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Will Russia Fight Again for Democracy?
THE BIRTH OF THE RUSSIAN DEMOCRACY
By A. J. SACK Director of the Russian Information Bureau in the United States
Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the U. S. Navy, says :
"The Birth of the Russian Democracy,' which has been issued by the Russian Information Bureau, established by the Russian Extraordinary Mission to the United States,
appears to contain a mass of information that is invaluable." Jules J. Jusserand, French Ambassador at Washington, says:
* A most welcome contribution to a better knowledge of the recent events in Russia." Herbert Hoover, the U. S. Food Administrator, says :
* It is a perfect mine of information concerning that extraordinary and important movement in Russia which has had such enormous consequences. It is a pleasure to have at hand such an authoritative and well documented account."
The New York Times of June 23 says :
** Beyond question the most authoritative work that has yet appeared on the development and present condition of the Russian upheaval is Mr. A. J. Sack's large volume on The Birth of the Russian Democracy.' His work brings the account of revolutionary developments down to the end of last year, and the narrative is remarkably accurate and comprehensive. The century-long story of the revolutionary movement in Russia makes a thrilling chapter in human history, and Mr. Sack tells it well. He explains clearly the part which the Bolsheviki have taken and shows why they have attained so much apparent success.
The first part of the book contains a full history of the Russian Revolutionary Movement from the Decembrist uprising of 1825 up to the March Revolution, 1917. This part is richly illustrated with photographs of the Russian Revolutionists,-beginning with the rare photographs from portraits of the Decembrists, executed in 1826, up to the leaders of the present-day Russia. The chapter devoted to the history of the Duma is illustrated with 130 photographs of the most prominent members of the Russian Parliament.
The second part of the book is devoted to developments in Russia since the March Revolution and contains documents giving the declarations and acts of the Provisional Government, of the Bolsheviki revolt and all the most important documents of the Russian Revolution from March, 1917, up to date, with many facsimile photographs of important documents. It gives the detailed proceedings of the most important historical sessions of the Councils of Workmen's, Soldiers' and Peasants' Delegates ; the proceedings of the National Conference in Moscow, of the Democratic Conference and of the Preliminary Parliament in Petrograd. Complete speeches of A. F. Kerensky, I. G. Tseretelli, A. I. Konovalov, Prof. P. N. Miliukov, A. I. Gouchkov, Gen. Alexeiev, Gen. Kornilov, George Plekhanov, E. C. Breshko Breshkovskaya, Peter Kropotkin, V. M. Chernov, N. S. Tscheidze and other leaders.
Mr. Sack believes that Russia, given the proper general and military help by the Allies, will re-enter the war against Germany. Mr. Sack's book confirms the hope just expressed by the old Russian revolutionist and leader, Prince Peter Kropotkin, that “ After all, Russia will recover from her terrible illness-in the shape of a federated democratic republic, moving towards the higher ideals of equality and fraternity.”
An Air Battle (Continued) their large clouds of visible gray smoke. Nevertheless it is irritating.
After fifteen minutes or so I had gained perceptibly on the Hun, ever keeping in a direct line with him and the sun. My advantage lay in being able to do this, for thus I might approach unseen until the last moment. I soon came in such a range that he no longer looked like a black sploteh or a black silhouette, for I could distinguish his form more closely-namely, tha: it was a two-strutter, that it was camovflaged, and, above all, and not to my comfort, that it was a two-man machine. It inight be well to add here something about the coloring of the machines. All the French machines in this sector are camooflaged ; that is, the body, tail, and the upper sides of the wings are painted with great smudges of green, brown, and black, so that from above they resemble the ground, and are hard to detect by the enemy. (On the sides of the machines of our escadrille there is also painted a huge green crocodile, the insignia of the escadrille.) The under sides of the wings, however, are left the original silver gray. Also on the upper and lower sides of both wings are painted two very large French insignias, consisting of a large red outer circle of a diameter the width of the wing and an inner circle of white with a center of blue. Also the vertical rudder is painted in three broad stripes of red, white, and blue. These are the distinguishing insignias of the French airplane, and are most important. In spite of them, a Frenchman has often been known to attack another Frenchman. Each country has its own insignia. The Germans use the large black Maltese cross, placed, as the French, on both sides of the two wings and on the vertical rudder. The Germans now and then make use of machines camouflaged similar to those of the French.
