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subscribing has about doubled as each new call has been made; be reached, others with definite plans for their careers convinced that is to say, in round numbers, 4,000,000 people subscribed of the greater usefulness of this, and all made aware of the length to the first loan, 9,000,000 to the second, and 17,000,000, or of time necessary for study and the seriousness of the underperhaps more, to the third.

taking. The first week in May saw graduates from thirty-six The present probabilities are that no Fourth Liberty Loan States enrolled, and applications and inquiries coming in from will be necessary before the end of the year.

alumnæ of seventy-five colleges. The Training Camp will open its doors with an enrollment of patriotic, devoted, intelligent

women, willing to do not only their bit but their all for America TRAINING CAMPS FOR NURSES

in her emergency. To supply the military need for nurses it has been nece3sary to take nurses from civilian hospitals and private practice

TRAINING FOR WOMEN WAR WORKERS everywhere. So far nine thousand nurses are already in military service. The result is that only a bare skeleton of the nursing Many a woman says, “I wish I could be of some use in organizations is left in many an institution, and in some locali

this war.

But I don't know how to be of use." Such a wish ties the entire force of visiting and supervising nurses has gone. grows with the knowledge that the demands from Government

Where is America going to find substitutes for these? and military authorities for women's work have greatly increased Women who are more than nurses are needed, for they must and cannot be met without a large augmentation of workers. have some initiative, sympathy, and understanding of social Women who wish 9. more intimate knowledge of the activi. problems ; for as nurses have gone to war, so have social workers, ties which may help win the war, women who can do odd jobs, and so, of course, have physicians and surgeons. The women committee women, administrators, investigators, organizers, who take the places of these nurses at home must have the teachers, clerical workers and Delpers, leaders in girls' and capacity to fit in as well as they can where the

gaps have been women's clubs and patriotic leagues, and many other kinds of left by the social workers and the doctors. There is one class of women--these are they who are longing for wider usefulness. women especially equipped for the duty that is calling to women. Let them apply to the Young Women's Christian Association, The college woman, well grounded in history, languages, sciences 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. Day courses are and sociology, and presumably, possessed of an alert, acquisitive already in progress there to fit women who “ don't know” to mind, can bring to the study of nursing equipment which makes “know.” The next course begins July 9; the next, September possible intensive training in the simpler, specialized aspects of 17; the next, November 5; and the next, February 4, the nursing profession.

1919. These courses extend over a period of about three and a This summer the American Red Cross and the Council of half weeks. If women want training during the periods between National Defense will stand sponsors to a project which has been the prescribed courses, the Y. W. C. A. may make special characterized as one of the most constructive educational schemes arrangements. An evening course will be added, provided brought forward since the war began. A training camp for there are at least twenty-five registrations. The present courses nurses will be held at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York. include one morning session from ten to one e :ery week-day It will enroll only college women. "It will condense into three except Saturday and one afternoon round table every Friday, months work which ordinarily occupies approximately a year. The lectures and conferences are open to women, whether or The Faculty includes such specialists as Professor Florence not they intend to complete the whole course and qualify for a Sabin, Johns Hopkins, who will instruct in anatomy and physi- certificate. Those who can attend only occasionally are asked ology ; Professor C. E. A. Winslow, of Yale, Dr. William H. not to judge the value of any one session by itself, as each is Park and Miss Anna Williams, of the New York Health Labo planned in relation to the whole course. ratories, in bacteriology and hygiene ; Professor Otto Folin, Opportunities for observation and field work are provided Harvard, in chemistry; Miss Nina D. Gage, former superin- several afternoons or evenings weekly during the lecture session. tendent of Hunan Yale Hospital, China, in materia medica; Some form of personal work is required of each candidate for Assistant Professor Isabel M. Stewart, of Columbia, in the his- a certificate. Required themes on designated subjects may be torical and social aspects of nursing ; Professor Margaret F. written at any time suitable to the volunteer. Washburn, of Vassar, in psychology ; Miss Helen Pope, of the At the close of the lecture part of the training course the Pittsburgh Carnegie Institute, in dietetics ; and Professor • trainees ” go out to give active service in whatever branch of Herbert E. Mills, also Dean of the Training Camp, in social work most attracts them. This is done under a trained worker's economics. Near-by hospitals and clinies are co-operating to give supervision. It enables the "trainee” to find her proper niche the students practice as well as theory.

