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we have referred. In this Mr. A. H. Smith, the Regional trade has been licensed, and in that way Federalized, so tha: Director for the Eastern Division of the Railway Administra- State licenses disappear, and the general Federal regulation, tion, compares the congestion and shortage during the stress of which are being applied under the licensing plan, overcome the last winter, and draws hopeful conclusions for the coming trying State restrictions. season. Then follows an enumeration of 'nearly twenty things Moreover, heretofore only the choicest varieties of fish have actually done. We can name only a very few of these things been saved for market. Many other varieties, almost equalis to illustrate what may now be done under National control nutritious, have been discarded or used for fertilizer. Some which would have been absolutely impossible before. For in- varieties of these the Food Administration expects will be placed stance, over two million miles a month of unessential passenger- at least twice a week, if not daily, in the retail market througir train mileage has been eliminated ; over three hundred and fifty out the country and at a cost to the consumer not to exceed til locomotives originally meant for France or Russia have been cents a pound. Such an outcome will of course be of much put to work in this division, and over a hundred locomotives benefit to the consuming public, especially in the greater dis have been arbitrarily transferred from roads in the South and tribution through a stabilized system of marketing in the interie West to the Eastern roads—that is, all have been put just where sections of the country. they could do the most good; terminal facilities have been used It will be noted that The Outlook's correspondent also spoke in common by the railways at big commercial centers; freight of poultry, the next most acceptable meat substitute. During trains have been run through to distant terminals without any the past season the drain on poultry has been very heavy as a reference to their make-up or place of starting; repair shops substitute for beef. This drain on poultry was responsible for have been used almost as common property of the roads ; labor the rigid restrictions placed upon the sale of hens during the has been interchanged between the roads when there was an hatching season this year. advantage; troop trains have been handled as if all roads and The high prices of poultry do their part in conservation all locomotives were at their disposal. It was due to such But these, the Federal Administration hopes, are of short duracombined effort that the delivery of anthracite at tidewater tion, since poultry, like swine, increase very rapidly. rose from 820 cars in January to 1,109 in May, and to this also was due the reduction of 41,000 cars of freight for export waiting their chance to be unloaded to 28,000 cars.

COSTA RICA As Mr. McAdoo well says in acknowledging this report, it gives evidence of being "a record of railroad achievement of the

On May 25, 1918, the Costa Rican Congress declared war highest order in the face of difficulties of unprecedented char

on Germany. This excited the angry comment of German acter.”

newspapers. The“ Rheinische-Westfälische Zeitung" declared that the Central American states were being forced into the

fray because the United States, as in the case of Mexico, refused MEAT SUBSTITUTES

loans otherwise.

The latest addition to our allies is welcome, but causes a A correspondent writes to us as follows:

curious situation. In January, 1917, the former Minister of Great pressure is being put upon the country to save food. War, Federico Tinoco, by a coup d'état unseated President There is restriction in the use of meat. We are urged to eat fish. Alfredo Gonzales, of Costa Rica. The “revolution” took twelve But a little investigation will, I believe, convince you that fish,

hours and was without bloodshed. and also poultry, are inexcusably and unreasonably high in price and not by any means reasonably abundant in supply. Is it not

Shortly after our declaration of war on Germany Tinero possible to do something in the direction of seeing that fish and

offered the ports and waters of his country to the Unitei poultry are available at fair prices ?

States. The value of this, especially in view of the necessity of

protecting the Panama Canal, is evident, and particularly wher Upon the receipt of this communication The Outlook wrote to

the attitude of the Canal's nearest neighbors to the south, that unfailing source of information, the Federal Food Admin- Colombia and Venezuela, is considered. Senator Gallinger. of istration. In its reply the Food Administration admitted that the

New Hampshire, has now introduced a resolution in Congress fish programme had been a source of considerable worry to it. declaring that the United States should accept this offer of Fish, it explained, is naturally the substitute most acceptable the use of Costa Rican ports, and also any other assistance in in place of meat, because of its quantity and because also of the

the war. fact that all fish taken from the sea are pure gain, an addition

In accordance with President Wilson's policy of refusal to without feeding cost to the dietary of the American people. It recognize revolutionary governments in Latin America, howwas natural, then, that the Food Administration should look hopefully to that field in outlining a meat-substitute programme.

ever (because of a purpose to influence the peoples concerned

to appreciate constitutionality and not force whenever ther Unfortunately for it, however, the Army and Navy had com

want a governmental change), Tinoco was not recognized as mandeered the best fishing vessels, and the Government activities even took the flax thread, essential to the fishing industry call a convention and have himself declared elected.