I came nearer and nearer to the enemy, and the shrapnel kept bursting between me and him. Yet he did not change his course in the slightest; he went on straight west, farther into France.
Soon I was only about two hundred meters from him and a hundred above him, and yet he had not seen me! In another minute I would only be a hundred yards from him. He was camouflaged like a French machine, and it was hard to distinguish the big black cross, because my glasses had become befogged with oil spatterings. I got all ready to fire; my hand trembled about the trigger handle of my machine gun; and, I can tell you, my heart was keeping time with the whir of the motor! I was going to shoot a man-the first time in my life! But the cold truth of this fact never affects or enters a man's mind in war. I could not miss ; I had a direct shot at the pilot with my sweeping machine gun, and he was less than one hundred meters away and had not seen me! It was incredible. I nosed my machine down, right on top of the Hun, got the pilot in perfect aim through my telescopic sight, and my hand began to tighten steadily about the trigger handle. All this took but a fraction of a second, then another fraction of a second, and thenThen in that fraction of a second a million things happened.
No, I was not shot at before I myself took time to shoot and was brought down a wounded pilot ; I did not suddenly lose my nerve ; neither did my gun fail to work at the last moment; nor did I sympathetically take pity on the Hun and refrain from kill
An Air Battle (Continued) ing the beast. But my mind played havou with me, and made me lose the chance of a lifetime.
In that last fraction of a second, that molecule of time which was only required to bring down my first Boche—and it was
sure thing--I suddenly was possessed with a strange fear, yet not a fear for myself. As I have already said, my glasses
UNS and ammunition alone cannot win the war. had become oil-foggel, the Hun was camouflaged, and it was üifficult to recog
Shoes, shirts or leggings may seem to be small nize the large black cross on his wings.
details but in reality they are important factors. Just before I nosed down on him I had
Among other things which our soldiers needed, for protection determined for sure, by straining my eyes,
against the heavy snows and frequent rains of northern France, were that the German cross was there, yet in
6,000,000 raincoats or "slickers." that last fateful fraction of a second, that
Only a few concerns in the country were adequately equipped to tense moment when my hand was closing
produce the cloth required in the short time specified. One of our on the trigger handle, my decision, like the
clients, Pacific Mills, took over half of the order—30,000,000 yards. sudden cessation of current in an electric
They were able to do this by reason of recent extensions, planned magnet, lost its surety. My mind was smit
and executed to make them ready for just such an emergency. ten with the absurd idea that it was the
For many years, Pacific Mills has been steadily developing its French Sopwith we had been sent to pro
properties until it is now one of the largest producers of gray cloth tect! Yes, it was camouflaged like the Sop.,
and the largest textile finishing plant in the world. it had its outlines, it was a two-man machine and a two-strutter. So was the Sop.
Pacific Mills were ready when the government's call came. Could
you today meet a similar demand in your line of production ? The horror of bringing down a French machine seized me, and iny hand, as if pos
Perhaps a rearrangement of machinery, an improvement in some
department, a change in this or that shop system would put your sessed of an electric shock, released the trigger handle and allowed the machine
plant in a position to meet unusual war-time requirements. gun to remain silent. It was an awful
Write to our nearest office— let us know what your problem is. moment, that one which I had just gone
Also ask for the book, "Building with Foresight.” through. Imagine the outcome if I had
LOCKWOOD, GREENE & CO., ENGINEERS brought down å French machine !
Boston, 60 Federal Street
Chicago, 38 S. Dearborn Street I swerved my machine and went dashing
Atlanta, Healey Building
New York, 101 Park Avenue down below him, not passing him by more
Canada-LOCKWOOD, GREENE & CO. OF CANADA, Ltd., Montreal, P. Q. than thirty feet. Never before had'I been so close to another machine in the air. My eyes darted sideways to the gunner in the other machine. I could see the expression
PARTIAL VIEW OF PACIFIC MILLS, SOUTH LAWRENCE , MASS on the face of his leather-hooded head. It was an expression of tremendous surprise and fright. He was standing up in the cockpit, his hand dashing frantically, but too late, to his machine guns. Lord knows what the expression on my face was! For, as I dashed by at an incomputable rate, my eye glued back and up at the gunner, the silvery under sides of his wings came into view, and there, outlined and contrasted an;laced at the extremity of each wing, were the big black German crosses !
