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try's foes, and used German money to propagate his doctrines. last long. “Bolshevism,” he says, “ is a destructive, not a conTo a fanatic who repudiates nationality and nationhood (except structive, agency. It has laid waste the country agriculturally for one class) there was nothing derogatory in such a proceeding and industrially, and it offers no practicable method of feeding To him all means were good provided he could achieve his end.” and clothing the people. Thus, from an economic point of view,
One of the most conspicuous—not to say spectacular-figures the continuance of the present régime is an impossibility. From in the Russian Revolution was the moderate Socialist Kerensky, a political standpoint it is equally absurd. Bolshevism is the who entered the first Provisional Government as Minister of deadliest foe of our civilization, and we may hope that the Justice, afterward became Minister of War, and finally, upon modern Huns who have launched this visitation will have cause the retirement of Prince Lvoff, succeeded the latter as Premier. to regret their foul work, as they already have deplored the Mr. Wilton describes him as a highly strung, somewhat hys- application of poison gases. The Russians survived Tatardom. terical young man, who was the son of a Russian schoolmaster They are a great multitude, and they have not all succumbed to and a German mother of Jewish descent. He passed his early the German Bolshevist poison. The Revolution has stirred manhood in comfortable surroundings in Tashkend, where his the dregs and muddied the current of national life; but it father was director of the local high school.” Afterward be effects have not been altogether unsalutary, nor have its lesson moved to Simbirsk, became a struggling lawyer, specialized in been lost upon the best elements of the nation. A new Russia “political ” cases, and was finally elected to the Duma from the is springing up amid the ruins of the old. The day of Lenine province of Saratof. He soon distinguished himself as a bold and destruction draws to a close. Do not believe outward and fiery orator, and became the leader of the political faction aspects and appearances. Russia is not dead. Her agony, still known as the “ Group of Toil.” He had, however, very little upon her, is not the agony
of death, but the agony of a living, knowledge of governmental affairs, and when, at the outbreak breathing organism struggling to find expression, wrestling of the Revolution, “greatness was thrust upon him it reached against the fiend of Bolshevism that has gripped her when she far above his mental and moral caliber. He was not of gentle was at her weakest. . . . Three centuries ago Russia wa birth or upbringing, nor was he a statesman by genius or expe- afflicted, as she now is, with a time of confusion. Then Minin
, rience. Well-intentioned enough, he found himself torn by a a tradesman of Nizhni, aroused the people, and Count Pozharsky thousand conflicting cares and interests. As Minister-President, led them. In a week they had driven the Polish invader out of uniting in his person the offices of Minister of War and Marine Moscow. History repeats itself.” and Commander-in-Chief, he became more distracted and more Mr. Sack's book, "The Birth of the Russian Democracy," crushed by his burdens.” Mr. Wilton blames him for breaking is, in a certain sense, complementary to the work of Mr. Wilton. down discipline in the army, first by abolishing the death pen. It contains neither an account of personal experience nor a alty, and then by issuing the so-called “ Soldiers' Charter,” six record of personal observation ; but, on the other hand, it coror seven sections of which are wholly incompatible with military ers a much wider field than that with which Mr. Wilton deal. order and efficiency. He also accuses him of playing fast and and gives a fuller and more consecutive account of the revoloose with the Bolsheviki, and of betraying General Kornilov lutionary movement, from the conspiracy of the Deceniwhen the latter tried to help him by sending a force of cavalry brists in 1825 to the usurpation of authority by the Bol. to Petrograd. Kerensky, Mr. Wilton thinks, was, above all, sheviki in the fall of 1917. Thirteen chapters are devoted to irresolute and weak. Lenine, after overthrowing the coalition “The History of the Russian Revolutionary Movement," and Government in November, 1917, said of him : " Kerensky is
Kerensky is five more to the “Spiritual Leaders” by whom that movement nobody. He has always hesitated. He has never done anything was guided. No fuller or better account, probably, is to be and is always vacillating. He was a partisan of Kornilov, and found in the English language of the ideas, the men, and the had him arrested. He was an opponent of Trotsky, and he events that finally brought about the overthrow of the Czar allowed him his liberty. And, as he has not dared to defend him- Government in March, 1917. The biographical sketches of the self, I firmly believe he did not dare to attack us.” (Interview great revolutionary leaders—Bakunin, Lavrov, Kropotkin, with a correspondent of the “ Matin,” November 10, 1917.) Breshkovsky, and Plekhanof—are accurate and interesting.
