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past fifty, whose education is limited to making her signature, community-she was in her eighties—arose, leaning on her finally began the school. Not only the regular factions which walking-stick. one finds in almost any ordinary Southern community, but the “Y'all know,” she murmured, “ I got nothing. Can't hardly teacher himself, opposed the idea of a new school. In order not git ’nough to keep soul and body together. But ef dare is someto fan the flames, Mary Johnson after some years managed to body willin' to gib half
, I'll gib
a dollar towards raisin' our haf.” have the teacher transferred. Then she organized a Five-Cent The next day she got hold of ingredients somewhere, baked Club among the community children. She was ingenious enough cakes, and, with her basket on her arm, hobbled forth to peddle to know that the children could make the parents put aside cakes to raise her dollar. In her rounds she encountered the questions of creed. The little folks elected a treasurer and started banker of the town, who, overcome by the spectacle of this old to save. Never having had any experience in building anything, woman's endeavor, left his work and sought out the agent. Mrs. Johnson and her people thought that when they had accu “Look here,” said he, “ if that old woman can give a dollar mulated $45 they were ready to put up and dedicate their build- in that way, what ought the rest of us do ?” It took but a few ing. Thus resolved, they sent the treasurer, a young man, to the months to put up the Akron school. bank to get the money.
Three hundred Negro communities are now enjoying new “ Lawd, he don’ went on by de bank, and we ain't seed him schools as the result of Mr. Rosenwald's offer. Each village had since," said Mary Johnson.
its struggle, its problems to solve, before it could even proceed Not a whit discouraged, this woman next organized the women to raise funds for the building. But each community is brighter and began to make and sell sweet-potato custards, each woman and happier because of the struggle. furnishing a portion of the ingredients for cooking. She stood on
THE TRANSFORMATION AT BETHEL GROVE street corners and in lanes and sold and begged from early in the morning till late at night. Again they started to build. This Besides the provision of money for the new schools, funds time they bought the lumber and put it on the spot. The old were allowed for. repairs and additions. This, again, raised quarrel over the location of the school revived, the hauling of peculiar problems, but in the end brought much light and life the lumber caused dispute, the planting of crops furnished to the people. Whether the school was new or made new, the excuses for “ slackers." Before they knew it six years had
general effect has been the same. Problems have been solved in passed. The lumber had rotted.
the community, good will has been brought about between the But the courage of Mary Johnson was not so easily put by. races, and better teaching and better living have been attained. One Monday afternoon when the cold winds were howling with
One of the first to qualify for repairs was the school at Bethel out she sat down and began to rock and sigh.
Grove, Macon County, Alabama. This was a one-room structure. “What's to matter with you, ma ?” asked her daughter.
Through the influence and the inspiration of the Rosenwald “ Honey, I thinking 'bout dose pore chillun up yonder in dat
Fund it is now a five-room building. It has two big classrooms, ole school. No floor in dat house, and it full of cracks. Dey'll which can be turned into one assembly room for community ketch dey death sho.”
meetings, and into industrial rooms where children are taught Why don't you ask Tuskegee to help you ?” asked her
to make erasers, bookcases, desks, shuck mats, pine-needle basdaughter. This she did. Happily, the plans for giving aid from
kets--indeed, all things useful in rural communities, fulfilling the Rosenwald Fund had just been completed. Again she had
the vision of Dr. Washington. The teacher lives in the school to raise funds. She herself acted in several so-called “plays,”
house. The teacher's kitchen is the classroom for teaching cooking; supervised others, begged, coaxed, scolded. She gave her hus
her dining-room is the classroom for teaching the serving of meals; band no rest. At length the building was begun. To make
her bedroom is a classroom
for teaching the care of the home. of success this time, she would go where they were building the
Moreover, the school at Bethel Grove has introduced into its school nearly every day and hand the workmen lumber, toss curriculum the care of children. Whenever a mother wants to shingles, move rubbish. So unflagging was her enthusiasm that leave home she understands that her babe or child may be sent it attracted the principal of the Notasulga white school, who
to the school and cared for. If school is in session, and there is came several times to her entertainments, bringing his pupils
no little sister or brother to look after the little fellow, the chil and his friends. By the aid of the Rosenwald Fund she built the
dren in school take turns in caring for it. If school is not in school, and, to use her own words, “Honey, I'm ready to die session, the teacher herself becomes responsible for its protecany time now.”
