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have been their undoing. There is much of good in them yet; habitual frequenters of the bread-lines and the denizens of the
they have started wrongly. Right influences might put them right. lowest depths of degradation and poverty. They beg or pilfer

The assortment of irresponsible individuals that from now from garbage during the day and resort at night to the foulest
on for nearly an hour claims our attention has joined the proces back rooms of saloons, where they spend what they beg, sleeping
sion through the doorway of the Domestic Relations Court. in chairs in the stale, vile-smelling dark corners with sawdust.
There are wife-deserters and non-supporting fathers. Also covered floors. They haunt the frequenters of the bar like flies
among its number can be found a smaller group of sons and or roaches, begging drink, picking up cigar stubs, and drinking
daughters who have forgotten or ignored the duty resting upon dregs.
them to care for their aged parents.

A small body of unnatural creatures attract our attention,
Many of these men, weakened by indulgence in drink or lust, We note the ashen face and glassy eye of the drug fiend,
or simply discouraged by unemployment or sickness in the the effeminate mannerism of the sex pervert, the fantastic
family, have grown insensible to the moral and legal obliga movements or the dumb stolidity of the insane. The sight is
tions resting upon them for the maintenance of their wives and unpleasant, and we turn away:
children or their fathers and mothers, until at last their depend The beefy, substantial-looking crowd that follows has been
ents, driven to the point of desperation, have appealed to the brought to court by the Health Department for violating
court for relief. Many of these men love their families, but health regulations. A number of them have been found sell
have simply become careless and selfish.

ing food unfit for human consumption. There are wholesale Then follow those whom jealousy of other men, justly and retail merchants and representatives of food corporations grounded or unjustly alleged, has given the excuse for shirking used to sharp dealings. Some have deliberately endangered the family responsibilities. Some are honest-faced fellows whom the public health for profit. There are the butchers, the poultry cankering jealousy has driven to desertion as a last resort. dealers, the fishmongers, the wholesale and retail fruit men, the Their faces are bitter, disillusioned, sorrowful. They are willing keepers of small stalls and milk stations, pushcart peddlers—a to support their children, but their manhood revolts at harbor cosmopolitan representation of unscrupulous merchants. In coming an unfaithful wife.

pany with these are the cheaters in weights and measures, those The next troop, a body of substantial-looking business men, robbers of the poor-coal dealers, grocers, produce merchants, are surprising to us. They hardly look like criminals. They are meat dealers, that fatten on petty dishonesty. Their meanness property-owners brought to court by inspectors of the Labor shines out through their beady pig eyes. Department and other departments having to do with safety of The gambling-house keepers, disorderly-hotel proprietors, the buildings for factory workers. They are the owners of proper runners for disorderly houses, the panderers and creatures that ties that have by recent legislation required alteration to make live off the proceeds of prostitution, follow after. They vary in them legally safe and fit, or men who in erecting buildings have type. There are the purple-faced, watery-eyed brutes; the sleek, failed to comply with the law's requirements.

bediamonded, plump-faced fawners; and the oily-haired, sallowMost of these are honest, well-intentioned citizens with no faced creatures--all shameless in their vicious business. criminal intent, who often correct the errors before the court Hour after hour the procession has gone on througḥ day and finds it necessary to exact punishment.

into night until dawn is breaking. As the last of the file of Following are some who for the most part are honest, respect men winds past, the tired mind fancifully pictures these crea. able-looking folk. They are men of all ages, youths, and women, tures as the many-sided personalities of vice slinking away largely foreigners. They are violators of petty ordinances. They before the light of day. But the procession does not end here. are those who have been found littering up the parks with Down the street, emerging out of the shady mists of lifting papers, women who have let their dogs loose in the parks, darkness, come the ranks of the women offenders. There are the youths and those of older years who have torn branches from painted and befeathered women of the streets and keepers of trees or shrubbery.

disorderly resorts, insolent in their display of shamelessness. Others are janitors and janitresses who have violated some The habitually drunken women in their train are as revolting street-cleaning or health ordinance, like mixing garbage in the as they are pitiable. Some are ravingly delirious, some are same can with ashes. Here is a troop of footsore Italians and repulsive in their filthy unkemptness, others are semi-respectable