Of all the military leaders who distinguished themselves in and contain many details of personal experience and adventure the revolutionary period Mr. Wilton thinks most highly of the that are little known—if known at all—to American readers. Cossack Generals Kaledin and Kornilov. The latter, he says, To “ The Birth of the Russian Democracy” Mr. Sack de "proved himself to be a great leader of men-I may say, one of votes thirteen chapters (300 octavo pages), but, unlike Mr. the greatest military commanders of his time—as well as a clear- Wilton, he tells the story of the Revolution largely through sighted statesman.” If Kerensky had followed his advice original documents, connecting them by enough lucid narrative instead of ordering his arrest, the Bolsheviki would not have to show the circumstances or the sequence of events in which been able to overthrow the coalition Government in November, they had their origin. This collection of speeches, addresses 1917, and the whole subsequent course of Russian history might orders, proclamations, and resolutions comprises the whole have been different. Even Bourtsef, one of the oldest and most documentary history of the Russian Revolution, and gives the experienced of the Russian revolutionists, a man whom it was im- political programme of almost every group or faction that has possible to suspect of counter-revolutionary tendencies, advised played a part in it, as well as the aims or opinions of every Kerensky to arrest Lenine and Trotsky and imprison them in the prominent leader who has influenced it. Even the speeches of fortress; but, as Lenine afterward contemptuously said, “ Keren- Elihu Root in Russia and Ambassador Bakhmetieff in the sky did not dare either to attack us or to defend himself.” United States are given in full. This feature of the book gives
The hope of Russia, Mr. Wilton thinks, is embodied in the it great value both as a work of reference and as a compendium Cossacks. “ It was thanks to the Cossacks," he says, of revolutionary opinions and judgments. Russia did not go to pieces in the first weeks of the Revolution ; The most striking difference between Mr. Wilton's book and they alone restored a semblance of order on the railways and Mr. Sack's is in the point of view. Wilton's position is that of a kept desertion in check; they held the country against the rather conservative British journalist, while Sack looks at events inroads of Bolshevism. But they were only one hundred thou- from the view-point of a moderate, thoughtful, and reasonable sand horsemen scattered over a front of fifteen hundred miles Socialist. Both are fair and both are uncompromisingly hostile and many more miles of railway. They were willing and able to to Prussianism and Bolshevikism ; but Wilton would like to see support the Government, but they could not save Russia single- a constitutional monarchy in Russia, while Sack favors a govhanded against a coalition of Government and Soviet, both ernment in which there shall be no ruler except the sovereign dallying with Bolshevism. Kerensky sought their aid when it people. With regard to many questions, however, the two pleased his fancy or suited his purpose. Then he turned on them writers are in almost perfect agreement. Wilton, for example, to negotiate with Lenine." It is the Cossacks, and only the attributes the demoralization and disintegration of the Russian Cossacks, who, under General Kornilov in European Russia and army largely to “Order No.1" of the Workmen's Council and General Semeonof in Siberia, are still fighting the Bolsheviki the Soldiers' Charter" of Kerensky. Sack expresses practiand striving to save their country from anarchy and from Ger-cally the same judgment when he says: “Kerensky's ' Declaraman domination.
tion of Soldiers' Rights,' together with the famous Order The rule of Lenine and Trotsky, Mr. Wilton thinks, cannot No. 1,' may be considered as the most fatal acts of the Revolu
tion. These decrees were probably psychologically inevitable, admirable index in which may be found the name of almost but their fatal rôle in the destruction of the Russian army can- every prominent Russian revolutionist who has lived since 1825. not be overestimated." (Page 421.)
The two books—“ Russia's Agony” and “ The Birth of the Mr. Sack's book is written in fluent, idiomatic English ; it is Russian Democracy”-taken together furnish the best history profusely illustrated with portraits of revolutionary leaders- we have or are likely to have in the near future of the Russian many of them rare and some of them excellent; and it has an Revolution, with its antecedents and its consequences.