President of Costa Rica, even though he took the trouble to for the manufacture and repair of nets. The immediate conse- Now Señor Tinoco has brought a new argument to bear on quence of the commandeering of fishing vessels and the drafting the situation. He has brought his country in as our latest alls. of some of the best fishermen was the discouraging of further

As such it calls for special consideration. The question is ship construction ; for unless some reasonable guaranty might be obtained to the effect that, if new ships were built for the fishing Costa Rica ? The latter evidently expects that when two allies

Will Mr. Wilson now recognize Señor Tinoco as President of trade to replace those taken over, they would not be com

are marching together towards a coinmon goal one will take mandeered, the ships would not be built.

off his hat to the other. The result of all this was that last year the catch was necessarily very low. Moreover, the breakdown in railway transportation still further interfered with distribution plans. The Food Administration, furthermore, was also confronted with the fact

THE GERMANS CONTRADICT THEIR KAISER that the States had jurisdiction over their own waters within The other day at the German Main Headquarters William certain limits-the State laws have been largely made in favor II celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of his accession to the of the game fishermen and against quantity fishing. It is true throne. As reported in press despatches, he proclaims that that proposals were made for bringing some of the shipping “ either German principles of right, freedom, honor, and moraldown from the Great Lakes to go into coast fishing, but since ity must be upheld, or Anglo-Saxon principles, with their idolno guaranty could be given that these vessels would not imme

atry of mammon, must be victorious. diately be taken over for war work, the owners were naturally

Some Germans in Frankfort and Munich have had the harlireluctant. All this did not get us very far.

hood to protest against this Imperial saying. The “ Frankfurter So much for last year's catch. This year's, we are glad to Zeitung" is one of their spokesmen. "The German people were say, is expected to be double that of last year since the fishing not told on August 4, 1914,” affirms the Frankfort paper, al

rise up


cording to the despatches, “ that they were going out to fight tration. Indeed, Wisconsin filed its report four hours earlier the Anglo-Saxon conception of the world until it was conquered. than the District of Columbia. Had that been said, even in veiled terms, the high unity of Repeatedly the Provost-Marshal General has praised Wiswill of the German people would have been rent asunder on the consin's efficiency in raising her share of the National Army. first day, for the German did not think of this or that kind of One quotation from his letters must suffice; “ We have had world conception. He thought only of the Fatherland's need, of constant occasion to place Wisconsin at or near the head of our home and wife and mother.”

lists in nearly every step that has been taken in the execution Moreover, the Frankfort paper goes on to say that, though of the Selective Service Law.” " there are many dark passages in English history, they are not Of the men of military age failing to respond to the draft, the result of any particular perversity in world conception.” the percentage throughout the United States was 8.2; in WisNor will the “ Frankfurter Zeitung,” have the worship of money consin it was only 2. Wisconsin's volunteer enlistments place confined to Germany's enemies. “Unfortunately,” it says, " our her ahead of all but ten of the States, Territories, and Districts. world conception has not protected us from making heavy sac

Wisconsin has furnished 14,690 men under the draft-an rifices on that same altar. There has been no lack of service to excess of 1,814 over the required quota. Wisconsin has more mammon in Germany even in time of war.

boys on the fighting front, it is claimed, than any other State Another spokesman is the Munich “ Post.” According to the in the Union, with the possible exception of Massachusetts. One telegraph, it has declared that “the anniversary of the Kaiser's out of every twenty men in France to-day is a Wisconsin boy. accession could have been celebrated by a measure of clemency It would be possible to quote figures showing how liberally and humanity instead of by a speech of warlike tenor against Wisconsin has subscribed not only to the Liberty Loans, which England without containing words of thanks to his own people.” are investments, but to funds for the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A., The Munich paper concludes that “the Anglo-Saxon races are and the like, which are gifts; but the record given above is powerful enough to accept the Emperor's challenges.”

more convincing, because what counts is not what a State The war is indeed between two sets of principles. But the does with her dollars, but with her sons. Wisconsin has point at issue is that what the Kaiser calls German principles shown her loyalty by pledging what mankind everywhere holds of right are Prussian principles of wrong. Principles that dearest. justify the bloody mire of Belgium, the wrecking of Rheims, the outraging of women, the massacre of children, the defiance of law and humanity, cannot prevail.