tion. Most often the older sister or brother sets the baby in a
soap-box, ties a cord to the box, and draws the baby up, sled SMITH STATION
fashion, to the school. Here he stays and is well cared for until Of no less interest is the struggle at Smith Station, a country the mother's return from the field or from town. Thus we have district in the county adjoining the one in which Tuskegee is in this. Rosenwald school probably the first rural school day nurlocated. The school at Smith Station was a two-story building, sery in the South. with cracks in the sides and in the roof. The children recited
MACEDONIA downstairs and studied upstairs. The stovepipe from down.
For ten years or more there stood about six miles from the stairs came out through the side of the building on the first
town of Tuskegee two rival buildings—a church and a lodge floor. The smoke went
into the upper story through the cracks, ' tabernacle ; each structure vied with the other in decay--to see filling the pupils ' eyes and lungs, creating a Bedlam of cough which would topple down first. They also rivaled each other
in ing, sneezing, red-eyed children-a scene thoroughly laughable keeping the people divided, in keeping money away from the were it not so tragic. Community faction, unwillingness to com school. Even the Rosenwald offer to give money for repairs ply with the State laws, held these children in this worse than begged admission here two years before peace was declared. prison, The Rosenwald agent sent out by Dr. Washington Then it was all really beautiful. The church gave over its help his son, Booker Washington, Jr., by the way, who is helping to the school, surrendering its claim for the time. The lodge
within this important work—allayed their mistrust of the State and drew its claim on the building and land. The old two-story lodge settled the factional difficulties. A handsome two-room building tabernacle is now a schoolhouse downstairs and a teacher's home with sanitary outhouses now stands in the old one's stead.
The whole school story here bristles with interest. The THE STORY OF AKRON
teacher has been here twenty-five years. She is said to have been Hale County, Alabama, is not yet famous for schools--neither the first person to register in Booker T. Washington's school. in number nor in quality. Even the county seat, the most con She has taught here in sheds, in shacks, in deserted buildings. siderable town in the county, only recently Hoated bonds to build It was she who might have perverted the saying, “ Trust in God a school for white children. When the agent for the Rosenwald and keep your powder dry
to “ Trust in God and keep your Fund went into the village of Akron, Hale County, assembled fire-bucket full,” for many times a day in one or two of the old the colored people, and began to urge the building of schools, structures she and her pupils had to rush out to put out the he was confronted with "times are hard," “ the war is on, flames, the roof having caught fire from flying sparks. no money, crops are poor,
.” “ cotton has fallen.” As the Akron, Smith Station, Notasulga, Bethel Grove, Macedoniaaudience paused for more
excuses the oldest woman in the these are all types of what has happened wherever a Rosenwald
RURAL SCHOOLHOUSE BUILDINGS
school building has made its way, either as a new structure or double value ; it commanded one dollar from the State and one by repairs.
from the Rosenwald Fund. NEW BUILDING-NEW LIFE
The following chart tells its own story, showing the amoant Stories of struggle and of conquest are interesting; but, what given by Mr. Rosenwald and the amount which his donations is the real significance of the schools to the communities? First
have called forth : of all, what are these doing aso schools ? Do they merely stand
Number of schools paid for by Mr. Rosenwald.... as monuments to peace out of conflict? One is at a loss to
Paid by colored people (including land, material, and select a testimony or two from the scores upon scores that have
$152,969.93 come in. One teacher in Hale County writes: “ Our school white people (including land)..
82,430.00 building is already offering a splendid meeting-place for social
Mr. Rosenwald (promotion salaries).
4,072.81 gatherings. It has done much to improve the sanitary condi
(promotion $50 a school)..
