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Lower photo, taken in September, 1916, shows the road to Guillemont, France, rapidly being effaced under bom-
JULY 3, 1918
ITALY'S VICTORY-AND OURS
come repeated reports of political agitation, industrial riots, The armies of General Diaz on the Italian front have not and desperate food conditions. At Vienna and Budapest merely checked the Austrian offensive; they have turned it demonstrations of protest have been followed by conflicts beinto what may perhaps become an Italian offensive. In the tween the police and the rioters. In Budapest, for instance, on successive reports from day to day we heard first of the enor- June 22, nine strikers were killed and thirty-six others wounded. mous extent in importance of the Austrian offensive; then of In Vienna the crowd shouted "Down with Germany!" and the relatively slight gains made by Austria compared with what “The Germans want to starve us !" This food outcry is all the might be expected in such an attack; then that the enemy's more violent because of Germany's cold blooded declination to advance was positively withstood and held ; and, finally, that help Austria in her extremity. the Austrians had at many points turned back in retreat, and
Austria will now undoubtedly call upon Germany for milithat something like an Austrian rout was in progress.
tary support, and it is at least doubtful whether Germany The whole story gives cheering and positive evidence of is in a position to give that support without weakening her the restoration of morale and efficiency in the Italian army
western offensives. Such a fat failure as the German attack since the disaster of last year. By the end of the first week of
on Rheims (June 18) is significant; it was called a feint the Austrian effort to crush Italy the Italian Prime Minister,
in German despatches, but no corresponding serious attack Signor Orlando, was able to announce that a real Italian vic- followed. Mr. Lloyd George intimated in a speech last tory had been gained. On June 24 the Italian War Office week that a new German offensive was then on the point announced the capture of forty-five thousand prisoners and of of being launched on the western front and that the comenormous quantities of munitions, provisions, and guns, ranging parative quiet of the last week or two on that front meant from the largest field cannon to hundreds of machine guns. It simply preparation for the new effort. Probably Austria will also reported that many thousands of Austrian soldiers were have to wait until this new drive has been pushed to the utmost retreating in a most disorderly way, throwing away their arms
before she can hope for military assistance from Germany, and, and running for their lives. A statement most welcome to Amer- if it fails, the general position of the Central Powers will be icans was added, to the effect that American airmen are doing
weaker than for a long time. good service with their Italian and British comrades in the pro
Three months have now elapsed since the great German longed battle.
assault on the Allies began; nearly half the season most In an order of the day General Diaz declared : The
favorable for fighting is over and the Allies still hold firm, who with furious impetuosity used all means to penetrate our
while America is constantly and rapidly increasing its forces in territory has been repulsed at all points. His losses are very
Europe. heavy. His pride is broken. Glory to all commands, all soldiers, all sailors !" And Luigi Barzini, the correspondent of the
AMERICA TO THE FRONT “Corriere della Sera,” concludes his report by saying: As the Italians realized that on the Marne, the Oise, and the
The announcement by General March, Chief of the General Aisne the destinies of Italy also were in the balance, so the Allies
Staff of the Army, made on June 22, that nine hundred thouought to realize to-day what Italian heroism has achieved for sand American troops had been sent overseas up to that date is the whole Entente cause and ought to honor the Piave as a sanc- an evidence of fine and quick work in transportation and tified stream in the struggle for the liberation of the world. organization. The English Prime Minister, Mr. Lloyd George,
That America was honored by having some participation in in the address to which we have already referred, said: “It this victory of Italy will be a cause for pride in future years. is an amazing piece of organization which has enabled the
The most decisive gains of the Italians were precisely where bringing of such vast numbers of first-rate American troops to the Austrians had at the beginning made the farthest advance, France. namely, on the lower stretches of the Piave. Here, in the first Since General March a week before this announcement said days of the drive, nearly 100,000 Austrians crossed the river on that eight hundred thousand troops had been sent overseas, improvised bridges. But their position on the western bank was and since Secretary Baker a week before that said that seven from the start exposed to Italian artillery fire, and later their