and prove her capabilities. The student fee, which covers all living expenses as well The passing mark for the whole course is eighty per cent. as tuition, is $95. (The cost of the camp will not be met by Preparation for examinations, apart from attendance at lecthe fees; so the Red Cross is giving $75,000 to help meet tures, may be made at any time suitable to the volunteer, anıl expenses.) The present undergraduates will leave the rooms written examinations may also be taken at any time by correand the dormitories completely furnished, and the college farm spondence, on the honor system. Oral examinations are to be will supply fresh vegetables and milk for the table. The entire taken at specified times and places. equipment of the college will be at the disposal of the visitors- In order to afford opportunity for home study at leisure, books the three scientific laboratories, the infirmary, the gymnasium, and papers needed for examinations will be forwarded upon the students' building, the outdoor theater, where both lectures request to any applicant who registers and sends her fee. The and dramatic entertainments will be given, the two lakes, ath- fee for each course is ten dollars, which includes payment for letic fields, and the library, with special loan collections, will all note and text books. be available.

Upon satisfactory completion of all the required work a cerFrom the Training Camp the young women will enter ap- tificate is given which entitles the graduate to become an active proved hospitals to complete the two years' work necessary to or associate worker or teacher for the Young Women's Christian qualify as registered nurses. Before a single application to the Association. Camp had been received more than two hundred hospital places But whether the women students intend to work for it or for were assured. It will be extremely advantageous to hospitals to any other organization, they will have enjoyed the advantages of a receive these students, as the institutions will be relieved of much laboratory for volunteers. Each will have become fitted to serve of the usual expensive and time-consuming training. In the hos- in some station of war work where most needed or best qualified. pitals actual nursing experience begins at once.

College women have not been slow to perceive the opportunity given them to put their ability and training to the best patriotic

GO WITHOUT WHEAT ENTIRELY IF YOU CAN nse. The Training Camp project was not completed and the lists A month ago the Federal Food Administration appealed opened till early in February. Between then and June 24, the to all those who could do without wheat to abstain entirely opening date of the Camp, the need had to be made plain to from its use until next harvest. college women, many already absorbed in local activities had to The response has been gratifying. Hardly was it made before

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hundreds of hotel men pledged themselves to it. The students The chief commodities it transports are grain from Buffalo and in educational institutions followed-those of Drew Theological coal from central points. Seminary, at Madison, New Jersey, being the first, we believe. The Erie Canal is the first canal to come under Federal Various associations and societies followed, and now at least operation. Other canals will probably follow. Possibly some two States have swung into line. Senator Sheppard, of Texas, disused canals may later be considered. The country's overinforms us that his State has voluntarily determined to ab- taxed railway system needs them too if we are to move all the stain from the use of wheat until next harvest,” and thirty-seven freight which ought to be moved. This has already been out of the forty-one county Food Administrators of Idaho, on put before the Rivers and Harbors Committee of the House of behalf of the citizens of that State, have come to a similar Representatives, but the Committee has passed it over. Now determination

that the Rivers and Harbors Bill is before the Senate, perhaps In view of the fact that statements continue to appear show- that body will deem it wise to appropriate a sum necessary to ing how the one and one-half pound ration of wheat per week restore some of the disused canals to usefulness. No one can face per person may best be used, The Outlook recently wrote to the possibility of any such coal shortage as last winter's without the Federal Food Administration inquiring whether it would dread and apprehension. Why not avert such possibility as much not be better now to concentrate all effort on the appeal to as we can by bringing into use every means of transportation ? abstain entirely from the use of wheat. The reply is as follows. It is characteristic of the Administration's human and broad

THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY gauged policy under Mr. Hoover: While the Food Administration has consistently urged the

As the war goes on the “ business of play” is increasing well-to-do and those who can abstain entirely from the use of instead of diminishing. This is as it should be, for, quite apart wheat to cut it from their diet, it has never gone so far as to from the pleasure and profit of play at any time, many observers urge the American people as a whole to maintain themselves are beginning to ask what reduction in the cost of training exclusively on the other cereals.

soldiers to fight there would have been had they been first There is a large element in our population which cannot very trained to play in years past. Had such been the case, a large well go entirely without wheat. This, you understand, is not because the other cereals lack any of the nutritional qualities to

number of those who volunteered for military service and were be found in wheat It is more a matter of convenience and of

refused might have possessed physical qualifications closer to home economics. A large part of our working populace is forced

the standard of their patriotism. That our Government realizes to purchase its bread from bakers, and it is practically impos

the importance of organized recreation is shown by the fact sible for a commercial baker to distribute bread which does not that the War and Navy Department Commissions on Training have wheat as its basis Not only is it extremely difficult to Camp Activities have taken over bodily the Playground and make non-wheat breads on a commercial scale, but it is almost Recreation Association of America to carry on its beneficent impossible to distribute such loaves, as they must be consumed work for our new armies under the name War Camp Commua few hours after being baked. In view of the present shortage, nity Service. our responsibility to feed this element is almost as great as our

Recent figures compiled by this Association show the extenduty to those across the sea If wheat should be cut entirely from the American diet, these people would suffer very materially.

sion of play into the winter months, and the increasing demand However, the Food Administration is asking very definitely

for lighted playgrounds for evening use. Some six hundred and very clearly for the greatest possible reduction in consump

playgrounds are now opened and lighted throughout the evetion. It is asking those who must use wheat to eat no more than

ning. It is impossible to conceive of the number of unhealthy one and one-half pounds a week, and it is asking all who can and unwholesome places from which children are thus saved. possibly do without it to eat absolutely none.

The number of schools established to train playground The Federal Food Administration's latest published state

leaders is increasing, and the standard of those workers has ment informs householders that they will have no difficulty in

been raised by civil service examinations. About 9,000 men following the wheat flour allowance of one and one-half pounds and women are now employed to direct play at recreation per person per week if they consider one and three-quarter

centers. About three-quarters of a million boys and girls daily pounds of Victory bread equal to one pound of wheat flour, thus

swarm in the play centers, and some 700 school buildings are leaving half a pound of wheat flour to be used during the week in

used for play after school hours. One of the consequences of this other foods.

is the birth of a kindlier feeling for the school buildings in the Among those other foods are, for instance, macaroni, wheat

heart of the pupil who may have regarded that building as a cereals, wheat crackers, pastry, cake. But why “ go to the place of torture! limit” of the one and one-half pound allowance? Why not do

Throughout the country, we read, there are some 200 bathing as much as possible towards lessening that allowance ?

beaches, 400 public baths, and 300 swimming pools ; and during Among the wheat substitutes are barley flour, buckwheat

1917 some 4,000 playgrounds and neighborhood recreation cenflour, corn flour, corn grits, corn-meal, edible corn-starch, rolled

ters were maintained. A recreation center often means an open oats, potato flour, soya-bean flour, and sweet-potato flour.

place where a brass band plays, and it sometimes means an In other words, we believe that the Federal Food Adminis

indoor place where one may take a book from the library shelf : tration's reasonable attitude will be appreciated not only by bands, sixty in orchestras, and 200 in community sings; that

we learn that in 1917 about fifty cities“ specalized” in brass those who can well abstain entirely from the use of wheat but also by those who cannot.

there were debating clubs in forty cities and free libraries in many more.