9,772.21 tions of our community."
82,806.39 Total paid....
$351,09),60 Another, from Strudwick, Alabama, says: “We have had
Average cost per school.
1,180 30 less trouble in disciplining the one hundred and fifty pupils that
By colored people.
$509.89 or 43.20% we have had this year (1916) than the eighty which were for
"i white people.
" State.. merly enrolled. The opportunity afforded for doing industrial
23.27% " Mr. Rosenwald.
322.18 27.30% work has so stimulated our pupils that their class standing has
.$1,180.30 “100.00% far surpassed any previous year.
“ Many of the young men and women who had stopped Thus, up to May 27, 1918, Mr. Rosenwald had given for school have re-entered, and are doing excellent work. We have Negro rural school building promotion and repair $98,651.47
. also conducted a night class for the older people.”
In responding to this the colored people had raised $152,969.93, A Jeanes Fund supervisor, supported by the Anna T. Jeanes the white people had given $22,039, and the State of AlaFoundation for Negro rural schools, writes:
bama had given $82,430, making the total called forth by the “ Night schools and schools for adults have been made possi. Rosenwald Fund $257,438.93. Set this over against the total ble (through the Rosenwald Fund], as the teachers live in $96,651.47 given by Mr. Rosenwald, and you have the Fund these homes at the schools and do not have to walk one, two, really gaining on investment a little more than 266 per cent. and three miles after teaching eighty-five or one hundred That is, $96,651.47 given by Mr. Rosenwald put into circulachildren.
tion $257,438.93. “I have heard many parent-scholars remark: 'I have never At the outset Mr. Rosenwald had given $30,000 to Dr. known what the teacher had to undergo until I started to school. Washington to make the experiment. Pleased with his invest. . . I sho' can sympathize with our teacher now. . . . I am
ment, he authorized in November, 1916, the building of two going to do more to help the school.'
hundred more rural schools, permitting Tuskegee now to experiWhite county superintendents are almost as greatly moved ment in other counties in Alabama and outside the State. At by the Rosenwald Fund as are the colored people. They write: present there is a Rosenwald school in nearly every State in the “ These school buildings in my county are serving as an
South. By the end of May final payment was made on the impetus to the white people to put up better school buildings. first three hundred schools built as a result of Mr. Rosenwald's Every community, white or colored, wants just such a building.
offer. Since the Negroes are exerting themselves to meet the condi- Just what percentage of good has been done in school discipline, tions upon which this money is given, the white people are be- teaching, and making colored people happy cannot be set down coming more sympathetic and are beginning to admire and in words. In one town a poor white man gave five dollars. In appreciate their efforts more for better education.
another, the white children and the colored children got together * (Signed) G. M. Barrett, Superintendent of Education, and began to compare notes on what they were studying at Chambers County, Alabama."
school. The Negro children had industrial work, the white chil“Referring to the Rosenwald schools, one result has been the dren did not. In a few days the white parents were protesting spirit of co-operation between the races. A new school adequately for handicrafts and the like for their children. At another equipped has been a stimulus to community pride. The result
Rosenwald school the children cooked and served a dinner to has generally been to secure a longer school term and a more State officers, who went away thoroughly converted to Negro regular attendance of children.
education. In another county the white farmers well-nigh black(Signed) Jas. L. Sibley, Alabama State Rural School Agent.” listed a neighbor for putting up a Rosenwald school on bis
Without the Rosenwald Fund very few districts seek State plantation. Now each farmer is clamoring for a schoolhouse aid. They have to raise too much money to build the kind of on his “place.” school the State demands. Valuable in itself, the Fund is even In the midst of the great migration of the black man to the of greater service in that it puts large sums of money in circu- North Southern people are beginning to ask, Why? They lation. Now it so happened that when Mr. Rosenwald's offer themselves have answered in their big dailies. In brief, the want was made there were in the Alabama State treasury several of better treatment for the Negro and for his children. Of the thousand dollars for the building of schools. This money was to
rural black people who choose to remain in the South, many be distributed among the counties, which might use it if they will tell you that they are content because they have a good put up schools according to State plans. Of course the State's school for their children to attend, a friendlier understanding money would put up a very small school. The community had with their white neighbors, and a brighter outlook on life betherefore to supplement it. This gave the black man's dollar a cause of the Rosenwald rural school.