hundred thousand had been sent, the recent rate of troop moveretreat was largely blocked by the destruction of their bridges, ment has obviously been about one hundred thousand a weekeither by Italian gunners or by the sudden swelling of the flood an immense increase over anything previous, and the more of the Piave River. Thousands were cut off and perished on extraordinary because of the distance, the enormous task of the western bank. Farther north, at Montello, on the right providing for the troops, and the limitations of shipping. bank of the Piave, a point between the Asiago Plateau and the Another interesting announcement by General March was line along the lower Piave, a tremendous struggle was carried the naming of three American divisions which have done the most on between the opposing forces. When, on June 24, it was notable fighting in France. These are: the First (Regular announced that the Montello position had been evacuated by Army) Division, under Major-General Bullard ; the Fortythe Austrians, proof of complete defeat was established. second Division (Rainbow Division), under General Menoher ;
and the Twenty-sixth Division (the New England Division),
under Major-General Edwards. In this connection General THE EFFECT OF ITALY'S VICTORY ON
March praised most cordially the work done by Americans at AUSTRIA AND HER GERMAN MASTERS
Cantigny and near Château Thierry. Austrian defeat is certain to be injurious from the internal It is also now positively known that American soldiers are point of view as well as from the military standpoint. A Vienna holding the fighting line for a distance of thirty-eight miles on the paper says: “ The manometer is at 99, and the Government western front and that “all-American ” forces hold six different must take this fact into consideration”-a cryptical way of indi. sections of the line, apart from the American units which are cating that the political and industrial situation is one of such brigaded with British and French units. high pressure that the bursting point is nearly reached. Both Recent news of American war energies tells of a raid across before and after the failure of the Austrian armies there have the Marne in which American patrols took prisoners and drove
back the German patrols encountered, and of important work the nations which have oppressed and abused them, and that in Belleau Wood, which is now entirely occupied by Americans, they assume this double danger freely and even joyously. No who have cleared the Germans out altogether from this strate wonder that Senator Lewis, of Illinois, said recently in the gically valuable point on the Marne front northwest of Château Senate: “ The United States must invite the Slovak-Czechs, Thierry
Poles, and other people of Russia who seek nationality to fight The shipping situation, as well as the military situation, is for freedom. The United States must aid these people to join in encouraging. It was announced last week that on July 4 no an army and protect Siberia and central Russia from being fewer than eighty-nine ships would be launched from shipyards absorbed by Germany." under control of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. Their total tonnage will be 439,886 dead-weight tons. "Thirty-seven of these ships are of steel. From the Hog Island plant comes the news
THE BULGARIAN CABINET that fifty shipways will soon be completed-twenty-two are There is a new Bulgarian Cabinet. To most people this now finished--and that the first launching from this yard will may not seem of any great importance. But we think it is. take place on July 4.
The retiring Prime Minister, Vassali Radoslavoff, was not, Force, force to the utmost, force without stint or limit.” like many of his countrymen, a graduate of the American These men and these ships are translating these words of the Robert College, at Constantinople. Vassali Radoslavoff was edu. President into deeds. It is leadership of action that the people cated at the University of Heidelberg. This may explain his of America crave and are now finding in President Wilson, pro-Germanism. Had he been trained at Robert College, the And the more they have of it, the more will their enthusiasm American ideals derived there might not have been easily supand their confidence grow.
planted by Pan-German ideals.
Ferdinand I, the wily Bulgarian King, found in his Premier
a clever instrument. During the early period of the war the OUR CZECHOSLOVAK ALLIES
two were able to blind the diplomats of the Entente Allies at News as welcome as it is extraordinary has lately come Sofia as to Bulgaria's real intentions. Mr. Einstein's recently over the cable as to the progress of the Czechoslovak army published volume shows how even so well trained an observer as which is making its way through Russia to Vladivostok with the himself at near-by Constantinople was up to the last moment in announced purpose of taking ship from Siberia and joining the the dark as to what Bulgaria might do. French, British, Italian, and American armies on the western The five years' Ministry of Radoslavoff comprises an imporfront. It is said that already nearly twenty thousand of these tant period in Balkan history. In it Bulgaria fought and lost haters of German rule have already reached Vladivostok and the second Balkan War, and finally obtained revenge for the that about the same number are now advancing eastward on the 100,000 men, $300,000,000 in money, and great stretches of terline of the Trans-Siberian Railway, cutting off as they go rail ritory which that war is said to have cost her. In acidition, there and wire communications between eastern Siberia and western are now the Bulgarian demands for territory not yet occupied by Russia. These facts, oddly enough, are stated in a despatch from her--not only all of the Morava Valley, in northwestern Serbia, Moscow.
