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have been their undoing. There is much of good in them yet; habitual frequenters of the bread-lines and the denizens of the
The assortment of irresponsible individuals that from now from garbage during the day and resort at night to the foulest
A small body of unnatural creatures attract our attention,
ing food unfit for human consumption. There are wholesale Then follow those whom jealousy of other men, justly and retail merchants and representatives of food corporations grounded or unjustly alleged, has given the excuse for shirking used to sharp dealings. Some have deliberately endangered the family responsibilities. Some are honest-faced fellows whom the public health for profit. There are the butchers, the poultry cankering jealousy has driven to desertion as a last resort. dealers, the fishmongers, the wholesale and retail fruit men, the Their faces are bitter, disillusioned, sorrowful. They are willing keepers of small stalls and milk stations, pushcart peddlers—a to support their children, but their manhood revolts at harbor cosmopolitan representation of unscrupulous merchants. In coming an unfaithful wife.
pany with these are the cheaters in weights and measures, those The next troop, a body of substantial-looking business men, robbers of the poor-coal dealers, grocers, produce merchants, are surprising to us. They hardly look like criminals. They are meat dealers, that fatten on petty dishonesty. Their meanness property-owners brought to court by inspectors of the Labor shines out through their beady pig eyes. Department and other departments having to do with safety of The gambling-house keepers, disorderly-hotel proprietors, the buildings for factory workers. They are the owners of proper runners for disorderly houses, the panderers and creatures that ties that have by recent legislation required alteration to make live off the proceeds of prostitution, follow after. They vary in them legally safe and fit, or men who in erecting buildings have type. There are the purple-faced, watery-eyed brutes; the sleek, failed to comply with the law's requirements.
bediamonded, plump-faced fawners; and the oily-haired, sallowMost of these are honest, well-intentioned citizens with no faced creatures--all shameless in their vicious business. criminal intent, who often correct the errors before the court Hour after hour the procession has gone on througḥ day and finds it necessary to exact punishment.
into night until dawn is breaking. As the last of the file of Following are some who for the most part are honest, respect men winds past, the tired mind fancifully pictures these crea. able-looking folk. They are men of all ages, youths, and women, tures as the many-sided personalities of vice slinking away largely foreigners. They are violators of petty ordinances. They before the light of day. But the procession does not end here. are those who have been found littering up the parks with Down the street, emerging out of the shady mists of lifting papers, women who have let their dogs loose in the parks, darkness, come the ranks of the women offenders. There are the youths and those of older years who have torn branches from painted and befeathered women of the streets and keepers of trees or shrubbery.
disorderly resorts, insolent in their display of shamelessness. Others are janitors and janitresses who have violated some The habitually drunken women in their train are as revolting street-cleaning or health ordinance, like mixing garbage in the as they are pitiable. Some are ravingly delirious, some are same can with ashes. Here is a troop of footsore Italians and repulsive in their filthy unkemptness, others are semi-respectable
Next to follow are the twelve thousand children who have ally filter through New York's criminal courts. We might pie
forgotten army of the less fortunate, straggling through the A band of about three thousand vagrants follows, in whose courts. The difference between New York and most other Amernumbers are the poor, oll, helpless creatures that go mumbling ican cities is that in New York some one has not only thought about the streets for money for bread and a ten-cent lodging of them, but has intelligently tried to have them treated as Some show marks of former respectability. Then there are the human beings should be treated. fakers, hardy-looking individuals whose distorted psychology The Charity Organization Society of New York City was the makes it easier for them to beg than to work. A number have first to crystallize these thoughts of helpfulness, of compassica false bandages or shamelessly display some infirmity, deformity, and sympathy, into action. First, it initiated a legislative inves or bodily injury for sympathy. There are the unclean-looking tigation into the conditions surrounding the treatment of these
fortunates, and later formed a permanent committee to study The courts are better housed, and there is an atmosphere of nditions and change procedure and method of handling to best decorum that speaks volumes to the foreigners who often get nserve and rehabilitate the human material daily brought to their only conception of our institutions through them. e bar of justice in these courts.