Down and down I went, smitten with a strange mingling of many sensations, included in which was the feeling of being struck with a brick on which was printed a composite photograph of all the damning words in the dictionary—and a brick hurled by myself. So it was a Boche, it was
I had him cold. I only hope that he is kept all the dogs and cats within this Nation the Hun, it was the animal I sought to
awake at night asking himself why the should be promptly killed outright, and
Frenchman didn't kill him. kill! I had had the bird in the hand and I
placing such a head tax on each of the anihad thrown him into the bush ! Down I
It was an opportunity that knocks but mals named would result in the payment went—then, seized with ancient but sound
seldom at the door of an aviator, and I had of a large tax in the aggregate and in the philosophy, I shouted out, and I could hear
left the door locked. The whole thing all killing of a goodly number of both dogs my shrieking words above the roar of my
goes to prove how much the millionth part and cats on which the owners would refuse engine: “It is never too late to mend !”
of a second counts in military aviation, how to pay such tax-both results to be greatly And I brought up my machine in a sudden
much momentary and rigid decision count, desired. swerve, mounted in an impossible spiral,
and how much the rigid adherence to such There has been and is, I understand, a
a decision counts. The infinitesimal parts seeking any prey once more. But I had
serious shortage of wool in our land, and dived lower than I thought, and by the
of time and these momentary and firm it is generally conceded by those who know time I got in firing range again and under
convictions are what weigh the scale one that countless thousands more sheep would the protection of his concealing tail plane,
way or the other. They may mean success be raised by the farmers of our country for he had now opened fire but ineffec
or failure, death for him or death for you. were it not for the ravages of sheep-killing tively on me, he had turned, opened up his Mr. Boche, I will get you yet!
dogs; many otherwise" perfectly good motor, and was fast on his way back to the
dogs will kill lambs, and even mature breeding-place of such animals. I franti
CATS AND DOGS
sheep, at the first opportunity. Furthercally opened fire, but to no avail. In a Now that the subject of increased taxa
more, the average dog of the larger breeds straight race he proved the faster, and soon tion as a war revenue measure is
consumes daily as much food as the average for
up was far ahead of me, safe over Hunland. consideration, a thought occurs to me: What that Hun is thinking I do not Why not place a tax of, say, $10 on every
As for cats, they kill more little chickknow. At any rate, he must be thanking his dog and $5 on every cat within the United
ens, also birds of positive economic value, god Thor that I did not shoot when I had States ?
than they do mice, and there isn't one cat him pointblank. He must also be cursing Personally, I think that as a food conser
in fifty that will pay any attention to rats. because he had not been able to see me till
E. H. BECKTELL. vation measure at least ninety per cent of Anacortes, Washington.
All legitimate questions from Outlook readers about investment securities will be answered either by personal letter in these pages. The Outlook cannot, of course, undertake to guarantee against loss resulting from any specific invest ment. Therefore it will not advise the purchase of any specific security. But it will give to inquirers facts of record or information resulting from expert investigation, leaving the responsibility for final decision to the investor. And it wil admit to its pages only those financial advertisements which after thorough expert scrutiny are believed to be worthy di confidence. All letters of inquiry regarding investment securities should be addressed to
ALBANY, N. Y.
Ten Eyek Bldg.
Trust Co. of Ga. Bldg.
10 State Street
Marine Bank Bldg.
137 So. La Salle St.
1421 Chestnut Street
Farmers Bank Bldg.
Railway Exchange Bldg.
PROVIDENCE, R. I.
Industrial Trust Bldg.
1214 Mutual Bldg.
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.
424 California St.
3rd Natl. Bank Bldg.
Bk. of Commerce Bldg.
741 15th St., N. W.
Short Term Notes
8% AHBickmore & Co
capital, due primarily to the wastage We are passing through a critical time, of the war, is making itself felt to an ever- but the holder of high-class, long-term railincreasing extent. The old adage that way, public utility, and industrial bonds money goes where it is called is no longer which have, say, ten years or more to run so true as that the seekers of capital call can feel reasonably sure that he will fare with the loud and persuasive voice of high through to the return of more normal yield and unusual security to increasingly conditions without loss in principal or incritical money. Outstanding obligations terest. must sell down to the same inviting basis.