NO NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE HUN When we find that two well-known German papers in complaint and contradiction of the Emperor, we welcome GAIN the German Government is making an effort to these signs of healthy reaction.

retard the efforts of the Allies by holding out a hope of

peace. As we go to press comes the report of a speech by the German Foreign Secretary, Richard von Kühlmann, in the

Reichstag, in which he denied that Germany ever had any WISCONSIN'S RECORD IN THE WAR

intention to dominate Europe. And he deplored the condition So much has been said and published concerning disloyalty of mind in which peace proposals were unwelcome. in Wisconsin that the State has suffered in reputation. In par- This is the crux of what the German Foreign Minister had ticular, the case of Senator La Follette, of Wisconsin, has given

to say: the State a notoriety which it does not welcome. It has even “ Once the moment arrives—when I care not to prophesy been said by a representative of the Chamber of Commerce of that the nations which are at present locked in battle will one of Wisconsin's cities that, unless Wisconsin can show that exchange peace views, one of the preliminary conditions must she is misrepresented by Senator La Follette, goods labeled be certain degrees of mutual confidence in each other's honesty - Made in Wisconsin ” will meet the same fate as goods bearing and chivalry. the stamp “Made in Germany.” In brief, the loss of her good “ For so long as every overture is regarded by others as a peace name is affecting Wisconsin's purse. This evidence that a repu

This evidence that a repu- offensive-as a trap or as something false for the purpose of tation for patriotism and loyalty has a tangible value will sowing disunion between allies--so long as every attempt at a undoubtedly have a wholesome effect. It is, moreover, welcome rapprochement is at once violently denounced by the enemies of as showing the overwhelming sentiment of the country in sup- a rapprochement in the various countries, so long will it be port of the cause for which it is fighting But Wisconsin has impossible to see how any exchange of ideas leading to peace undoubtedly been made to suffer unjustly because the people of can be begun.” the country as a whole have not wholly understood the facts. Dr. Kühlmann understands correctly why peace negotiations Wisconsin people become resentful when they hear reports that have failed, and, until victory crowns the Allies' cause, must fail. juries in their State cannot be counted on to convict disloyalists. There can be no negotiations without mutual confidence. And for they know that Wisconsin has a record for loyalty that Germany has made such mutual confidence impossible. challenges the records of other States.

How can England believe in the chivalry of the nation that The Outlook has already recorded the action of the Legisla- murdered Edith Cavell? ture in formally condemning “ Senator Robert M. La Follette How can Belgium believe in the chivalry of the men who and all others who have failed to see the righteousness of our shot civilian men, women, and children as they marched toward Nation's cause, who have failed to support our Government in the Meuse ? matters vital to the winning of the war;" and The Outlook has How can France believe in the chivalry of the men who also recorded the vote in the Senatorial election which revealed ground the very bricks of French homes to powder, and cut the fact that the pro-German element in Wisconsin, though down the very fruit trees, that France might in the future find aggressive and in certain localities dominant, was a small it an agony to recuperate? minority. It may be well to add to these facts others which

may How can Italy believe in the chivalry of the bombers of not be so well known.

Venice? Wisconsin claims the distinction of being the first State in How can America believe in the chivalry of the men who the Union to organize a State Council of Defense. Now every massacred the defenseless passengers on the Lusitania ? State has such a Council, working in co-operation with the How can mankind believe in the chivalry of the Hun? Council of National Defense at Washington; but Wisconsin And Kühlmann says that an exchange of ideas is impossible took the lead. Wisconsin was the first State to provide for the so long as every peace overture is regarded as a peace offensive. dependents of its soldiers. It was Wisconsin that suggested to Does he wonder? He need not. He cannot have forgotten the Washington authorities the use of election machinery for Brest-Litovsk. He cannot believe that we have forgotten. The registering men subject to draft, and it placed its entire election Russians believed that a German peace overture was a real machinery at the disposal of the United States in the first offer of peace, and they are now suffering the consequences of registration for selective service. Wisconsin was the first State their faith in the faithless, their confidence in the pertidious. in the Union to file in Washington a complete report of regis- No. So long Americans retain their memory and their

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3 July sense they will enter into no negotiations with men who have The judge, whether he be a city magistrate or a justice of shown that they count chivalry a weakness and fidelity a vice. the Supreme Court of the United States, is a public servant