THE SHIPYARDS OF THE GREAT LAKES
BY THE HON. CRAWFORD VAUGHAN
FORMER PREMIER OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA
BOARDED the midnight express for Buffalo on Tuesday, would thus be secured would warrant the delay in construction. April 24, on a tour that was mapped out by the National One ship-builder, while expressing the belief that the idea was
not impracticable, said: “We could build two smaller boats Emergency Fleet Corporation, of which Dr. Charles A. Eaton probably quicker than we could quarter up the larger one.” is the head, to encircle the United States. My ticket measured That the Lakes shipyards can turn out mammoth boats is five feet in length. It covered nearly nine thousand rail miles. revealed in the great fleet of ore freighters which carry coal and My mission was to help speed up ship-building by addressing ship- iron ore between Superior and the shores of Lake Michigan. workers in every shipyard from Buffalo to Seattle, from Seattle There is nothing more impressive on the face of the waters, to San Diego, and from San Diego to the Hampton Roads. unless it be a war-ship, than a long-nosed, black-hulled levia
I was not alone. Sergeant-Major Smith, late of the Marne, than pushing its relentless way through the breaking ice or up of Ypres, Salonika, and Gallipoli, and prior to that of Cluna, against the ore bins, there to load up with a freight that shortly Tibet, and India—cockney-born, but known in the British will be transformed into rails or roaring engines, into boiler army as Smith of America-bore me company. Smith had set- plate or big guns, or into steel that will go screaming into the tled peacefully down to the idyllic occupation of growing grape- German lines in the form of shells. fruit on the Isle of Pines—that treasure island out in the lazy These great ships, with their smoke-stacks astern, are in some Caribbean Sea-where war once more caught him. Metaphori- instances 625 feet long, 60 feet in beam, 20 feet draught, and, cally beating his plowshare into a sword and his pruning- with their 2,000 horse-power and averaging 10 knots, carry as hook into a spear, he went over the top at fifty years of
age, much as 13,000 tons of ore in a single haul. It takes only two and, after three thrilling years on all the principal fronts, he and a half hours to fill up all the holds of such a ship with the came home with the one regret that he didn't get the Kaiser. red iron ore, and a little longer to unload, such is the character However, he is doing the next best thing to that. He is stirring of the labor-saving machinery installed at the inland ports of the men in the shipyards to build the bridge of ships over America. A boat of 10,000 tons will pull alongside a wharf, say, which the great armies of America can march to Berlin. at Cleveland or Toledo at ten in the morning, empty herself of
I had been inspired with the magnitude of the shipyards on 10,000 tons of iron, load up with coal, and be steaming out by the Atlantic seaboard, I had seen something of the keelways five o'clock in the afternoon. on the Pacific, I had heard of the great preparation of the Duluth Harbor claims to be the second port in the world in Gulf ports not to be behind any other coast in the production of point of tonnage shipped. It has long since outdistanced Livertonnage. But of the Great Lakes shipyards little was known to pool's total. me, or is known to-day, I believe, to the general American public. In July last year it was estimated that 700 tons of freight
Yet these Lakes shipyards are doing a great National work, was loaded or unloaded at the Duluth-Superior wharfs and and are doing it under singular difficulties. Ice-bound for the docks every minute of the twenty-four hours per day. Upon the winter months, subject to a temperature of 40° below zero at Great Lakes themselves is borne a commerce of 100,000,000 times, and limited in their launchings by the Welland Canal, tons annually, and there is no place in the world that approaches the Great Lakes do not, on the face of things, appear to offer the Lakes for cheapness in the handling and hauling of its great facilities for the output of ocean-going vessels.
water-borne commerce. Ore and coal were hauled in pre-war Of all the disabilities under which ship production on the days to and from Superior to Lake Erie ports, one thousand Great Lakes suffers, however, that of the limitations imposed by miles away, the round trip costing a dollar a ton, or one-twentieth the Welland Canal is the greatest. The canal is the narrow of a cent per mile. neck to the great depressions that inclose an inland sea. Its The tonnage now under construction in the Great Lakes shiplocks limit the length and width of beam of the vessel that re- yards on behalf of the Emergency Fleet Corporation is an everquires to pass through to the ocean beyond. A ship must not be increasing one. Old yards are expanding as though the wand of longer than 261 feet, nor wider in beam than 42 feet 6 inches. the magician had been waved over them. New yards are being This fixes somewhat definitely the tonnage that can be launched improvised along inland waters whose quietude was never before on the upper waters of the St. Lawrence.