but all of Serbian Macedonia, the Greek territories along the Other accounts state that these forces, or some of them, Egean in what was formerly Macedonia, and the Rumanian fought German troops in the region east of Kiev and defeated Dobrudja on the Black Sea. them ; that the Czechs then obtained permission from the Bolsh The Dobrudja--there's the rub. Bulgaria wanted it all. evik leaders to march to Vladivostok; and that recently, at Instead Germany and Austria ceded only the southern part to Irkutsk, one section of the traveling army was set upon by an her. The northern part was intrusted to a condominium of the immensely stronger force of Bolshevik Red Guard, but resisted four Central Powers, each controlling territory proportionate them fiercely and in the end gained their point of being allowed to the number of its troops engaged in the Rumanian war. to proceed eastward.
Hence Germany received forty per cent, Bulgaria thirty-five It is evident that both at Kiev and at Irkutsk this anti per cent, Austria-Hungary eighteen per cent, and Turkey seven German military movement has had sympathy from Russian per cent. This curious arrangement, it was believed, was only peasants, and there are indications of peasant revolts on a large a makeshift, the ultimate reason being that Germany would seale because of Germany's levies of forced contributions of herself alone ultimately control northern Dobrudja, with its grain.
valuable railway line from the Rumanian port of Constanza The question is at once suggested whether, assuming these into the interior, and, above all, the Danube. reports to be substantially credited, this little army might not Against Bulgaria's agreement to this plan there was protest serve the Allies better if it is persuaded to halt not very far among the Bulgars. Not only wa; Radoslavoff too much under from the eastern coast of Siberia, and there help form a nucleus German control, they charged, he was also too weak in exploitof an Allied army which, with Japan in the lead, may help make ing the obvious strength of Bulgaria's position, a new eastern front against Germany. There are other sources The leader of this opposition was Alexander Malinoff
, the (besides the troops of the Allies already at Vladivostok or in the head of the Bulgarian Democratic party. The opposition became ships lying there) which need only a place of gathering and a strong enough to compel Radoslavott's resignation and to force source of supplies to roll up an army the very presence of which, the King's hand. That monarch, therefore, asked Malinoff to moving forward along the Siberian Railway, would cause Ger become Premier, and there is now a new Bulgarian Cabinet many to think twice before leaving its eastern predatory gains with him at its head. unguarded.
Germany is alarmed. The Pan-German Berlin - Kreuz ZeiThe hatred of the Slavs for the Central Powers is indicated tung” says: We will not conceal the fact that the change in in many ways. We have all read with great pleasure and pride the Bulgarian Ministry is regrettable for Germany." Doubtless of the recent appearance of the Polish Legion raised in this the "Kreuz” remembers that Malinoff was a supporter of country, largely under the inspiration of Paderewski's efforts, Russia, and particularly that in September, 1915, he was atie and now on the fighting line on the western front. And now of the Committee which protested against the policy of attackthese Polish soldiers have been recognized in France as the ing Serbia and throwing Bulgaria into Germany's arms; more army of the Polish nation, and hereafter are to fight under the over, that in October, 1915, shortly before Bulgaria entered flag of the Polish White Eagle. The Slavic Legion idea is thie war, he was chosen spokesman of all the opposition parties capable of immense expansion in this country. It has been to meet with the Ministers of the Entente Powers in the hope estimated that possibly half a million Slavs who hate Ger that war might be averted. many and Austria can be recruited here for what has been
Another reason for Bulgaria's discontent is the food situation. called a semi-autonomous army. To be sure, such volunteers This, it is said, also led to the defection of a large section of may be executed if captured by the enemy. It is an indication the former Premier's supporters and to such popular anger with of the spirit and feeling of the Czechs and other Slavs who thus him that he was horsewhipped in the streets of Sofia. enlist that they know that they are incurring the double danger The combination of self-respect and hunger may yet serve to of death on the firing line and death as the revolting subjects of show Bulgaria what it has cost her to be an ally of the Hun.