. If he is attacked, he has the same right to defense that

any other public servant has; if he suffers injustice, he has the DECLARE WAR ON TURKEY same right to redress that any other public servant enjoys; if

he finds himself obstructed in the performance of his public There are three reasons why the United States should declare war on Turkey: The main reason is that we should

service, he has the same right to seek and obtain relief from the

hindrance that every other public servant should be able to have long since declared war in the name of humanity. When

exercise. When, however, a julge resorts to a use of his power the Armenians were massacred, we should have declared war,

to defend himself, to find redress for a wrong done him, or to limite just as we should have declared it against Germany when

obtain relief from interference which is not open to other public the Lusitania passengers were massacred. Because we did not

servants, he comes dangerously close to acting like a master take such action, the brutes who inspired the massacres, and who

and not a servant of the people. take no account of words, but only of deeds, were inspired to

The power which a judge can use or misuse that is practically think that perhaps, after all, those atrocities might be justified.

confined to tribunals is the power to punish for contempt. It is The next reason why we should declare war on Turkey is that, as in the case of Austria and Bulgaria, we should be merely absolutely necessary that judges should have this power, because

without it occasions arise in which the administration of the recognizing the existing fact. If we needed any reminder of

law and the enforcement of its decrees would be impossible. To this, it came a week ago. The American Board's latest

exercise this power, however, for any other purpose than to proannouncement (taken from advance sheets of the "Missionary

tect the processes of the law is to substitute the will of an Herald” for July) told us that “in general the situation in

individual for the ordered liberty of a free people. Turkey is easier than it was a year ago. The Turkish officials

When, therefore, a judge in the exercise of his power takes are, for the most part, friendly, and are co-operating with the

action that is wholly unwarranted by even color of law, it is a missionaries in relief work.” This information seemed too good

matter of very grave importance. This is what a judge in a to be true. Close on its heels came news of a startlingly con

district court of the United States is declared to have done. trary nature. Turkish troops, it was reported, had attacked the

It is not we who say this of the judge; it is a Justice of the
American Consulate at Tabriz.

Supreme Court of the United States.
As the Brest-Litovsk Treaty between the Teutonic allies calls

În Toledo there was a controversy between a street railway for the cession to Turkey of a considerable section of Russian

and the city over a question of fares. A newspaper of the city

, Transcaucasia, a section adjacent to northern Persia, the Turks

the Toledo “ News-Bee,” had advocated the city's side. A city have a free hand in Transcaucasia and over the border,

ordinance had been passed requiring the railway to accept three where American medical and missionary work in Tabriz and

cent fares. The creditors of the railway company asked the the neighboring Urumia must necessarily suffer. Since the

District Court for an injunction to prevent the company from carly attack on the

Consulate and hospital occurred in Persia, it obeying the ordinance. The newspaper cartooned the Judge, and might appear that our Government should hold the Persian

in news, editorial comment, and cartoons, while the case was Government responsible for the safety of foreigners and their

pending, avouched the right of the city to have enacted the properties within its borders

. But because of Persia's inability ordinance which the suit assailed, and expressed opinions on to resist the Turkish troops and because of Turkey's activity another case growing out of that suit. On technical grounds the in northern Persia, Turkey must be held responsible. Some

Court denied the injunction in March, 1914, but on September critics immediately declared that the attack probably came

12, in view of intervening circumstances, awarded the injunction.de from Tartars, not from Turks. As no denial has come to hand of the charge that the attack was made by Turkish troops, Repre Then, on September 29, the Judge took action against

the news

paper, and in December tried the newspaper summarily without sentative Kelly, of Pennsylvania, has introduced a joint resolution in Congress declaring that a state of warexists between the Amer

jury, and in the following year imposed a considerable fine. ican and the Turkish Governments. Congress must face that fact.

The case was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United

States, which, in a decision supported by an opinion read by the
Finally, we should declare war on Turkey because Turkey is
Chief Justice, upheld the District Judge. In upholding the

ile a principal part of the Pan-Germanic plan. By making war

TW upon Bulgaria and Turkey we should be threatening Pan- Judge the Supreme Court dismissed three propositions put forth .

by the counsel for the newspaper: Firstthat there was want War with Turkey, however, has been opposed all along by

of power in the Court as the result of certain provisions in the Na

judicial code ; second, that there was want of power to abridge those who say that we would endanger the lives of our mission

the freedom of the press by punishment for comments made aries, medical men, educators, and our American schools in Turkey. The missionary boards have been inclined to feel that

upon matters of public concern ; and, third, that there was

entire absence of proof to sustain the inferences upon which the Turkish atrocities would increase rather than diminish if the United States should incite the Turks to anger by declaring