Probation is being developed as one of the most effective This Committee on Criminal Courts, as it is called, is unique means of reform. Civilian officers selected by careful civil philanthropic endeavor.
service tests use their authority in a kindly, helpful way. They Seven years have passed since it was originally formed. The are the good Samaritans of the court, seeking by kindly guidanges that have taken place in that time at the initiation of ance to bring back to self-respect and usefulness those who is Committee with the help and co-operation of the city by ignorance, willfulness, or misfortune have fallen into the hands thorities have come so logically and so sensibly that only when of the law. ? compare that which was with that which is do we get a true By use of the finger-print records and the field investigations cture of what has been accomplished.
by the Probation Department the court is enabled to become Previous to the time the legislative commission known as the as wise as a serpent in the disposition of the hardened criminal, age Commission was formed, the magistrates' courts or police and helpful and kindly in the case of the erring and unfortunate urts, before which all offenders must be brought either for first offender. al disposition in case of petty offenses or to be held for Comparative figures showing the percentage of each class higher court in the case of more serious offenses, had been 'of offenders discharged, fined, and sent to prison by each of ce Topsy. They just grew. The old justice of the peace the forty magistrates sitting in rotation in the various courts 'urts fitted to rural districts had been multiplied in a patch- are compiled and published each year. These figures show great ork way to meet the needs of a great city.
diversity of treatment of the same classes of offenders by the These courts, scattered throughout the city, were, in the main, different judges. Comparison from year to year enables each e undisputed preserves of corrupt politicians. Under the cover judge to measure up his work with that of his colleagues. By public indifference the poor, the unjustly accused, the unfor- this
means personal eccentricities of magistrates are influencing inate, the weak and frightened, were shamefully exploited. their decisions less and an approach to a flexible standard of
The shyster lawyer, hand in glove with the clerks and the justice in these inferior courts is being attained. blice attendants, wrung from the distracted inmates of the Special courts known as Courts of Domestic Relations have etention pen the last dollar they possessed. In some instances been established to give relief to poor wives and children by ve ward politician went over the calendar each morning to compelling support from deserting and non-supporting husbands esignate those who were to be protected by his benign favor. and fathers. The Children's Courts have been established,
The general atmosphere of the court-room was that of vulgar, entirely separate from adult courts, with a large staff of probaorrupt oppression. The beefy policemen assigned to sinecure tion officers, as the most effective means of reformation in bring-surt jobs through influence intimidated the respectable citizen, ing the children back to normal living in the community. ne timid, the ignorant, and the criminal with the same rude Other special courts have been organized to give expert treaticivility.
ment to special classes of offenders. The trials were shameful in their lack of dignity and fair. The Women's Night Court has been developed as the social. ess. Often the accused was an entire outsider to the whole
pro- evil court and a salvage station to retrieve women and girls 1eeding, being unable to hear what was said against him, and from lives of shame. A Traffic Court has been organized to hear zot given opportunity to say anything in his own defense. all violations of traffic laws and ordinances. A Municipal Term
The courts were wretchedly housed in miserable and gener- Court has been established to hear all cases in which a State or a lly very noisy quarters.
City Department is the complainant. There were no adequate records kept, no means of determin- The use of the summons has been widely extended, so that 18 the old from the new offenders. The probation officers now, with the exception of cases of grave moral turpitude, - rere policemen with scarcely a notion of what the word proba- persons are handed a court summons instead of being summarily ion meant.
arrested and locked up. Into these crowded, unwholesome courts every morning were Double trials, with the incident hardship to the poor unable (rawn, as in a vast net hauled from the depth of the under- to get bail and with waste of citizens' and officials' time, have vorld, the prostitute, the thug, the drunk, the pickpocket, the been eliminated in thousands of cases of petty misdemeanors »anderer, and their like. Together with these were herded the by giving the magistrates broader power to dispose of them oor, ignorant, unfortunate violators of petty ordinances, the summarily. nisguided first offenders, the unjustly accused, the respectable Central bureaus of records have been established. The work itizens, the poor forlorn women with their children seeking of the courts has been centralized and co-ordinated under a edress from deserting husbands, young, wayward, and unfor- board of magistrates and boards of justices for the Courts of unate girls and boys over sixteen years
Special Sessions and Children's Courts, with a chief magistrate It was an outrage to respectable people, a shameful wrong and chief justices as executive heads of departments. o the unfortunate and the ignorant, and general injustice and Much has been said by American and foreign commentators infairness to all.
on the corruption and inefficiency of our municipal governTo correct these evils the Page Commission drafted legisla- ments. The cause of this lies in our public indifference and lack cion which it submitted with its report to the Legislature. This of interest in municipal affairs. proposed legislation became law, and provided the framework The story of the improvement in the New York inferior for the organization and administration of these courts along criminal courts can be the story of any department of any enlightened, scientific, and humanitarian principles.