.
other poor laborers who, in their over-thriftiness, have used There are women and girls of low mentality, the feeble-minded
street car transfers illegally. Here is a crowd upon whose faces with little moral responsibility,
indignation and shamefacedness are rivals. They have been At the end are the girls and young women who have fallen
called to court for spitting on the sidewalk or in the subway for the first time. There are the headstrong and willful, the
during a Health Department clean-up campaign, or summoned foolish and easily led-girls that should be saved from their
to court for smoking in the subway. There are many more of own destruction. There are the unfortunate, the ignorant, those
these petty offenders. The individual cases are petty and their pinched by poverty, that need protection and help.
arrest may seem oppressive. It is, however, a necessary part of In our imagination we have pictured as in a procession the
the machinery that makes the city clean, safe, and habitable. criminals, petty offenders, and youthful delinquents that anna-

Next to follow are the twelve thousand children who have ally filter through New York's criminal courts. We might pie
passed through the Children's Court during the year. They are ture them again as a segregated community-a city gone wrong
as other children, though on the whole more poorly clad, and a --for if they were all segregated in one place they would make
large number of them look underfed. Some appear mentally a community as large as that of the third largest city of New
deficient and dull. There are the newsboy type, the street urchin, York State.
the crowds of incipient gangsters, the slouching, listless ones, But they are not segregated. They are a city within a city
girls with brazen, devil-may-care faces, others tragically weak here in our great metropolis.
all children, but some schooled in hard experience beyond their Their lives are closely interwoven with the lives of others.
years. Some are incipient criminals ; about half are simply Their wrong-doings, their offendings, their crimes, may

affert
unfortunate in being without proper guardianship or parental the lives and property of all or any of us. In the marvelously
supervision. These crowds of children are the early harvest of varied and complex waves of influence they have their part-
bad environment, heredity, misfortune, ignorance, criminality, infinitely hard to trace, but ever present and potent.
and neglect. As they troop by us we can almost see the weight In every large city there is this same procession, this same
of the tremendous handicap on their slight shoulders.

forgotten army of the less fortunate, straggling through the A band of about three thousand vagrants follows, in whose courts. The difference between New York and most other Amernumbers are the poor, oll, helpless creatures that go mumbling ican cities is that in New York some one has not only thought about the streets for money for bread and a ten-cent lodging of them, but has intelligently tried to have them treated as Some show marks of former respectability. Then there are the human beings should be treated. fakers, hardy-looking individuals whose distorted psychology The Charity Organization Society of New York City was the makes it easier for them to beg than to work. A number have first to crystallize these thoughts of helpfulness, of compassica false bandages or shamelessly display some infirmity, deformity, and sympathy, into action. First, it initiated a legislative inves or bodily injury for sympathy. There are the unclean-looking tigation into the conditions surrounding the treatment of these

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fortunates, and later formed a permanent committee to study The courts are better housed, and there is an atmosphere of nditions and change procedure and method of handling to best decorum that speaks volumes to the foreigners who often get nserve and rehabilitate the human material daily brought to their only conception of our institutions through them. e bar of justice in these courts.

Probation is being developed as one of the most effective This Committee on Criminal Courts, as it is called, is unique means of reform. Civilian officers selected by careful civil philanthropic endeavor.

service tests use their authority in a kindly, helpful way. They Seven years have passed since it was originally formed. The are the good Samaritans of the court, seeking by kindly guidanges that have taken place in that time at the initiation of ance to bring back to self-respect and usefulness those who is Committee with the help and co-operation of the city by ignorance, willfulness, or misfortune have fallen into the hands thorities have come so logically and so sensibly that only when of the law. ? compare that which was with that which is do we get a true By use of the finger-print records and the field investigations cture of what has been accomplished.

by the Probation Department the court is enabled to become Previous to the time the legislative commission known as the as wise as a serpent in the disposition of the hardened criminal, age Commission was formed, the magistrates' courts or police and helpful and kindly in the case of the erring and unfortunate urts, before which all offenders must be brought either for first offender. al disposition in case of petty offenses or to be held for Comparative figures showing the percentage of each class higher court in the case of more serious offenses, had been 'of offenders discharged, fined, and sent to prison by each of ce Topsy. They just grew. The old justice of the peace the forty magistrates sitting in rotation in the various courts 'urts fitted to rural districts had been multiplied in a patch- are compiled and published each year. These figures show great ork way to meet the needs of a great city.