polis children, with mortgages on their homes, who drop all these
ready, no matter what may happen in this struggle that is going Upon the present exigency affecting the American and e are ready, we are brave, we are strong, and we are Turkish Governments we comment on another page. The exi resourceful.” As to health conditions in the Navy, he reminded gency also calls attention to the fact that diplomatic relations his hearers of the special need of careful sanitation on shipbetween the two Governments have been suspended since April board, and asked them if they had ever thought what would 20. 1917, when Turkey withdrew her Chargé, who had been at happen if contagious disease attacking the fleet got beyond the head of the Turkish Embassy in Washington following the control. And he gave them these facts, that ought to be reAmbassador's compulsory retirement. After criticising the assuring to all who have friends or relatives in the naval service : American Administration in a way which, to put it mildly, was So far as the health of the personnel of the Navy is concerned, not in accordance with diplomatic usage, the Ambassador went of nearly half a million men, it is running about as it does in peace
home on leave,” and, as our Government intimated that his times. At the end of the first week of June our casualties, · return would not be agreeable, he did not return.
deaths, for all diseases in the Navy was only 2.8 per cent, a very During the absence of an Ambassador the counselor or
excellent showing for the whole length of the war. From casusecretary of an Embassy becomes Chargé d'Affaires. The mere
alties due to disease in every quarter of the globe, casualties due
to accidents, casualties due to military activities, etc., we have withdrawal of an Ambassador does not sever diplomatic relations.
lost out of half a million men which we have now about four When, in 1915, we requested the retirement of Dr. Dumba, the
men a day on an average. When I first figured that up, it seemed 6. Austrian Ambassador, Austria made her counselor of the Em to me that it must be impossible that the mortality should have
bassy Chargé d'Affaires, and, in a strenuous effort to make it been so small as that. Of course the conditions that exist in the appear that there were no “hard feelings,” finally sent another Naval service are far better than you find them in civil condi
Ambassador. The cause of the severance of relations came later tions in every way. Nowhere can you find sanitation that comHe when we declared war on Germany. We informed the Austrian,
pares with that we have in the Navy: Bulgarian, and Turkish Governments, allies of the German It is characteristic of war times that the new President of the 4. Government, of that fact. In consequence we would not receive Association, elected to succeed Dr. Arthur Dean Bevan, is a
the new Austrian Ambassador who had just arrived. Bulgaria physician in uniform-Major Alexander Lambert. About a
already had a Minister here who had been duly received, and month after the United States entered the war he went to Mua she made no change in her diplomatic relations. But Turkey France and served as chief medical adviser of all American Red
took advantage of the opportunity to “slap back” in return for Cross activities in France and Belgium, and soon after the close a our compulsory retirement of her Ambassador by replying that of the Convention was en route again to France to resume his tai since we were making war upon one of her allies, she could not duties. He is among the best known of New York physicians, ri: continue diplomatic relations with us. Thereupon she withdrew is a graduate of Yale and of the College of Physicians and kmher Chargé. It was not his withdrawal, but the Turkish Govern- Surgeons in New York City, and has rendered public service los ment's reply that it could not continue diplomatic relations, as attending physician to Bellevue and other New York hoset fja which severed those relations.
pitals, as former Assistant Bacteriologist in the New York In general, the withdrawal of all diplomatic representatives Health Department, and as Professor of Clinical Medicine in mali
, constitutes a severance of diplomatic relations. But not always. Cornell University Medical College. Major Lambert's portrait,
might, for reasons of its own, withdraw all its diplomatic repre tion. “ America,” Major Lambert said in his address before auta sentatives and yet continue relations by placing a consular the Convention, “ perhaps distinguished herself, when suddenly therus official temporarily in charge.