disturbed by the whiffing rattle of the riveting machine. Still To overcome this disability the Lakes shipyards have some- further yards are projected in placid upper river reaches that times cut boats in halves, and this practice will, I understand, till now have launched no other boat than the Indian canoe. probably be resorted to in order to produce a more serviceable Of Canadian ship-building activity I have seen nothing but freighter than is now possible. The present type of ocean-going ships being launched along the Canadian shore at Toronto and cargo carrier produced on the akes is uneconomical, inasmuch other river cities. On the United States side we spoke in the as the space
taken for boilers and crew leaves too small an yards of Buffalo, Cleveland, Lorain, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago, area for cargo. The tonnage capacity of the present class of Manitowoc, Superior, and Duluth. Wemissed only Sturgeon Bay. vessel which is being built in this district for the American At present more than twenty-two thousand men are here Government approximates thirty-five hundred tons. It is pos- employed in actual ship construction, while probably an equal sible to increase that tonnage probably to fifty-five hundred tons number are engaged in the manufacture of parts in lake shore by cutting the ship in two and taking each part separately cities. These figures necessarily take no cognizance of men through the locks. Beyond that it would not be safe to go, working in steel mills, in coal and iron mines, and in other callbecause a good sea boat must be somewhat proportionate ings more or less incidental to the building of ships. Within a longitudinally to her width of beam and her depth, and these two few months not less than sixty thousand men will be engaged in latter factors are definitely determined by the Welland Canal. launching these lifeboats of liberty.
Suggestions have been put forward for slicing ships in four There is undoubtedly a shortage of skilled ship-builders here, and dovetailing the parts together in an assembling shop on the as there is in every other part of America. Riveters are being lower river; but this process involves considerable additional trained in specially devised schools, but practical experience labor and time, and it is doubtful whether the extra space that cannot be secured in a day. Men's muscles must be hardened
and adjusted to the work. As one of the most successful ship- tons last year against 6,000,000 tons sunk by U-boats, they take builders remarked to me: “ If it needs six months to train a a grip of the situation and hold up both hands to the appeal to soldier to endure the rigors of the trenches, it may be taken for stand by their mates at the front. granted that it requires a few months to enable a man to stay Strikes are happily now unknown in these shipyards. The for hours in all sorts of positions and weather fastening steel man who talked strike would be regarded as an agent for the plates on the side of a ship.”.
Kaiser, and he would probably be tipped into the ice-cold lake There is a shortage of skilled turners and fitters, of engineers waters, to get out as best- he could. and other craftsmen, and these, again, cannot be produced in a That the Lakes are destined to become a great center of week or two.
ship-building activity is, I think, assured. The building up of the executive of a yard also calls for time Mr. Ford, whose gift for organization has made him world and experience. In all these directions the ship-building corpo- famous, selected Detroit, as the best location for the production rations of the Great Lakes have had to face difficulties which of the Eagle—the new standardized type of submarine chaser. called for patience, persistence, and a big faith in themselves. A huge Eagle factory is in course of construction at present
Here is the story in brief of one Duluth shipyard as handed on the Detroit River. Its size may be gauged from the stateto me by the management:
ment made to me by one of Mr. Ford's chief assistants, that it Where this shipyard now is there was land under water in was, three-quarters of a.mile from either end to the center of September, 1917. Since then the new land was made, the new
the plant. shipyard established, and we have built four steel ships while It is anticipated that 40,000 men will be engaged in the conice formed thirty-eight. inches thick. After cutting away six struction of Eagles. The output is expected to reach one ship thousand tons of ice the first ship was launched February 25, per day. Even if this be an over-sanguine estimate, and I am 1918, others following ten days apart.
inclined to think it is, the production of three ships in two days In the first six months we built the plant and four steel hulls will be a mighty answer to the submarines of the Kaiser. and had three others forty per cent made.