American city's government if a group of intelligent, publicHigh-minded and zealous officials, with an earnestness and a spirited citizens put their shoulders to the wheel, arouse public public spirit too seldom found in American municipal affairs, sentiment, study conditions, and devise means of improvement. worked intelligently and untiringly for the improvement of The Charity Organization Society, under the leadership of things. They were given the support of public-spirited citizens Lawrence Veiller, did this for New York. The Russell Sage in the organized efforts of the Committee on Criminal Courts, Foundation furnished the funds for expert service. with a staff of paid experts. In fact, this Committee often Other men and other organizations can do similar services became the leader in the study of conditions and the plans for for other communities. Some communities are making a beginimprovement.
ning in their courts. Others should follow until our land is rid As the result of the concerted endeavor of all, in marked of the old evil-smelling police courts with the corrupt political contrast to the former corrupt conditions, the inferior criminal boss, the weak, rubber-stamp judge, the bullying attendant, courts of New York are now conducted with a dignity and corrupt clerks, and shyster lawyers. Our courts of the poor impressiveness equal to that of the highest court in the State. would then be clothed with a dignity, kindliness, and intelli
The shyster lawyer is no longer a favored hanger-on. The gence that would restore to lives of usefulness many of the vulgar police attendant has been replaced by courteous, intelli- members of that vast forgotten army of the misguided unfortugent civilian attendants selected by civil service examinations. nate and erring petty offenders against our laws.
WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF
HOPE STREET HIGH SCHOOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I.
WE make only one quality of steel
Based on The Outlook of June 19, 1918
helpful to any nation? Give reasons.
3. From what these references
the efforts of the Red and White Guards
whom else are they an enemy? 5. What
explanation have you for the existence of
the two evils of Prussianism and BolsheA. Topic: “ Standing by Russia.”
vikism ? 6. Give historical evidence of the Reference : Page 302.
conditions that are sure to exist in any Questions :
country that allows itself to become linked 1. Mr. Caspar Whitney, as reported in
to Germany. 7. Tell what you think of The Outlook, is of the opinion
that we labor
those who want the Allies to be tender with
Germany now and after the war? 8. You
will get a lot of information out of and
by Arthur Reade (Dodd, Mead).
D. Topic: Organized Labor and the War.
lockers, steel bins, etc., using steel
Durand Steel Lockers are therefore
a permanent investment—they are
lifetime of service.
strikes during this war. What does this
Write today for catalog, telling us
to this Federation. In it he said: “The whether you are interested in steel 1. Explain why this topic has become a
war can be lost in America as well as on lockers, steel racks, bins, counters, current question. 2. Tell freely what you
the fields of France." Explain how. Use or general factory equipment. think of a Government that will deliber
illustrations. 5. Make several comparisons ately sink hospital ships and bomb hospi
between the objects and methods of the tals. What sort of training must a people
Industrial Workers of the World and of DURAND STEEL LOCKER CO. have had who will allow, without protest,
the American Federation of Labor. 6. If
1573 Ft. Dearborn Bk. Bldg.
973 Vanderbilt Bldg. think you Chicago
New York 3. What has The Outlook said in support they would
overturn American institutions
it Nationally dangerous for lawmakers to
will find a liberal education on labor in
“ History of Labour in the United States," many " is irreparably guilty”? 5. Do you
by J. R. Commons and Associates (Macthink it wise to give Germany any more
millan). Read an exceedingly suggestive
book, “A Preface to Politics,” by Walter
Consumer Your Home chapters v, viii), by E. F. Benson (Doran);
not discussed in it.)
Isolator Garbage pages 306, 307
found in The Outlook for June 19, 1918. Both Questions :
before and after looking them up in the dictionary Note.—Read the references in the order
or elsewhere, give their
meaning in your own words. The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which
automatically controlled. Do given. 1. Give facts in proof of Mr. Kel the words may be found.) lock's statement that « Finland became
Every home should be equip Atrocity, impunity, credulous (306);
ped with an Isolator. another Belgium, another Armenia.” 2. débâcle, dénouement, Finnish Junkers, bloc,
Send Now For Literature Prove that Germany is an enemy of Fin. coup, hooligans, apologists, chasseurs (308);
ble sanitary toilet incinerators for ungewered land. Can Germany be truly friendly and incubus, literate (309)
districts, and coal and gas garbage types for
hospitals. 'Ask your plumber. Distributors Wanted A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application
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