called to war, by going into the war Red Cross hand first.” He
and he answered by telling this anecdote of one of the engineers pm MEDICAL MEN IN WAR TIME
at Cambrai : “ After a battle, an English officer, who compliLike all other great gatherings in these days, the sixty- mented him [the engineer) on the efficient work he had done, ninth annual session of the American Medical Association held asked him if he had ever been under fire before, and he replied, aralan
in Chicago last month was dominated by the thought of the “No, sir.' What do you think of it ? said the officer. He
THE COLLEGES STRIPPED FOR WAR
year ago the medical profession had about seven hundred two years ago there were nine hundred degrees awarded. At
men in the Army, it has now about twenty thousand com Harvard, out of a senior class that numbered seven hundred my missioned medical officers. The Surgeon-General of the Army and twenty-five in its freshman year, the members who were a paid special tribute to those “ young men with practices of two present at Commencement numbered only ninety-eight. To those 1915. thousand or three thousand dollars a year, with one or two undergraduates who have left their courses uncompleted in
order to join the fighting forces of the Nation, Princeton and nys* things, knowing that when they come back they will have to Harvard and other colleges have presented certificates which commence all over again.”
recognize not only these students' scholarship but also their health conditions of the two services. One of the speakers at too, that that truth is applicable not only to individuals but the fathe Convention at Chicago was Admiral Braisted, Surgeon- also to institutions. They have been fitting men for life, and a lara General of the Navy. There was about his address the flavor now that life calls to these young men to put their training at wopila of independence and confidence that the sailorman seems to find the service of the Nation, and perhaps compact a lifetime into a
in the salt air of the sea. “ Remember this,” said the Admiral ; moment, these men are proving their fitness. "the Navy has always been ready, the Navy always will be And the colleges as never before are identifying themselves
with the Republic. It is not by chance that as Princeton, Yale, with the League is that it has been in spirit divisive, and op and Harvard held their Commencement exercises successively, the part of some of its leaders seditious. Some of the organizers they successively bestowed an honorary degree on the British of the League have been sent to jail. It looks as if an organiza
. Ambassador, Lord Reading. Symbolic of this union of the col tion that might have served to unite the people in regions where lege with the Nation was the review of radio men which followed union is difficult had fallen into bad hands and had developed the Commencement exercises at Harvard. After the speeches an un-American class consciousness and an un-American attitude had been made, most of those assembled walked across from the toward the war. At any rate, this is the impression the NonYard to an open space near the gymnasium, and there watched Partisan League has created in many communities, and it was company after company of young men in white naval uniform badly defeated in the Minnesota primaries, where Charles A. march past the reviewing officers, who included a visitor Lindbergh, former Representative in Congress, was overcome by from France and one from England. These young men, coming the present Governor, J. A. A. Burnquist, as the Republican from all over the country, some of them with hardly more than candidate for Governor. grammar school education, have found here in this great Uni If the League is to serve a useful purpose in this country, it versity a naval station of their country. They have almost taken will have to dissociate itself from some of the influences that possession of the University.
have made it distrusted by people who, while liberal-minded
. As the “Harvard Alumni Bulletin " puts it: “The same have no sympathy with anything that smacks of Bolshevism. cause which has taken these students (the undergraduates who have left college for military and naval service) away, the cause of the war, has poured a multitude of enlisted men in the Navy
ONE RAILWAY SYSTEM IN PLACE OF FIFTY into the Harvard buildings and grounds." These enlisted men
The administration of the country's railways by the Gor. number about four thousand five hundred, which is almost ex ernment is still in a formative state. Uncle Sam went into the actly the number of the total enrollment of the University. And railway business in a hurry. Overnight, so to speak, he found these radio students, gathered for a brief period of study of the himself general manager of scores of railways and faced by a practice of wireless telegraphy, have been received and welcomed complex maze of problems-financial, industrial, economic, and and made to feel as much as possible that they are entitled to even social. It is too early to take stock of the results in a large all that Harvard can give them; and their response to their way, yet already it appears that unity in control has its advan environment has been an irrefutable proof of the fine quality tages. Efficiency and economy of operation are naturally posof the average young American. The presence of these radio sible when it practically makes no difference whether troops or students at Harvard is but one sign of the part that the Ameri passengers or goods go by one route or another, travel in one can universities and colleges are playing in the service of the company's cars or another, or are drawn by engines owned by Nation.