The Eagle type of chaser, one of which is erected in the Ford In four months, on vacant land, fifty houses and three hotels Motor Works, has lines so fine that she would cut a ship in for our men were built-all steam-heated from a central plant. halves without feeling much shock from the impact. I mounted Also a faithful, contented crew of 1,200 ship-building men the decks, and the thought came to me that, as Mr. Ford himwas collected. We have a happy community here, including a self has suggested, this is a war of tool power, and there lay the small academy where young men are taught the arts of ship- answer of a peace-loving manufacturer to the military power of building.
Germany. We now make our own engines, and soon will have our boiler Another reason for belief that these Lakes shipyards will shops finished, when we hope to make one complete ship every prove themselves valuable, even when peace comes, rests upon a three weeks, or in less time. We have lots of room, to expand, geographical basis. Iron lies at their gates. Great steel works and intend to do so.
Hourish in their midst. At Gary, Indiana, Chicago, Duluth, That they have succeeded so well is in itself a fine tribute to Detroit, and other Lakes ports the glow of the blast-furnace their organizing skill and their patriotism.
burns a hole in the night and tall chimneys smoke the face of They have succeeded in some of the yards in providing two the sun by day. Truly a pillar of cloud by day, of fire by shifts, thereby utilizing the machinery of manufacture for six- night. The scene expresses, as it were, the very incarnation of teen hours out of the twenty-four. Riveting is not done in such
American energy. cases by night, but the plates are bolted into position under To take the ore from the great mines of Lake Superior ; to powerful overhead lights which are fixed on the crane and else- convert it into steel ; to fashion that steel into plates and beams; where, and which turn night into day. The riveting gauges are to assemble those into the form of a ship; to launch that ship then concentrated on this job in the daylight hours.
upon the adjacent waters; to fill it there and then with the food I saw women working at some of the lathes in an engine shop grown out in the Western prairies or with the goods that pour at Buffalo, and the manager was perfectly satisfied with his out of the great factories of those roaring cities along the Lake experiment. For lathe and similar work women are admirably fronts—all this seems logical and predestined. suited. They are painstaking and efficient, and do not seem to A line of great cities stand as trade sentinels on either shore tire at the job. Woman has not invaded the keelways them- Toronto, Fort William, and other Canadian centers to the selves, but for the lighter industrial jobs the American girl north ; Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago with its should prove as efficient as her English sister.
three million people, Milwaukee, Duluth, and a dozen smaller The Lakes yards have attracted some of the best ship-building centers on the United States shore. brains in America. There is no camouflage here about the busi- What cities they are, vigorous with young life, stretching ness of building ships ; that is reserved for the ship itself before their giant limbs, and facing the future with indomitable conit heads its way down-stream. The executives of the yards know fidence in themselves ! their job, and in nearly every instance are away ahead of their Their civic aspirations are expressed in those words cut into schedule. The men are putting up records for rivet-driving that the granite base of the statue to the late Tom L. Johnson, will call for a big spurt in other districts if they are to be beaten. Mayor of Cleveland : They are in most instances one hundred per cent loyal Ameri
“ He found us groping, cans, if one may judge on a Liberty-bond basis.
Leaderless and blind. Necessarily there is still some room for improvement, particu
He left a city larly in sticking to the job and working six days a week. On
With a civic mind. Saturday afternoon in 'one yard we found the iron-workers
He found us striving, absent, owing to some mistaken interpretation of their agreement
Each his selfish part.
He left a city with the authorities at Washington. If those men only realized
With a civic heart." how many lives that laying off for Saturday afternoon involved, they would not only forego that half-holiday, but would put in
But the people of the Great Lakes are thinking not in terms extra time to make up for it. It is our task to bring such things of peace nor of a narrow civic freedom. Theirs is the lary. home to them.
vision. The precious freightage they are speeding down-stream When these men are told of the great dependence of our are their sons, who will carry with them to France the spirit of Navy upon an adequate number of colliers, and that Pershing's the Declaration of Independence. And the ship-builders ar army is dependent for shells and guns upon the store provided doing their part in this great world crisis. by France and Great Britain for their own use, and that this con- For ships are the key to victory. Liberty calls to us acro dition of affairs exists solely because of the lack of ships, they the waters torespond by expressed determination to make up the leeway.