How great this discount is in legal rail- QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS way bonds was fairly shown when, after
Q. How did it happen that the Union Pacific more lengthy deliberations than usual, the Railroad Company made their recent offering of New York State Banking Department at
bonds publicly instead of going to the War Finance the first of this year marked the prices at
Department ? which the savings banks are permitted to
A. The War Finance Corporation has value their holdings in some cases as much announced that its function is to take over
on the market have little as twenty or thirty points above the market
loans only “in unusual cases,” when the or no effect on sound price. The Department's prices were not borrower would fail of accommodation
Public Utility Securities. purely arbitrary, but represent the intrinsic through the usual channels. It so hapworth of the securities as estimated by pened that the Union Pacific Railroad held For stability, safety and experts. When one looks down the list of in its treasury high-grade bonds of other
marketability, the shortcurrent quotations, it is still somewhat of a
roads having a market value of about
term notes of these comshock to find the highest of this grade of securities selling on the average to yield in
lateral security for the bond issue of panies are an excellent the neighborhood of 5% per cent, and
$20,000,000 in question. It thereby made investment in these times. such bonds as Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. the new bonds so attractive that bankers
Let us send you
our Booklet Paul Railway Company General and Rewere able to sell them readily to the in
0-200 (Bond Topics) and a list of funding 4y per cent bonds yielding nearly vesting public to yield what is for these
these notes yielding as high as 742 per cent.
days but a fair return. The lender's lot, however, is not all a
Q- Is it better to invest in local securities or in bed of roses. His income and unearned
those listed on an exchange ? increment are favorite objects of the Gov
A. As a general rule, listing of securiernment's taxation, and when he turns for
ties on an exchange gives them a greater refuge, because of their tax-free feature,
salability than that enjoyed by local secuto the legal municipal bonds and shortrities. The latter, however, occasionally
III BROADWAY, N.Y. term bills, either discount or interest-bear
possess other attractive features that offset ing, he finds that they command a price to
this advantage, and “over the counter yield about 44 per cent.
traders, especially in larger cities, make a Aside from the Government notes of our
very close and active market in some of allies due within the next three years,
the better-known unlisted stocks and bonds. which render a return to the purchaser of Q. Is it worth the while of those having an inbetween 7 and 9 per cent, the short-term
come of $3,000 to $4,000 to buy bonds free of the
normal and surtaxes ? bonds most in the public eye at present are the new issues of $50,000,000 seven-year
A. No. Under the law now in force, as negotiated by us combine all the 6 per cent bonds of the American Teleneither of the supertaxes apply to incomes
advantages of safe and profitable investof this size. A single person having a tax
ments. We have been engaged in this phone and Telegraph Company and the Union Pacific Railroad Company ten-year able income of $3,500 during last year
business here for 36 years without loss
to an investor. would have paid 2 per cent on $500, the 6 per cent secured notes, which are offered on a 7.10 and 6.25 per cent basis respec
amount by which it exceeded $3,000, and Write for booklet and list of our offerings.
per cent on $2,500, the amount by which When the prospective investor has picked ing that his income was entirely from bonds
it exceeded $1,000, or $60 in all. Assum- The Humphrey Investment Co. out the class of security which makes the
This business established by L. U. at the rate of 54 per cent, the deduction Humphrey, later Governor of Kansas strongest appeal to him, he has taken but
of his tax would bring the return down to a step toward the solution of his problem.
Independence, Kansas All borrowing is, in the last analysis, a
about 5.40 per cent, while the investment question of credit, and each investment
of the same principal in a diversified list of
tax-free bonds would yield at the most offered should be judged upon its own individual merits. An unsecured promise to
5 per cent, or a little better. There is a
sufficient margin here to permit of even pay of one concern is oftentimes preferable to a first mortgage on the property of
more than the proposed doubling of the another. For example, there are a little
tax without altering the situation in this over $15,000,000 first mortgage sinking
respect. fund 5 per cent bonds of the American Q. The phrase "to yield a certain per cent"
has been explained to me, but I have not been able We are offering at par and acWriting Paper Company outstanding, after
to work out correctly any particular problem. I which comes $12,500,000 par value 7 per will be obliged if you can enlighten me.