A LETTER FROM VISCOUNT MOTONO
THE editors of The Outlook have received the following
letter from Viscount Ichiro Motono, formerly Foreign Minister of Japan:
Tokyo, May 28, 1918. The Editor, Outlook:
Sir–In the May 1st issue of your valued publication is an article by Mr. Gregory Mason relating an interview with Premier Count Terauchi. Mr. Mason states that a written document of the conversation was submitted to the Premier, who in turn submitted it for approval to the Home and Foreign Ministers.
As Foreign Minister at that period I wish to state that, as far
as I am concerned, this is entirely unfounded. May I add that I was very much astonished on seeing Mr. G. Mason's assertion.
I should be very grateful for a publication of this correction of the facts. Believe me, Mr. Editor,
(signed) I. MOTONO. The article by our staff correspondent, Mr. Gregory Mason, referred to in this letter was published in The Outlook of May 1. The article was entitled “Japan, Germany, Russia, and the Allies : An Authorized Interview with Count Masataka Terauchi, Premier of Japan.” At the time when this interview was held by Mr. Mason with Count Terauchi, Viscount Motono
was the Foreign Minister of Japan, but between that time and some reason this was not done, and that Mr. Mason, in writing the date of publication of the article Viscount Motono resigned about the circumstances of the interview, not unnaturally asoffice and was succeeded by Baron Goto.
sumed that it had been done. The passage in the article to which Viscount Motono refers Our readers will of course understand that the fact that was as follows : “ After reading it (the Japanese script of the Count Terauchi did not so submit the interview to other meminterview as first written by Mr. Tsurumi, who acted as inter- bers of his Cabinet does not in the least affect the authenticity preter] Count Terauchi submitted it for the consideration of the and accuracy of the interview itself. The Japanese script verForeign Minister and of the Minister of Home Affairs. When sion of this interview is now in our possession, and all who care they had approved it, he went through it all again-some twenty- to turn to Mr. Mason's article will find there stated the circumtwo pages of Japanese script-making a change here and stances under which the interview was held and the report verithere."
fied and corrected. Mr. Mason left Japan not long after this
interview with the It will also be observed that Viscount Motono does not deny Premier was held. Later he sailed from China for England, the authenticity of the interview, but simply states that he did and we hope to hear from him almost any day, either from Eng- not see and approve it. We suspect that Viscount Motono has land or France. We shall of course call Mr. Mason's attention written his letter of protest because the interview is authentic. to Viscount Motono's correction, and may report to our readers It has, we are informed, excited much public discussion in what our correspondent has to say on this point. Meanwhile Japan, and the Prime Minister's policy expressed in that interwe may surmise as a probable solution of the contradiction view has been widely criticised by certain portions of the that Mr. Mason had been informed that the interview would Japanese press. In view of this criticism, Viscount Motono be submitted for consideration to the Foreign Minister and might reasonably feel that no responsibility for the interview the Home Minister of Japan ; that, as a matter of fact, for should be placed upon his shoulders.
PHYSICALLY COMPETENT AND MORALLY FIT
A REPORT FROM AN EYE-WITNESS AT THE FRONT 1
BY DANIEL A. POLING
JHERE is a question of vital interest to all Americans, and single day. These men had their first shore experience after a
particularly to those who have sons in the Expeditionary long and nerve-racking voyage.
Forces of the United States, and I went abroad to find the 10. I have been closely associated with more than five hunanswer to it. Rather, there are two such questions: First, What dred Y. M. C. A. secretaries who served under all conditions of is the moral character of the American soldier abroad? and, Army life. Among these secretaries have been some of Amersecond, What are the American military authorities in France ica's most prominent business men-ministers, lawyers, athletes, doing to keep the soldier physically competent and morally fit? physicians, nurses, and teachers.
