that America did not have copy were made exact to the thousandth of an inch, the motor the skilled workmen to build aviation motors and would have to would not work successfully. The trouble is in the structure of