“ Launch our Mayflower and steer boldly When it is brought home to them that the world's immediate
Through the desperate winter's sea, shortage of ships amounts to 7,500,000 tons, without allowing for
Nor attempt the future's portal submarine sinkings, and that the Allies built only 3,000,000
With the past's blood-rusted key."
BY HAROLD TROWBRIDGE PULSIFER
* One by one the strong young eagles fall.”—From an editorial in the New York “Sun" on the death of Major Lufbery
So one by one the strong young eagles fall
With broken wings but with unconquered souls,
Leaving to those who follow where they call
A flaming, far-flung vision of their goals.
THE SPIRIT OF '63
BY ELSIE SINGMASTER
TOU'D treat children that way?” asked old Evans, slowly. out of the hospital, he was, to his great disgust, invalided, and
“Certainly, if their parents carried them into his military appearances were thenceforth limited to an absurd danger."
hopping in military and Memorial Day parades, where, laughed "You'd throw them into the cold sea ?"
at and applauded, he kept bravely up with more fortunate com“ It wouldn't be my lookout.”
rades who had two sound legs. “And women, you'd-you'd—” Old Evans stopped, lacking In his old age Evans was made guardian of what he believed words.
to be the treasure of the world, the Cyclorama of the Battle of A low, coarse laugh answered him.
Gettysburg, which, after many journeys and long sojournings “ War is war," said another voice. “It's not a tea party, like in great cities, had found at last a permanent home. Evans had your war.
seen few paintings in his life, but he did not need any extensive In the vast cylindrical room there was after this complete knowledge of art to tell him that this was a great painting. stillness. From without not a sound carried through the un- Here was Gettysburg-could one not distinguish the Seminary, broken walls, and within there was not even the buzzing of a dim but unmistakable, in the distance; could one not see the very Ay, since old Evans pursued flies as relentlessly as he had once trees which Pickett's men made their desperate goal, the very pursued Confederates. Even the birds which twittered under Angle in the stone wall which was bathed in blood ? Here were the lofty roof were for the moment still.
the generals, Hunt among his staff, Hancock magnificent on his The Cyclorama of the Battle of Gettysburg was at this great horse, Armistead reeling backward, the heroic symbol of moment at its best. The sun was close to setting, and the brilliant splendid defeat. Here were flying banners, here were smoke ight, reflected from a clear sky, shone from above upon the clouds, here was a caisson bursting volcanically into red flame hundreds of square feet of painted canvas with which the walls and spreading ruin, here were injured men in tortured positions, were covered. Time had softened the bright colors, but the light here were surgeons at their sad work, here was even an old eemed now to restore the yellow of the wheat, the blue and red Gettysburg doctor, pressed into service and painted to the life! of the waving banners, even the scarlet of the blood-stains. The Here was, moreover, ripe wheat, exactly the proper color for ruel scene was presented in a romantic glow which brightened July 3 in Gettysburg-Evans had observed it since fifty-two and glorified.
times—here were red poppies in the wheat, here were the disOld Evans was a little man in a blue suit, with a saber cut tant hills with Jack's Mountain plainly to be seen, there in the ne ross his face and a grotesquely twisted leg. The saber cut distance was even a dim suggestion of Emmittsburg! nade him appear indescribably ferocious, the crooked leg inde- Old Evans met visitors with the enthusiasm of a child. He cribably ridiculous. Facing him stood three men, heavy, soft of loved to talk, he could talk almost all day. lesh, and elegantly dressed. All four were angry; old Evans Well, friends, you've come to see the painting. A treat's in vi th the white heat with which one contemplates some out- store for you. Before taking you into the main room I'll tell ageous wrong, the others with the annoyance with which one re- you what you're going to see. A colossal work, friends. A battle. ga-rds an insect before the moment of smiting. Old Evans moved This is a great day for you, children. Have you been over the a step backward, his limp more than ever ridiculous to the visi- field? Well, there's no choice between going over the field tors. One of them laughed again. At that a gleam which was before you see the Cyclorama or after you see the Cyclorama, almost insane came into Evans's eye. Hemoved still farther away. just so you see it, friends. Yes, a quarter. A quarter may seem
Even in war time visitors throng to Gettysburg. They come large now, but it's a small price for what you're going to get. in automobiles and in trains, in the most elegant of limousines Now, look !" und in the most plebeian of Fords. They drive about, the indif- When Evans had said his speech, he accompanied his guests erent idly glancing at that which does not particularly concern to the door and gave them a benediction. chem, the others gazing with the eager attention of those who “Up the street now, friends, to the graves of the unbehave within them springs of imagination or patriotic emotion at knownst.' hat which thrills and stirs them. They visit the Jenny Wade Evans not only adored the picture but defended it. House, where fell the one woman slain in a three days' battle; “You say there ain't any poppies in Gettysburg wheat? hey visit East Cemetery Hill, where the Louisiana Tigers You drive to Pen Mar and you'll see poppies in the wheat. were hurled back, broken ; they visit the Angle behind which There's nothing to prove that there weren't poppies here then. ose a living and impregnable breastwork; they visit the scene French haystacks? That's a small matter to fuss about. It of Pickett's charge and look across the wide fields once strewn might be that a Gettysburg farmer made a haystack like that with the defenders of a Lost Cause; they stand at last—the most for a change." lull a little awed-before the Cyclorama. There some refuse to Evans even feared the Cyclorama. In the twilight, when he zive more than a glance, not now from lack of interest, but from looked about, the masses of smoke seemed to move, to roll forfright—from stubborn unwillingness to look at war.