There have been dark rumors. Stories have been told 11. I have talked with leaders in the civilian and political that reflect seriously upon the man in uniform. Leaders in life of France. high places have been accused of protecting vice, of allowing 12. For four days I have studied conditions in our General what amounts to a segregated district directly behind the lines. Headquarters in France, and in a divisional headquarters at The charge was widely circulated in December, 1917, by cer- the front. tain publications, that more than one thousand Americans from 13. For six days I have messed with the private soldier under a suburban community of the northeastern section of the United fire-I was with him day and night. States were under guard for drunkenness after their first pay- 14. For six days I served within the front line as a regular day in France. Alarming statements have been made concern- Y. M. C. A. secretary ; three additional days were spent someing venereal disease.
what farther back, but within the immediate war zone. For I have found the answers to the questions already stated. three of the six days I refer to I was entirely in charge of
1. I have studied conditions in England-in landing ports the dugout which is the most advanced permanent Y. M. C. A. and embarkation ports, in London and in rest camps.
station in any army, being located within less than sixteen hun2. I have lived in constant contact with five hundred Amer- dred yards of our most advanced trench. Directly connected ican officers for a period of ten days.
with this dugout is a room of the Signal Corps, a. Red Cross first3. I have watched the American soldier in Paris—on the aid station, and billets for forty-seven men. Three other days were street, in the hotel, and in the café.
spent assisting in a hut farther back but situated above ground 4. I have conferred with those who have special responsibil- and in the zone of constant shell fire. During these days I was ity for investigating social diseases among men with the colors brought face to face with men confronted by the most trying conand for conducting a comprehensive educational campaign to ditions of modern warfare. I saw them caked with mud, chilled fortify these men against sexual temptations.
with snow and ice-cold water, sick, and wounded. I witnessed the 5. I have visited hospitals under practically all conditions as treatment that they received. Iinspected what they ate and drank. to location and nature of diseases treated.
15. I have visited our front-line trenches, meeting the men 6. I have had interviews with surgeons and other Regular and officers and conversing with them. I have seen the AmeriArmy officers.
can soldier under direct fire. I have measured him after the 7. The whole matter has been discussed with a distinguished most extensive raid the Germans had up to that time directed physician who until recently was the chief health officer of a against him, and the one in which the American Army really great American city and a recognized authority on the relation of came into its own. I have been with the American soldier in a liquor to vice. This physician is now in the Government service barrage, and later when he carried back his dead and wounded in France and giving special attention to sanitation and hygiene. and the wounded of his enemy.
8. I have had an interview with General Pershing and with 16. I have studied the American soldier after he had marched several of his staff.
four miles through mud-filled, shell-scattered trenches to his 9. I have given particular attention to the French ports where billets-relieved after eight days of trench life, during which he American soldiers disembark, spending several days in each of had suffered everything from rain and snow to gas, machinethese cities. On two occasions while I was on the ground as gun fire, bayonet, and shrapnel. I have seen him in repose and in many as fifteen thousand men came ashore from convoys in a action. I have seen him before, and I have seen him after, a charge.
I believe that I not only know what the American soldier Mr. Poling is Associate President of the United Society of Christian Endeavor, and special Commissioner of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in
does in France, but that I begin to know what he is. America.