While it is good to read that there has been an increase of THE ERIE CANAL

eighteen per cent in the number of playgrounds operated and Mr. McAdoo, Director-General of our land transportation of fifty per cent in the dollars spent, we know that the present system, has testified to the value of inland waterways in his crowded play and recreation centers serve only one in fifty of recent order that the Erie Canal be taken over by the Federal those children who should be served. We also know that those Railway Administration and that a fleet of barges be immedi- who should be served-indeed, those who are being served—are ately constructed.

not only babies and boys and girls and young people, but some Several hundred steel barges of about seven hundred tons men and women who are never going to grow old. each, it is announced, are being ordered at once from construc- As one sees the happy youth, therefore, from the poorer tenetion companies on the Great Lakes. Investigation is also being ment districts of our cities in the municipal and other playmade of the practicability of concrete barges, which, it is said, grounds, breathing better air, playing games, singing songs, can be built quickly and cheaply.

crowding the swings, seesaws, and coasting slides, a sense of The Federal Railway Administration will simply direct the gratitude comes for their escape from unsanitary living conconstruction of barges and boats and the operation of freight. ditions, from the danger of disease, and the danger of injury It will not interfere with the construction work on the Erie from street accidents. Canal now under way.

But there is a future good to reckon with, for play makes for The Erie Canal runs from Buffalo to the Hudson River. better and cleaner citizenship later.

The Compulsory Work Law

All Able-Bodied Males MUST WORK 36 HOURS EACH WEEK

SIOO FINE 3 Months in bil

, or Both

LESS LOAFING

take employment. If employment has not been obtained within In compulsory labor legislation New Jersey has now fol- the week, he must return and get another card if he can. lowed West Virginia and Maryland. The New Jersey law pro- Mr. Bryant assures the sheriffs that the entire machinery of vides that it shall be the duty of every able-bodied male resident

the Department of Labor “ will be included in the effort to curb of the State between the ages of eighteen and fifty years to vagrancy, uselessness, and mendicancy during these times when be regularly engaged in some lawful and recognized employ- every red blooded citizen of our country should be doing his bit ment, trade, or profession until the end of the war.

towards the successful termination of our present conflict.” A large placard, prepared by the State Commissioner of Labor, has been sent for public posting to the sheriffs and other offi

HOBOES AND THE IDLE RICH cials charged with the responsibility of enforcing the law :

In the operation of this law New Jersey, we hope, will have the same success as West Virginia and Maryland have had.

West Virginia has the distinction of beginning this reform in our economic system. In May a year ago the State Legislature passed a Compulsory Labor Law. In the eleven months since,

in Charleston, the State capital, alone there have been under roquires that

this Act some three hundred cases on the police docket, and in nearly every case fines have been imposed or else the accused has accepted employment. A like degree of success was obtained

in other communities of the State. The justices of the peace, between 18 and 50 Years, inclusive

mayors, and police judges have jurisdiction to try and punish offenders. Those found guilty are fined not more than $100 for each offense, and-here is the “stinger”—as a part of the

punishment the offender is ordered to work not exceeding sixty DN ACOORDANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF CHAPTER 65, LAWS OF 1918 days upon the public roads or upon some other public work HON. WALTER E. EDGE, Governor of New Jersey, by being done by the county or municipality in which the offender proclamation issued March 8th, 1918, called upon

has been convicted. Half of the value of any such labor is paid the Sheriffs, Mayors and heads of Police Departments

by the county or municipality towards the support of any perto apprehend all violators, under penalty

sons legally dependent upon the vagrant. If there is no de pendent, then no payment is made. Furthermore, we learn from the Hon. Samuel B. Montgomery, the State Commissioner of Labor, from whom the above facts come, that the “ idle rich”

are as amenable to the law as are the idle of any other class. Those doslring work should apply in person or by mail to nearest FEDERAL-STATE MUNICIPAL EMPLOYMENT OFFICE, or to It is a satisfaction also to learn that the Supreme Court of the DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, STATE HOUSE, TRENTON, N. Jo, when State has recently upheld this law. Suitable Work will be Provided