ward on the battle-lines, the dying and even the dead to stir. At the Cyclorama they see also old Evans, whose youth was On moonlight nights one rider seemed to Evans to urge his glorious and whose old age is happy. Old Evans received both white steed forward, and Evans thought of Death on his pale saber cut and shell wound at the Angle on the third day, and horse. Then Evans heard shouts and screams and the roar of fell , yelling defiance, to know no more for many weeks. Once cannon, and quickly closed the door of the tall iron grating between the Cyclorama and the vestibule, and then the outer the battle. You see, friends, it was this way. For two year, door itself.
friends, war had been proceeding, and our folks hadn't been Old Evans had many friends. Among his intimates were the successful. You know all about that. Lee, he conceived a great blacksmith, John Byers, who was the largest man in Gettys- plan. If he could get north of Mason and Dixon's line burg; Alec Dimmet, a carpenter, who was six feet two and of attack the capital of the Keystone State, which was Harrisburg powerful frame; and John Potter, the Burgess, who was only a he wouldn't have much trouble-so he thought—with Philadellittle smaller than John Byers.
phia, and after that Baltimore and Washington would be easi Evans lived with the Burgess, a silent man who liked to hear marks. So, having whipped our folks bad at Chancellorsville, Evans talk. Seen together they suggested a giant and his famil- he made his plans for to go north, and he did go north, friends, iar. Agreement between them was complete, both about their clear to sight of Harrisburg. But then, friends, he got impormanner of living and about the affairs of the world. Especially tant word that set him thinking. Our folks was after him. Br 1 did they now agree about what Evans called “ the contemporary he thought that General Stuart could easily tend to them witi. war,” and their comments took the form of a lengthy recitative his cavalry, and he goes on. He-" in Evans's tenor with comments in Potter's deep bass. The Old Evans found himself interrupted. recitative recounted the events of each day as reported in the “Say, friend,” said a harsh voice, "we haven't got all time, newspapers, the bass added such expressions as "hellish butch- We've got to be in Philadelphia to-morrow evening ery, execrable,” and occasionally “damnable.” When Alec Evans made pleasant answer, as though to a witticism. He Dimmet and John Byers were present, there were three har- had not yet surmised that there might be human beings whe monious basses.
were not interested in what he had to say. It was the summer of 1916 when the three stout strangers “I haven't got all time either,” said he, cheerfully. “ I'm came to Gettysburg: Obese and rich, they were motoring going to East Berlin this evening to stay till to-morrow evening from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia, and stopped against their will
. I have a little farm there. I-" The ride was dull. For them nature had few charms; they East Berlin ? Where's that?” wished only to get on to their business appointment the next “ It's a town near here. My friend the Burgess is going to evening. They saw neither blossoming rhododendron nor swift take charge of this place for me tomorrow.” little streams nor the unbounded prospects spread before them " I'm glad you're good Germans in this neighborhood." at each descent of the mountain ridges. Here and there enor- Old Evans did not hear. He took a long breath, as for a mous signs, already disfiguring the Lincoln Highway, caught plunge into the deep water. their eye, and they pointed them out to one another as the one “So Lee went on, friends. But it wasn't long till he learned notable feature of the landscape.