He is a representative American. And he is living on a
moral plane which is above the moral plane of civilian life at Surgeon-General and from the reports of General Pershing, home.
show a venereal rate far below that of civilian life, and a decreas I have found soldiers who are a disgrace to the uniform ; ing rate; that they show little drunkenness? And every state there are individual cases and there are groups of cases that ment of the War Department concerning these vital matters give me keen regret. I wish that the Army had a “Botany has been substantiated by my own investigations. Bay”—that those who insist upon practicing the indecencies We shall be helped greatly in our efforts to appreciate the could be segregated. However few these men are—and they are, facts if we remember that every soldier before he is a soldier is indeed, the small minority—they constitute a menace to morale a man ; that the American soldiers in France are our own and exert a demoralizing influence upon those with whom they brothers and our own sons; that we have taken the cream from are associated. Then, too, there are a few officers who represent our colleges, our churches, our offices, our homes, our factories, the old idea that the soldier is necessarily a victim of his passions and our farms, to feed the God of War who stalks across the and must be allowed, even encouraged, to gratify them. But fields of Europe. These men have not laid off their American such officers are in a decreasing ratio to the whole, and privates idealism ; they have not abandoned their American training, who bring an unfavorable judgment upon their country are the and the moral and spiritual instructions absorbed by American exceptions that assist in proving the rule.
firesides and in American churches and schools. We indict ourOn one occasion two hundred men from just-arrived trans- selves when we believe wholesale charges of evil living brought ports began their self-appointed task of painting a certain against the finest fruit of our tree of democratic culture. French city a livelier hue. Very quickly they discovered that The psychology of such charges is demoralizing. Men falsely “ decorators ” of their class were not in demand. The Naval accused are inclined to argue, “Well, I have the name; the mark Patrol sent them back to the ships with battered heads and is on me; I'll take the game !" On the other hand, confidence wiser minds. Two hundred men out of more than fifteen hun- begets confidence. Men are made strong by the knowledge that dred tried to be naughty and failed! I can imagine a lurid other men and that women and children believe in them. Our headline, " Recently Arrived Soldiers Paint City Red.” Such brothers and sons in France have won the right not only to our a headline would have been unfair and untrue. That story of a love but to our esteem and faith as well. thousand men from the rural community of northeastern There is no room today for the quick-spoken, casually America is absolutely false. I have investigated it in every informed and misinformed destructive critic. The constructive French port where American troops land and in every other critic in the Army and out of it, in France and in civilian life place where any considerable number of our men have been at home, will have increasingly much to do; not one iota of quartered. My inquiries have followed three lines : the mili- service for the soldier and sailor can we afford to abate. He is tary, the Y. M. C. A., and civilians. While conditions were always in the danger zone. worse at the beginning, before our military authorities had I found the American in uniform building up about himself their own police programme operating, nothing at all approach- a wall of protection in the very attitude he is assuming toward ing this condition ever existed.
the moral excesses practiced by the few. He is resenting the Our leaders in France have not conquered the vices society indulgence that causes his country's civilization to be misjudged; has battled against from the first organized beginnings of he is disciplining his comrade who by taking improper and for civilization; but if the American Expeditionary Force is not bidden liberties endangers the freedom of others; be shows a dis setting an example in moral idealism to American civilian life, tinct pride in the fact that American physical and moral standthen I have walked through France with my eyes closed and ards are high. I believe that for every man in the army that is my ears stopped.
morally destroyed, at least five men are morally born again. When you see one soldier under the influence of liquor, do We have spent much time in discussing the vast task of keepnot conclude that the Army is drunk. It is at least suggestive ing our men fit to return to us when the war is over, and it is that in three months spent in England and France, associated time well spent. But there is another matter quite as important with tens of thousands of soldiers, I did not see a single soldier, - America must be made and kept fit for these men to return to. officer or private, under the influence of liquor on the street, in This is a report on conditions as they exist in the American a public conveyance, or in a public building:
Army, and does not deal directly with circumstances surroundWhen you hear of one syphilitic, or a hundred, do not traduce ing vice and liquor in England and in France. As to these condien masse the flower of American manhood now transported to tions in England and France they differ widely. Vice conditions the richly watered fields of France. An investigation made by in such cities as London and Liverpool are particularly menaca prominent jurist of the United States, who is also a leading ing; strong drink is everywhere a distressing problem. In both layman of the Methodist Church, revealed the following condi- of these vital matters the English problem presents difficulties tions in a certain port of landing. This city has long borne the in excess of those confronting the investigator in France. reputation of being among the most immoral of Europe. The Through diplomatic representations and with the utmost regard survey covered both white and black troops, and was made in for •the customs and feelings of our heroic allies, certainly the areas personally inspected by the writer.
same regulations should be applied to our soldiers overseas The record for venereal diseases for four months preceding that now apply at home. my visit were:
The results that have been thus far accomplished have been
allies. In proportion as it has been found practical for our milMonth.
itary authorities to have absolute police control over territory First
16.89 Second .
occupied by American soldiers, has it been possible to deal 30.9
effectively with liquor and vice from the standpoint of adminFourth .
istering regulations and laws.