Court based its conclusion. In dismissing the first proposition,

the Supreme Court interpreted the provision of the statute which war on them. This reason has doubtless restrained the Govern

United States Courts to ment from precipitate action. The question is, however: Is provides that the power of judges this reason sufficient always to restrain us?

punish for contempt “ shall not be construed to extend to any cases except the misbehavior of any person in their presence, or

so near thereto as to obstruct the administration of justice." B CRITICISM OF THE COURTS

The Supreme Court holds that this means that it is not neces sary to show that the act done actually obstructed justice

, but Judges have divine right no more than kings. Americans tended to obstruct justice. In dismissing the second proposilaughed at the pretensions of monarchs to arbitrary authority- tion, the Supreme Court declares that the freedom of the press laughed until this war made plain the menace in those preten- does not mean “ freedom to do wrong with impunity," or " to

MA sions. But the sacrosanctitude which Americans have denied to frustrate and defeat the discharge of those Governmental princes they have been inclined to attribute to courts of justice. duties upon the performance of which the freedom of all, includCriticism of a judge's decision is widely felt to be almost a ing that of the press, depends.” In dismissing the third proposispecies of lese-majesté. In America it has almost come to pass tion, the Supreme Court decided that it was not necessary to that the judge can do no wrong.

show that the mind of the Judge was influenced by the news And judges have it in their power to make criticism of themselves in many cases actually dangerous. It is the arbitrary acts to accomplish this result.

paper, because “ the wrong depends upon the tendency of the power of kings that makes the doctrine of the divine right of kings something to be reckoned with. It is the arbitrary power whose dissent Mr. Justice Brandeis concurred) spoke with a

In dissenting from this opinion Mr. Justice Holmes (with of judges that makes the belief in the peculiar sanctity of vigor which a newspaper, in commenting upon this case, would judges something more than a superstition.

hardly venture to indulge in. We quote the following In this belief, widely held and sustained by the courts themselves, there is some danger to the liberties of a free people. “The statute in force at the time of the alleged contempts

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tences :

lefined the power of courts in cases of this sort to where there had been misbehavior of any person in their presence, or so near thereto as to obstruct the administration of justice.' Before the trial took place an Act was passed giving a trial by jury upon demand of the accused in all but the above-mentioned instances. ... When it is considered how contrary it is to our practice and ways of thinking for the same person to be accuser and sole judge in a matter which, if he be sensitive, may involve strong personal feeling, I should expect the power to be limited by the necessities of the case 'to insure order and decorum in their presence.' ... And when the words of the statute are read, it seems to me that the limit is too plain to be construed away. To my mind, they point and point only to the present protection of the Court from actual interference, and not to postponed retribution for lack of respect for its dignitynot to moving to vindicate its independence after enduring the newspaper's attacks for nearly six months, as the Court did in this case.

I think that .so near as to obstruct' means so

near as actually to obstruct—and not merely near enough to threaten a possible obstruction. . . . Misbehavior means something more than adverse comment or disrespect. . . . A judge of the United States is expected to be a man of ordinary firmness of character, and I find it impossible to believe that such a judge could have found in anything that was printed even a tendency to prevent his performing his sworn duty. . . . I would go as far as any man in favor of the sharpest and most summary enforcement of order in Court and obedience to decrees, but when there is no need for immediate action contempts are like any other breach of law and should be dealt with as the law deals with other illegal acts. Action like the present, in my opinion, is wholly unwarranted by even color of law."

Our only comment upon this opinion is that Congress should promptly amend the statute so that it will unmistakably mean what Justice Holmes believes it means and should mean. The power of contempt should be used, not for retribution, but solely for the protection of the court.