diversity of treatment of the same classes of offenders by the These courts, scattered throughout the city, were, in the main, different judges. Comparison from year to year enables each e undisputed preserves of corrupt politicians. Under the cover judge to measure up his work with that of his colleagues. By public indifference the poor, the unjustly accused, the unfor- this

means personal eccentricities of magistrates are influencing inate, the weak and frightened, were shamefully exploited. their decisions less and an approach to a flexible standard of

The shyster lawyer, hand in glove with the clerks and the justice in these inferior courts is being attained. blice attendants, wrung from the distracted inmates of the Special courts known as Courts of Domestic Relations have etention pen the last dollar they possessed. In some instances been established to give relief to poor wives and children by ve ward politician went over the calendar each morning to compelling support from deserting and non-supporting husbands esignate those who were to be protected by his benign favor. and fathers. The Children's Courts have been established,

The general atmosphere of the court-room was that of vulgar, entirely separate from adult courts, with a large staff of probaorrupt oppression. The beefy policemen assigned to sinecure tion officers, as the most effective means of reformation in bring-surt jobs through influence intimidated the respectable citizen, ing the children back to normal living in the community. ne timid, the ignorant, and the criminal with the same rude Other special courts have been organized to give expert treaticivility.

ment to special classes of offenders. The trials were shameful in their lack of dignity and fair. The Women's Night Court has been developed as the social. ess. Often the accused was an entire outsider to the whole

pro- evil court and a salvage station to retrieve women and girls 1eeding, being unable to hear what was said against him, and from lives of shame. A Traffic Court has been organized to hear zot given opportunity to say anything in his own defense. all violations of traffic laws and ordinances. A Municipal Term

The courts were wretchedly housed in miserable and gener- Court has been established to hear all cases in which a State or a lly very noisy quarters.

City Department is the complainant. There were no adequate records kept, no means of determin- The use of the summons has been widely extended, so that 18 the old from the new offenders. The probation officers now, with the exception of cases of grave moral turpitude, - rere policemen with scarcely a notion of what the word proba- persons are handed a court summons instead of being summarily ion meant.

arrested and locked up. Into these crowded, unwholesome courts every morning were Double trials, with the incident hardship to the poor unable (rawn, as in a vast net hauled from the depth of the under- to get bail and with waste of citizens' and officials' time, have vorld, the prostitute, the thug, the drunk, the pickpocket, the been eliminated in thousands of cases of petty misdemeanors »anderer, and their like. Together with these were herded the by giving the magistrates broader power to dispose of them oor, ignorant, unfortunate violators of petty ordinances, the summarily. nisguided first offenders, the unjustly accused, the respectable Central bureaus of records have been established. The work itizens, the poor forlorn women with their children seeking of the courts has been centralized and co-ordinated under a edress from deserting husbands, young, wayward, and unfor- board of magistrates and boards of justices for the Courts of unate girls and boys over sixteen years

of
age.

Special Sessions and Children's Courts, with a chief magistrate It was an outrage to respectable people, a shameful wrong and chief justices as executive heads of departments. o the unfortunate and the ignorant, and general injustice and Much has been said by American and foreign commentators infairness to all.

on the corruption and inefficiency of our municipal governTo correct these evils the Page Commission drafted legisla- ments. The cause of this lies in our public indifference and lack cion which it submitted with its report to the Legislature. This of interest in municipal affairs. proposed legislation became law, and provided the framework The story of the improvement in the New York inferior for the organization and administration of these courts along criminal courts can be the story of any department of any enlightened, scientific, and humanitarian principles.

American city's government if a group of intelligent, publicHigh-minded and zealous officials, with an earnestness and a spirited citizens put their shoulders to the wheel, arouse public public spirit too seldom found in American municipal affairs, sentiment, study conditions, and devise means of improvement. worked intelligently and untiringly for the improvement of The Charity Organization Society, under the leadership of things. They were given the support of public-spirited citizens Lawrence Veiller, did this for New York. The Russell Sage in the organized efforts of the Committee on Criminal Courts, Foundation furnished the funds for expert service. with a staff of paid experts. In fact, this Committee often Other men and other organizations can do similar services became the leader in the study of conditions and the plans for for other communities. Some communities are making a beginimprovement.

ning in their courts. Others should follow until our land is rid As the result of the concerted endeavor of all, in marked of the old evil-smelling police courts with the corrupt political contrast to the former corrupt conditions, the inferior criminal boss, the weak, rubber-stamp judge, the bullying attendant, courts of New York are now conducted with a dignity and corrupt clerks, and shyster lawyers. Our courts of the poor impressiveness equal to that of the highest court in the State. would then be clothed with a dignity, kindliness, and intelli

The shyster lawyer is no longer a favored hanger-on. The gence that would restore to lives of usefulness many of the vulgar police attendant has been replaced by courteous, intelli- members of that vast forgotten army of the misguided unfortugent civilian attendants selected by civil service examinations. nate and erring petty offenders against our laws.