the sickenin' news—that is, sickenin' to him--that Stuart hai The three talked steadily, moved by a strange obsession. A not been successful in bafflin' Hooker, and that Hooker hai red flower had blossomed in the world from an ancient root long outgeneraled Stuart. What did this make Lee determine todo, thought dead and done with, and this blossom they meditated friends ? To give up his nefarious plan of attacking the capita : upon and loved. They were soft and pampered creatures who of the Keystone State--from which it had a narrow escape, 1 could not have stood for an instant against a good-sized and can tell you--and get his folks first together, and then out strong-armed boy, yet they glorified physical power. They were the narrow valley where they was, which would have been the Americans, speaking only English, knowing only-as far
as they same as a prison trap. So, friends—” knew any literature-English literature, living under English The largest of the three men rose and walked toward the iru laws, partaking of the blessings of a free spirit which was also grating which divided the vestibule from the Cyclorama. Insit English, and still by some strange perversity allying themselves and well within the cylindrical room there was still another with the Germany from which their fathers had fled. Of its grating. efficiency in peace and war they talked at length and loudly, of “You'd better show us what you got. We can look while you the satisfaction of brutal instincts which a world has striven to talk.” inhibit they spoke in lower tones but with a deeper pleasure. Evans held out a pleading hand.
In the early afternoon they reached Gettysburg, and there “You'll be glad when you get in to understand a little. were told by their chauffeur that their car could not go on very confusing if you don't understand.” until the next day. Meanwhile he would have to go by train to The stranger sat down. Harrisburg for a broken part.
“ Well, make it short.' The three were angry. The history of America did not All three grinned broadly when Evans concluded his dese i interest them. Gettysburg looked to them like a poor towa, and tion of the first and second days of the battle. When one can to them, by some obscure analogy, the battle was a poor battle. nothing for his earnestness or his wounds, he was ludicros To the soliciting of the guides at the hotel they were deaf. Now, at his command, the three arose and passed ponderous
" This is a one-horse show. We'll wait and see France and through the doors in the iron grating. England when Germany's licked them.”
“A general look," directed Evans.“ First a general look." After an early supper the three walked ponderously up and The three strangers looked. Then one of them asked a down the hills of a long street and came at last to the Cyclo- amazing question. rama. Because they were tired they went in.
“Is this all ?” Old Evans hopped to meet them, his eyes twinkling. He had “ All!'” repeated Evans. He laughed at the stranger's jok had that day only a few visitors and his soul longed for expres- “ I guess this is enough!" sion. All the comparisons invented could scarcely describe the " Go on with your story,” commanded another. need of old Evans for frequent communion with his kind. To- Evans took his long wand, and again filled his lungs with air. morrow he expected to be away, and there was therefore all the * Now, friends, you see more reason why he should talk to-day.
“ Ain't we to sit down ?" asked one of the strangers. Well, friends ”—thus had he spoken aloud to himself “You won't want to sit down—that is, not yet. Now, friends several times during the long afternoon, hearing, as he spoke, One man reached suddenly a climax of irritation. He noch the usual comments—“ Wasn't it awful ?” “How did they live Evans in a low tone, as though Evans were a sheep.
But still through it ?” “I tell you those were brave men !" He expected, Evans did not hear. as he went forward to meet this group of visitors, a repetition “So, now, friends, as I have told you, the first day was a ver of his little triumphs. He moistened his lips, he heard himself tory for the Confederates ; the second day was, one might sa saying, "Now, friends, a general look first;" he heard his climax, so to speak, a drawn battle, and it was left to the third day o " There I fought, friends!"
decide that God was still in his heaven, friends, if I might speak Kindly old Evans was so poor a judge of human character in such strong terms. It was on the third day that the great of a certain sort that he shook hands with his three visitors. question was decided, friends. Here at this point "—the le
“ Sit down, friends, here in the vestibule. This is a warm wand rested upon the thickest of the carnage—“ here gores evening. I'll tell you here what you're going to see, then we'll ment of the people, by the people, and for the people did go inside. Now, friends, to do that I must go back a little before perish from the earth—"