this company or that company (or, as in some cases, by Uncle Sam personally)—no difference, that is, so long as the work gets
done in the best way, the quickest way, and the cheapest way. PREPARING FOR ELECTIONS
Two documents just published furnish, the one a declaration Whether we like it or not, we Americans will have to pay of principles, the other a record of accomplishment. attention this year to political affairs. We cannot, as England În leaving his work for a short rest-and certainly no soldier can, forego the excitement and distraction of political contests of industry and finance ever more deserved a rest-Secretary in order to put our whole mind and energy upon the war. And McAdoo, as Director-General of Railways, made an admir yet it is safe to say that there never was less interest in party able declaration of the purposes which should be borne in politics than there is just now. Only a few years ago the whole mind in all the work of administration. These are, says Mr. country was in a turmoil over the question of a Presidential McAdoo : third term. This year the third-term bogey appears and First, the winning of the war, which includes the prompt frightens nobody. Former Governor of Indiana Samuel L.
movement of the men and material that the Government requires. Ralston, on the occasion of the Democratic State Convention, To this everything else must be subordinated. called for the renomination and election in 1920 of Woodrow Second, the service of the public, which is the purpose for Wilson." There have been many overturns in political opinion ; which the railways were built and given the privileges accorded but none is more amusing than this suggestion of a third elec
them. This implies the maintenance and improvement of the toral term from a spokesman of a party that once writhed in
railroad properties so that adequate transportation facilities will pain at the thought of a third term for a political opponent,
be provided at the lowest cost, the object of the Government
being to furnish service rather than to make money. even though it was not the third full term. We welcome this over
Third, the promotion of a spirit of sympathy and a better turn. That old tradition had nothing in it of special advantage understanding as between the administration of the railways and to us Americans these days. The people of America ought to keep their two million employees, as well as their one hundred million themselves free to elect as President any constitutionally eligi patrons, which latter class includes every individual in the Nation
, ble man, and it is foolish for them to worship a tradition which since transportation has become a prime and universal necessity prevents them from electing a man just because he is experi of civilized existence. enced. This, however, is no time to begin a Presidential canvass
Fourth, the application of sound economies. for 1920.
Taking up under the last head the things requisite to carry What we have immediately before us is the election of a out its intent, the following simple but fundamental classifica Congress to carry on the war, and possibly even, if victory comes tion is made: in the meanwhile, to organize victory and make it secure for (a) The elimination of supertluous expenditures. years to come. It is a big task. In these days there is no man (b) The payment of a fair and living wage for the services too great to serve in Congress.
rendered, and a just and prompt compensation for injuries reLess important in some respects are the forthcoming State ceived. elections. One of the most significant forerunners of these was (c) The purchase of material and equipment at the lowest the primary vote in Minnesota. There the contest was in the
prices consistent with a reasonable but not an excessive profit
to the producer.
(d) The adoption of standardized equipment and the introdue
tion of approved devices that will save life and labor. organization in the Northwest, and the rest of the party. As (e) The routing of freight and passenger traffic with due many of our readers may remember, this League arose in the
regard to the fact that a straight line is the shortest distance Northwest as a protest and crusade of farmers. There has long between two points. been in America, as elsewhere, a movement toward the cities, (f) The intensive employment of all equipment and a careful with consequent emphasis on the economic rights of the so-called record and scientific study of the results obtained with a view to industrial classes. There has been a consequent, in many
determining the comparative efficiency secured. respects justifiable, unrest in farming communities. This has The Director-General recognizes the vastness of his task, bo appeared in the formation of several successive organizations. hopes that some progress has been made toward the goal. The The latest of these is the Non-Partisan League. The difficulty he is justified is shown by the second of the documents to whid