354

WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF

CURRENT HISTORY
BY J. MADISON GATHANY, A.M.

DURAND
Steel Lockers

HOPE STREET HIGH SCHOOL, PROVIDENCE, R. I.

WE make only one quality of steel

Based on The Outlook of June 19, 1918
Each week an Outline Study of Current History based on the preceding number of The Outlook will
be printed for the benefit of current events classes, debating clubs, teachers of history and of English, and
the like, and for use in the home and by such individual readers as may desire suggestions in the serious
study of current history.-The EDITORS.
(Those who are using the weekly outline should

helpful to any nation? Give reasons.
not attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any

3. From what these references

say, describe
one lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected

the efforts of the Red and White Guards
questions, one or two propositions for discussion, and
only such words as are found in the material assigned. and the results of their activities in Fin-
Or distribute selected questions among different land. 4. Explain why Bolshevik Russia is
members of the class or group and have them
report their findings to all when assembled. Then an enemy of the people of Finland. To
have all discuss the questions together.]

whom else are they an enemy? 5. What
1-INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

explanation have you for the existence of

the two evils of Prussianism and BolsheA. Topic: “ Standing by Russia.”

vikism ? 6. Give historical evidence of the Reference : Page 302.

conditions that are sure to exist in any Questions :

country that allows itself to become linked 1. Mr. Caspar Whitney, as reported in

to Germany. 7. Tell what you think of The Outlook, is of the opinion

that we labor

those who want the Allies to be tender with
under three delusions about Russia. What

Germany now and after the war? 8. You
are they? Explain each. 2. Mr. Whitney
believes in both economic and military enjoy reading “Finland and the Finns,”

will get a lot of information out of and
intervention in Russia. What are his rea-

by Arthur Reade (Dodd, Mead).
sons? 3. What is his attitude toward the
Bolsheviki? Tell why you do or do not

D. Topic: Organized Labor and the War.
agree with it. 4. Is Mr. Whitney right or Reference: Pages 302, 304.

when he
wrong.

says
that “
no country can

lockers, steel bins, etc., using steel
Questions :
live with a revolution at its door”? 5. Dis Note.—Make this topic the basis of a
cuss the perils involved in leaving Russia study of labor, organized labor, and labor rolled for the

and employing

purpose
entirely to her own fate. 6. Can you explain problems. 1. The Outlook is pleased as to the most skillful labor.
how it happened that the working class the report of the American Federation of
made itself
master of Russia with the exclu Labor given at its annual Convention at

Durand Steel Lockers are therefore
sion of the bourgeoisie? 7. Are the Russians St. Paul. Tell why. 2. The Federation's
“ fools” and “madmen”? Would

any
other Executive Council set forth policies and

a permanent investment—they are
people act differently furnished with the principles to be kept in mind for the future.
experience of the Russians ? 8. Read a What are they? What is your own belief practically indestructible and give a
specially good book on Russia, “ Russia in about each one of these? 3. State and dis-

lifetime of service.
Upheaval," by E. A. Ross (Century). cuss the attitude of this Council toward
B. Topic : Inviting Atrocities.

strikes during this war. What does this
Reference: Editorial, page 306.
show? 4. President Wilson sent a message