What is the attitude of the military authorities in France Many of these men were found to be infected when they toward drink and vice ? I find the authorities in France ag. reached France. Army discipline, it will be seen, soon produced gressively and successfully promoting the most comprehensive results. The rate of venereal disease for white men when I left
programme ever attempted by a nation at war to keep her solthat city was less than one-fourth of one per cent, and for diers physically competent and morally fit. An official of the colored soldiers just about one per cent!
British Government, a man of many distinctions and high in Let us think of our Army division in terms of a modern political life, told me that the eyes of all the nations of Europe American city-a city of men, women, and children. But here were upon the well-nigh revolutionary policies of General are cities of men only--men between twenty-one and thirty-one. Pershing and his staff. Yes, men between seventeen and thirty-one. Red-blooded, far 1. The programme of the military authorities provides, first, from home, young men, inhabit these war cities. From these for prohibition and total abstinence; and, second, when in indiciuits women are gone and in these the voice of a child is not vidual cases prohibition has failed, for the saving of the indiheard. Por such a city into your moral test tube. Is it not vidual from disease. Vice is not condoned. Segregated districts inspiring beyond words that these cities, by the records of the are not recognized or proteeted, and the orders against heavy
Men in each
Men in each
liquors do not discriminate in favor of other liquors. Sol- ingly effective. There is particular need for a strong naval diers on leave are not furnished with medicines in antici- patrol in the port cities of England and Ireland. pation of their breaking the moral law. The Army provides 6. The American soldier has no rum ration. treatment after the act, not before. Should a soldier become
7. In war
areas under the absolute control of American infected in spite of the fact that he has followed the regulations authorities liquor for beverage purposes—light wines included and reported for treatment, he is still subject to court martial, is not available. though of course his standing with the authorities is much 8. Pure or purified water is being supplied the American better than it would have been had he not reported. The pro- soldier everywhere and in abundant quantities. I drew fresh, gramme at this point adds the shield of science, but without cool water out of great canvas bags at the very front. At violating the moral law.
General Pershing's Headquarters I saw being completed a water 2. The Military Patrol, or “M. P.,” is a most efficient arm main that local authorities said could not be laid until the frost of the administration. In many cities the M. P. is now the was out of the ground. The main was finished before the arguonly police officer, but in all cities where American soldiers are ment was terminated. quartered, whether civilian officers continue or not, he has com- Less than three hours after a recent raid hot coffee was plete jurisdiction over Americans. The M. P. is omnipresent. served to the men, even to the last observation post. The genius He is most courteous so long as you are law-abiding and of the American Army in furnishing itself non-alcoholic drinks civil. In one port city I found the streets far quieter at night has astonished the French and elicited their praise. than in any American city I am acquainted with which corre 9. The programme of the military leaders has been effectively sponds to its French sister in size and location. A soldier seen supplemented by the Y. M. C. A., the Red Cross, and the Sal. on the street with a public character-and in France such char- vation Army. The Y. M. C. A. is responsible for a ministry acters are registered—is separated from her. One M. P. is that is impossible to overvalue. With its huts, which range from stationed before every questionable house during the day and the commodious double building in the great cities and in the two are stationed before every such house at night. No uni- large training camps to the foul-smelling dark dugouts at the formed man is allowed to enter. Since the advent of the Mili- front, with its canteens and hotels for officers and privates, tary Patrol these houses have been greatly decreased in num- with its music and its lectures, its classes in French, and its ber. In this eity all American citizens, whether in uniform or Bible classes, with its athletic leadership and its rest stations in civilian clothes, are turned back from houses of vice by the high among the quiet mountains, with its religious services and Military Patrol. The following are portions of a brigade head- its personal interviews, it is meeting squarely the challenge of quarters order signed by a brigadier-general and dated March this stupendous moral occasion. It is the most potent hope of 10, 1918. The complete copy of this order and of others the the Church and God's most fruitful agency for such a time as writer has on file:
this.” A captain of a company of colored stevedores told me “I. In conformity with General Orders No. 77, G. H., A. E.F. that the Y. M. C. A. had increased the morale of his men one [note reference to order from “General Headquarters ”], all hundred per cent. recognized houses of prostitution in the city of
As I have written these lines, I have had vividly before me a boring villages are placed out of bounds for American soldiers, group of American soldiers. It is three o'clock in the morning, sailors, and civilian employees. It is prohibited for officers, sol- and they have just marched four miles through shell-obliterated diers, sailors, and civilian employees to enter these places, or to or mud and snow filled trenches—they have been relieved from hold conversation on the street, or in cafés, with prostitutes. the first line. They are men from four companies of a battalion The Provost Guard and Military Police will arrest and detail of a division occupying a permanent position on the western any soldier, sailor, or civilian employee, and report the name front. They have had the distinction of experiencing the first of any officer, so offending. The Assistant Provost-Marshal in extensive gassing directed against American troops, and of charge of these districts will in every case prefer charges against repelling the first general raid over an American front. One of the soldier and send the same to his Camp Commander for the companies has had every commissioned officer killed or trial. In case of civilian employees, the charges will be sent to wounded in the fighting of twenty hours before-its captain, a the head of the department to which he belongs. In case of gallant Southern lad, died on the parapet leading the successful contract laborers, charges will be sent to Colonel Engineers. counter-attack. They are covered with mud, all but dead for lack In case of sailors, the case will be reported to the Naval author- of sleep, chilled to the bone, but uncomplaining. Some of them ities at the Naval Base.
have fallen repeatedly on the way out, and their faces are as black “ II. The present locations of recognized houses of prostitu- as their boots. They lean against the counters and the tables of tion are within the district bounded by following." (Then follow the Y. M. C. A. hut and silently drink the red-hot tea and eat the names of four avenues.) “These will be placed out of bounds the cookies and crackers. These are the men who have given at once.” (Then follow details of the order providing for the the first clear demonstration of the fighting_superiority of reporting of all additional resorts as rapidly as located; also of American democracy over German autocracy. They have paid questionable cafés.)
a great price, but, counting all the cost, they have found the “ III. This memorandum will be read twice to all organiza expenditure justified. They are the very vanguard of the pathtions, and each camp commander will see that it is properly finders of civilization; they are the knights of the twentieth posted on all bulletin boards.”
century. 3. The authorities in France watch the venereal rate so I would be false to these men if, having the evidence of their closely that the slightest increase in a division is immediately moral soundness, I did not declare it; and I would be false to investigated; several officers are constantly in the field studying those who gave them as a priceless offering upon the altar of existing conditions and charged with finding ways to better freedom. them.
General Pershing and those who are in authority with him 4. Paris has been made a barred zone to men on leave. I in France deserve, not a resolution of inquiry or censure, but a saw a refusal order which was received by a soldier who had vote of confidence with the assurance of our co-operation and requested permission to visit his father's sister, who lives in a
support. suburb of Paris. The special order referred to the General The American soldier is the worthy inheritor of the finest Order.
traditions of American arms, a credit to those who bore him, 5. While the Navy has been somewhat slower to deal with cer- an honor to the Nation he represents, and the last and best hope tain phases of the moral problem in French ports than the Mili- that civilization shall not fail in her struggle to establish the tary Police, the Naval Patrol is in the field and becoming increas- might of right.
This report of the moral and physical fitness of our soldiers will be followed next week by an article