crued dividend a limited amount of cent cumulative preferred stock, and $9,- A. The interest or dividends upon a 500,000 par value of common. The com- security are paid upon the face value,
the Participating Preferred Stock pany's earnings have been so small over a although the holder has usually invested of a long established New York period of years that. in April, 1918, there either something more or less. "To deter
State Industrial Corporation yieldwere 122y2 per cent accrued dividends due mine the yield on the amount invested the upon the preferred stock. In consequence income should be divided by the amounting an assured 8% and a probable the bonds, although due July 1 of next paid for the security, for the problem may year, sell at about 82 per cent of par. be expressed thus : What per cent of the
10% income. The preferred stock of the International amount invested is the income on the face Net Earnings over $40 per share. Paper Company recommends itself favor- value? ably as an investment at its present price, The above method suffices to determine
Send for full details. Letter O. for it gives an income of approximately the yield on a stock. In the case of a bond, 10 per cent. This stock has behind it à however, there is a further complicating A. D. CONVERSE & CO. substantial cash surplus and $19,750,940 factor, i. e., the definite date of maturity.
5 Nassau Street
Commercial Trust Bldg. par value of common stock, on which In figuring income yield on a bond pur- New York
UNUSUAL Production and Yield
Questions and Answers (Continued)
THE NEW BOOKS chased at a premium it is arbitrarily assumed that the investor will deduct a This department will include descriptive notes, with or without brief comments, about books received sufficient amount from each interest pay- by The Outlook. Many of the important books will have more extended and critical treatment later ment, so that, if this amount is immediately
FICTION reinvested at the yield rate, the total of
acteristically a miracle-working Church.” Audacious Adventures of Miles McCon. such reinvestments, plus accrued interest,
When it had passed away, all real miracles
aughy (The). An Epic of the Merchant will, at maturity, equal the amount of the Marine. By Arthur D. Howden Smith. The
ceased, having accomplished their design premium. The holder of a bond bought at
George H. Doran Company, New York. $1.35. of “proving that a new revelation had a discount is expected to reverse this oper
Merchantmen as well as naval vessels been given from heaven.” The volume is ation or anticipate at the time of each
have to-day their war experiences, and Cap- distinctly valuable for its exposure of interest payment a proportionate amount tain Miles does more harm to the Hun than 6 counterfeit miracles,” to which it is mostly
devoted. of the discount which will be paid, in the many naval officers covered with medals. principal, at maturity.
He is a deeply religious captain, with a God and the War and “The Men Who This is a laborious and tedious mathe
crew made up about equally of Methodists Died in Battle." Some Lessons of the Presmatical operation. Tables in the form of
ent Crisis. By Archdeacon Paterson-Smyth. and Presbyterians.
The George H. Doran Company, New York. logarithms are published by means of which
Czech Folk Tales. Selected and Translated by $1. and simple proportion the yield may be
Dr. Josef Baudis, M.R.I.A. Illustrated. The
History of the Christian Church (A). By determined. The results thus obtained are
Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D. Charles ScribStandard-Bearers (The). By Katherine Mayo.
ner's Sons, New York. $3. not exact, but are generally accepted.
Illustrated. Houghton Miffin Company, BosQ. Will you kindly describe the various ton. $1.50.
The latest fruits of learning in a rich "rights," which are usually quoted at a very low The sterling tales of the Pennsylvania
field are here presented by Professor price. State Police by Katherine Mayo, some of
Walker, of Yale University. This will be A. Often when a corporation issues new which our readers will remember to have
a standard work for decades while more securities it offers them first to its stockread in The Outlook, and some of them
history is making. Covering so much in a holders at a certain price,giving to the holder they may have read in the “ Atlantic
single volume, it is a unique work. Narratof each share the privilege of subscribing Monthly for a certain amount of the new security. Post,” are here collected in a volume which
and the “Saturday Evening ing events exactly as they took place, and
free from bias, Dr. Walker also records Warrants are issued to the stockholders would belong in the best fiction of the year
the advances of the Church in the growing giving evidence of this right, hence the if the stories were not fact.
light of knowledge, and the consequent popular name. Rights are dealt in in terms Wife (The), and Other Stories. By Anton
development of Christian doctrine. Theol. of the old stock—that is to say, the warrant Chekhov. Translated by_Constance Garnett. ogy is treated as a growing science. The due on one share of old stock is called one (The Tales of Chekhov.) The Macmillan Com- record of “the interpretation of Jesus” right—and their value is determined by the pany, New York. $1.50.