Write today for catalog, telling us
Questions :

to this Federation. In it he said: “The whether you are interested in steel 1. Explain why this topic has become a

war can be lost in America as well as on lockers, steel racks, bins, counters, current question. 2. Tell freely what you

the fields of France." Explain how. Use or general factory equipment. think of a Government that will deliber

illustrations. 5. Make several comparisons ately sink hospital ships and bomb hospi

between the objects and methods of the tals. What sort of training must a people

Industrial Workers of the World and of DURAND STEEL LOCKER CO. have had who will allow, without protest,

the American Federation of Labor. 6. If
the I. W. W. had their

1573 Ft. Dearborn Bk. Bldg.
their Government to do such things ?

973 Vanderbilt Bldg. think you Chicago

New York 3. What has The Outlook said in support they would

overturn American institutions
of its conclusion : “ To send an unguarded

Do
hospital ship across the Atlantic is to give disregard social unrest ? Reasons. 8. You

it Nationally dangerous for lawmakers to
Germany a chance between slaying the in-
nocent and fooling the credulous”? 4. Does

will find a liberal education on labor in
The Outlook go too far in saying that Ger-

“ History of Labour in the United States," many " is irreparably guilty”? 5. Do you

by J. R. Commons and Associates (Macthink it wise to give Germany any more

millan). Read an exceedingly suggestive
chances to break international law? Dis-

book, “A Preface to Politics,” by Walter
cuss. 6. Does Germany blight and dehu-
Lippmann (Holt).

a day
manize? Proof. 7. The following books II—PROPOSITIONS FOR DISCUSSION
show what sort of a nation Germany is : (These propositions are suggested directly or indi-
“ Crescent and Iron Cross” (especially rectly by the gubject matter of The Outlook, but

Consumer Your Home chapters v, viii), by E. F. Benson (Doran);

not discussed in it.)
“Out of Their Own Mouths,” by M. Smith
1. Germanism is worse than Bolshevik-

of the
(Appletons); “ German Atrocities," by ism. 2. For every right there is a corre-
N. D. Hillis (Revell).
sponding duty. 3. American democracy

Garbage
C. Topic: The Crushing of Finland ; Fin-
stands greatly in need of political inventors.

Can
land.

III-VOCABULARY BUILDING
Reference: Pages 308, 309; editorial, (All of the following words and expressions are

Isolator Garbage pages 306, 307

found in The Outlook for June 19, 1918. Both Questions :

before and after looking them up in the dictionary Note.—Read the references in the order

or elsewhere, give their

meaning in your own words. The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which

automatically controlled. Do given. 1. Give facts in proof of Mr. Kel the words may be found.) lock's statement that « Finland became

Every home should be equip Atrocity, impunity, credulous (306);

ped with an Isolator. another Belgium, another Armenia.” 2. débâcle, dénouement, Finnish Junkers, bloc,

Send Now For Literature Prove that Germany is an enemy of Fin. coup, hooligans, apologists, chasseurs (308);

ble sanitary toilet incinerators for ungewered land. Can Germany be truly friendly and incubus, literate (309)

districts, and coal and gas garbage types for

hospitals. 'Ask your plumber. Distributors Wanted A booklet suggesting methods of using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application

Buffalo Co-Operative Stove Co 194 Amherst Street.

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The garbage can is the most unsanitary article in the home, It breeds and attracts flies and disease germs,

Consumers are

DOS made in small sizes for homes, Reasonable in price. Operate with gas, not radiate heat.

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Are You the Dupe

of a Patriotrick?

A

PATRIOTRICK is a swindle by which your patriot-
ism is twisted to serve the selfish interests of another.

It usually takes the form of a spreading rumor that
a certain brand of goods is owned or controlled by Alien
Enemies. True patriots do not want to buy such goods
and in times like these a lie has a thousand lives and travels
on broad, fleet wings. The patriotrick is not a new trick.
Dozens of loyal American, French and British firms suffered
from it, even before America entered the war.

We and our customers are victims of it today. We can no longer ignore the fact that thousands of druggists and dentists have been told, and are innocently passing along the story, that Pebeco Tooth Paste is an Alien Enemy Product.

The story is untrue. Its only possible foundation is the fact that the formula for Pebeco was originated years ago in the laboratory of a Hamburg scientist.

Pebeco has been made in New York City since 1903. Every share of Lehn & Fink stock and every dollar's worth of bonds are owned by American citizens.

Not one dollar from the sale of Pebeco Tooth Paste finds its way to any alien enemy or any alien interests. Sole license for the manufacture of Pebeco has been granted to Lehn & Fink by the United States Federal Trade Commission.

All the officers and directors of Lehn & Fink are American citizens, and only American capital is used. Lehn & Fink is not subsidized by or connected with any other concern, American or Foreign.

Don't be the dupe of the patriotrickster.