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NE of the best histories of the Russian Revolution that This statement Mr. Wilton regards as misleading and untrue. has yet appeared in print-although one that has attracted Russia’s man power and material resources were not exhausted.

little attention in the United States-is “ Russia's Her losses, in proportion to population, had been smaller than Agony," by Robert Wilton, formerly special correspondent in those of any European Ally. The Russian people, moreover, - Petrograd of the London " Times.” Mr. Wilton has lived were not war weary. They were only“ discouraged by the blind

nearly half his life in Russia ; has long been able to speak, or willful stupidity of their rulers, who were acting like tools of read, and write the Russian language ; has known personally German influence and ambition." This discouragement was nearly all the statesmen, generals, and prominent leaders who shared to some extent by the army; but the soldiers still respected have recently been active in Russian affairs; and has been for and trusted their officers, and were keen and eager to fight if the last fourteen years a close and attentive observer of events, they could feel sure that they would receive adequate support both in the Russian capital and in the Russian army at the and would not be betrayed to their enemies by German agents i front. Few men, therefore, are better qualified by knowledge and sympathizers in the

and experience to tell the story of the Russian Revolution, and The demoralization of the people and the disintegration of to explain its causes and results in such a way as to make them the army began with the usurpation of authority by the Workintelligible to Western readers. His book, as he says in his men's Council. It is a curious fact that in the beginning this preface, “ is a living record of personal experience of Russia, Council, which was composed largely of self-elected delegates among the Russians, dating back nearly half a century. I claim and “jail-deliveries,” was so weak and had so little prestige no credit for it other than sincerity and freedom from race that if it had not pretended to be acting in co-operation with or party bias. I have no interest to serve except my British the Duma it might not have had any support at all outside of birthright, which is perhaps dearer to me because of my long German agents and workmen in the Petrograd factories. And exile.

yet the first Provisional Government was apparently afraid to The volume in which this personal experience is set forth deal with it in a resolute way, even when it issued its famous comprises 350 pages, and is divided into four parts, viz. : * Order No. 1” to the army and began to break down disciE-Slavdom, the Tatars and Autocracy; II—“ Democracy, pline by depriving officers of authority and putting all power Socialism," and "Freedom;" III–Russia at War; IV- into the hands of soldiers' committees. Weak, however, as the Kornilov and the Cossacks. The part most likely to interest Council was in the beginning, it soon gained the necessary American readers at the present time is Part II, in which are physical force by corrupting the Petrograd garrison ; and then, lescribed with great clearness the formation of the Russian as Mr. Wilton says, “ the task that had been undertaken in all Workmen's Council

, the rapid development of pacifism and sincerity by the moderate groups in the Duma became utterly radical Socialism, the influence of the German propaganda in hopeless, and the overthrow of any coalition government that corrupting and disintegrating the army, the weakness of both might be formed was practically certain.” the first Provisional Government under Prince Lvoff and the As the Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates (the later coalition Ministry under Kerensky, the rise to power of Soviet) gained power, it became more and more radical in its the Bolsheviki, the patriotic but ill-fated attempt of General political attitude and adopted more and more generally the Kornilov to save Kerensky, and the final triumph of the fanatical views of the Bolsheviki. "This change is attributed by Mr. f not traitorous forces which brought about anarchy, chaos, Wilton mainly to Lenine and the “ handful of pseudo-Jew the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, the loss of Finland and the Ukraine, extremists” who supported him. These renegade Jews—" hatethe ascendency of Germany, and the disruption of Russia. laden product of the Pale ”-concealed their identities under

Mr. Wilton does not think that the Russian people in the assumed Russian and Polish names. Among the most prominent early part of 1917 were weary of the war. Kerensky, in a of them were Bronstein (Trotsky), Apfelbaum (Zinoviev), speech made in the Duma about two weeks before the outbreak Rosenfeldt (Kamenev), Goldman (Gorev), Goldberg (Mekowski), of the Revolution, said :

Zederbaum (Martov), Nahamkez (Steklov), Himmer (Sukhanov), We think that the man power and material resources of this

Feldman (Chernov), and Krachman (Zagorski).“ Without country are exhausted and that the time has come for a termina- these men,” says Mr. Wilton, “and without the help of Gertion of the European conflict. It must be settled on a basis of man agents like Robert Grimm and German gold conveyed the self-determination of all nationalities. All governments must through well-known banks in Petrograd, Lenine could never forego to the same extent their imperialistic aims.

have secured the ephemeral triumph of Bolshevism. Without

these adjuncts there would never have been a separate peace 8 Agony. By Robert Wilton. Longmans, Green & Co., New York.

negotiation at Brest-Litovsk, conducted by two Jews (Joffe The Birth of the Russian Democracy. By A. J. Sack, Director of the Russian " York, 191 8. $2.90, postpaid. Informati on Bureau, in the United States. Russian Information Bureau, New

and Trotsky) in the name of Russia. There is no doubt that Lenine deliberately entered into an arrangement with his coun

i Russia 81.80.

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