during the first
century indicates that its difference between the market and the sub
end is not yet. The cream of the narrative scription prices of the new stock. For ex- Correspondence of Sir Arthur Helps, rises in its final period, the transition to ample, the stockholders in a corporation
K.C.B., D.C.L. Edited by his Son, E. A.
the modern religious situation, illuminated
Helps. The John Lane Company, New York. are given the privilege of subscribing at
by brief estimates of leaders of divergent par, to the extent of one-tenth of their
Sir Arthur Helps is little known to
schools. holdings, to a further issue of preferred the present generation except by his
TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION stock which sells at 102. The holder of ten
“ Friends in Council.” Even that, his most John Pory's Lost Description of Plym. old shares would then have the right to popular, though perhaps not his greatest,
outh. Edited by Champlin Burrage. Houghsubscribe at par for one share of new stock contribution to literature, is now but little
ton Mifflin Company, Boston. $5. selling at 102. These ten rights would be read. His son has rendered a good service
This is a book that will be appreciated worth the difference in price, or two dollars, in collecting his father's letters, accom
alike by the bibliophile and the antiquarian. and one right, one-tenth of this, or twenty panying them with rather too brief notes ;
The first will love the excellent paper, the cents. but this is a good fault. Private letters are
uncut edges, the quaint typography, the better interpreters of character than books
facsimile maps and manuscripts. The secNOT ONE DOLLAR LOST or essays written for the public. One gets
ond will revel in a hitherto unpublished a better idea of Charles Lamb from his
document of great interest and value, which DANFORTH FARM MORTGAGE letters than from the “ Essays of Elia ;” a
is of special timeliness in view of the ap. better idea of Mark Twain from his re
proaching tercentenary of the landing of IX SIXTY YEARS
cently published letters than from his the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620. No Investor has ever foreclosed a Mortgage, taken a foot of land or lost a dollar on a Danforth Farm Mortgage. stories ; a better idea of George Eliot's For further information regarding our Farm Loans and Bonds write for Booklet and Investors' List No. 58.
real character from her published letters Western Front (The). Drawings by Muirhead than from her more carefully wrought and
Bone. Introduction by General Sir Douglas more artistic novels. Sir Arthur Helps's
Haig. The George H. Dorau Company, New
It has been said that the portrait and the
interested in the study of their fellow-men,
reading of history. As to present history, the life of the English people during the first
who, no matter how skillful, could fully three-quarters of the nineteenth century.
explain, without the aid of the pencil, the RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
conditions under which the soldiers are Christ's Challenge to Man's Spirit in this Investment
living in France ? At all events, Field World Crisis. By George William Douglas, D.D., S.T.D. Longmans, Green & Co., New
Marshal Sir Douglas Haig in his foreword York. 75c.
to these admirable drawings does not think Thrift Investment List We need the Advent season the
year showing a varied offer
round. But especially in this war time we Winged Warfare. By Major William A. ing of 6% First Mortgage need the inspiration and suggestiveness of
Bishop. Illustrated. 'The George H. Doran issues. They are issues that season—as may be found in such ser
Company, New York. $1.50.
Most of us know so little about aircraft issues are upon new, in- Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New
that we are confused and perplexed by the come-producing property. In each case the value
York City. Their subject is the essential multiplicity of new terms used by those of the property is double spirituality of human life. We realize, to
who describe air operations. A grateful or more than double the amount of the issue. use Dr. Douglas's words, that the point of
exception to most such descriptions is the Send for National Thrift death may be the point of life.
present volume. Not only does the author Counterfeit Miracles. By Benjamin B. War
write in non-technical language, but he field. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York City.
writes with the simplicity and straightFederal
forwardness of a young man. He is a very Dr. Warfield holds that Christ endowed Bond & Mortgage Co.
young man, but has already attained high his Apostles with miraculous power as the distinction. Indeed, he is, so far as we Harry W. Ford, Pres.
crowning sign of their divine commission, know, the only living person who has the GOL Griswold Street
Detroit and that they in turn transmitted it to oth- Victoria Cross, the Distinguished Service
“ The Apostolic Church was char- Medal, twice won, and the Military Cross.
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