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356

Men's Wear for Summer at McCutcheon's

Reg Irade-Mark

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Men of discriminating taste find satisfaction at McCutcheon's. Furnishings which are out of the ordinary and of high quality are offered here at reasonable prices.

Summer Bath Robes Japanese Crepe Robes, Slippers to match, $3.50. Imported Cheviot in colored Stripes, $12.00. Pongee Silk at $12.00. Plain color Moire Robes at $15.00 and $25.00. Foulard Silk and Crepe Robes, $21.00, 25.00 and 30.00. Turkish Toweling Robes at $5.00, 6.50 to 12.00. Bath Slippers, $1.25.

Bathing Suits One-piece pure Worsted Bathing Suits in Heather shades, plain Black, Navy, and Gray, at $6.00. Two-piece pure Worsted Bathing Suits as above at $5.00, 6.50 and 7.50. Swimming Suit, White Worsted Shirt, Indigo Flannel Trunks, $7.50. Bathing Belts, 50c.

Orders by mail given special attention. James McCutcheon & Co.

Fifth Avenue, 34th and 33d Sts., N. Y.

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THE NEW BOOKS
This department will include descriptive notes, with
or without brief comments, about books received
by The Outlook. Many of the important books will
have more extended and critical treatment later

FICTION
Foe-Farrell. By “Q”. (Quiller-Couch). The

Macmillan Company, New York. $1.50.
Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch has not for
many a day written a story which holds
the attention so closely as this. It is essen-
tially a study of hate and of the transfor-
mation of character by hate. Thus, in a
way, Foe becomes Farrell and Farrell be-
comes Foe. The man who hates his enemy
so intensely that he refrains from murder
solely because he wants to do something
worse invents a sort of psychological tor-
ture which is cruel, even though it be well
deserved. But his methods react on him-
self, and his standards of life and culture
weaken, while the other man, vulgar, self-
ish, and dishonorable, attains a certain
amount of dignity and character under his
suffering.

Sir Arthur takes an impish delight in violating every law of the unities of construction. The machinery of the tale is a sort of “ Arabian Nights” scheme, under which a British colonel in the trenches is reminded of a true story by a scrap of newspaper he takes

up,

and relates it, a bit every night, in the dugout. This is a capital scheme, but Sir Arthur, having invented it, practically forgets it. At one time the story takes a purely farcical turn, and that tale of a wild night spent in avoiding the police is preposterous—but it is also funny Finally the author settles down to his real purpose. In his analysis of the human heart there are strains of subtlety and skill which remind one of Stevenson in his “ Master of Ballantrae.” Mashi, and Other Stories. By Sir Rabindra

nath Tagore. Translated from the Original
Bengali by Various Writers. The Macmillan

Company, New York, $1.50.
Promise of_Air (The). By Algernon Black-

wood. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $1.50.
This is not as fantastical as many of
Mr. Blackwood's remarkable stories. On
the other hand, it does not take hold of the
imagination as strongly as some of its
predecessors. It preaches in a delicately
fanciful way the Gospel of the Air in the
sense that human consciousness and effort
should be free and light and have a certain
birdlike detachment from the heavy, prac-
tical, earthly affairs. Like everything Mr.
Blackwood has written, the manner and
style are admirable.
Soldiers Both. A Novel. By Gustave Guiches.

Translated by Frederic Taber Cooper. The
Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York,

$1.40.
Way Out (The). By Emerson Hough. Illustrated.

D. Appleton & Co., New York. $1.50.
Mr. Hough's new story deals with a
mountain feud in Kentucky, and shows the
effect of the war call on the mountaineers
who abandon their old enmities in patriotic
endeavor for America.

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION
Santo Domingo. A Country with a Future. By

Otto Schoenrich. Illustrated. The Macmillan

Company, New York. $3. “The American occupation of Santo Domingo has already introduced fundamental innovations which will shortly be further developed, and a rapid and radical transformation is in progress.” So says the author. “ Española (the island of Santo Domingo] is a marvel.” So said Columbus. Readers will find Columbus's enthusiasın

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between Detroit and Duluth-via Sarnia, the Soo, Port Arthur and Fort William

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1

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For information and cruise folder dedays and nights, cruising twice scriptive of this cruise and the Northern the full length of the world's larg- Navigation 60-mile day trip through the est lakes-Huron and Superior.

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