In West Virginia the law applies to those whose ages are or Exemption Cards issued

between sixteen and sixty years. In Maryland and New Jersey Persons having eficient rovoaron arising from ownership of property or income, and thou

the law in that respect is not as strict, applying only between npported by others are included among those coming within the provisions of this not.

the ages of eighteen and fifty years. NOT INCLUDED

Concerning the working of the law in Maryland, Mr. George (~) Stadents and porsons Atting themselves to ongogo in trado or industrial parraita (b) Pornons tomporarily adomployed by reason of differences with employers.

A. Malone, who was appointed by the Governor to enforce the (0) Saab seasonable or other regular employment w require in the proper dischargo of their measure, thinks it not only sound and practicable, but presents

statistics to support his opinion. In one respect the Maryland CITY ENS WILL PLEASE BKPORT VIOLATION TO, OR ADVIBE WITE, SHERIFY OF YOUR COUNTY, THE MAYOR, CHIEF OF POLICE, OTHER MUNICIPAL law is superior to the others, and that is because its penalties AUTHORITIES, THE FEDERAL STATE-MUNICIPAL EMPLOYMENT OPTIOL, OR

are heavier. The fine is $500 or less and the imprisonment not LEWIS T. BRYANT, Commissioner of Labor. more than six months, or both.

Writing to The Outlook, Mr. Malone adds an expression of The sheriffs are furthermore required to have enrollment opinion which strikes us as being particularly pertinent. “The blanks filled out by all persons coming under the provisions of

main good the law does," he affirms, “is not expressed in figures this Act, and to be forwarded to the State Employment Service. of men reported for not working, or in those assigned to work, In the allotment of positions preference is given to the more

or of those punished for not working. The main good effect of essential war-time activities, agricultural, cannery, shipyard,

the law is that it sends men to work before they get on the and munitions works. The following is the Enrollment Card : delinquent list and keeps them at work when they would

otherwise drop out.”
NEW JERSEY
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

THE PIGGERY PLAN
FEDERAL-STATE-MUNICIPAL EMPLOYMENT AGENCY

Garbage is a disagreeable subject. Perhaps, because it is so (Chapter 55, Laws 1918)

disagreeable, the notion has prevailed that garbage must be ENROLLMENT CARD

dumped somewhere as rapidly as possible, so as to get it out of Name

the
way.

Then we think no more about it.
Address

As a matter of fact, garbage is not now as plentiful as it has Age.. .Height. Weight.. Race.

been. The reason is that less is being put into the garbage pail. Citizen. .Country of Birth..

Everywhere housewives are materially reducing the waste. The Married.

.Single.

Dependents. What has been your occupation or trade, if any.

Food Administration's report shows that collections in seventy

six American cities are some fourteen per cent smaller than they For what occupation do you consider yourself best fitted..

were during the same period a year ago.

Nor is the garbage dumped so rich in quality. The houseWhy have you not been employed.

wives have taken from it the most promising percentage of Have you ever worked on a farm.

what would ordinarily seem mere waste foodstuffs. There Can you plow...... .Handle teams.

Milk
I hereby certify that this Registration Card was filled out, as above, by

is not now half as much grease in garbage collected as in me this..........day of. 191 .

that collected last year. But the refuse really inedible by humans (the gristle, vegetable peelings, table and kitchen

scraps), when freshly collected, constitutes a proper food for There are also exemption cards, good for a week, a week of hogs and produces pork of good quality. It has even been said grace, within which the workless person is to secure and under- that from the average waste from kitchens every year we might

dutin lous than minimam zamber of 86 hoon indicated in this act

NEW JERSEY COMPULSORY WORK LAW

Title of Office.

have some seventy million pounds of pork and over $16,000,000 At present we produce only thirty-seven per cent of the chromite worth of grease and fertilizer.

needed and sixty-five per cent of the tungsten. Hence in the present effort to increase food production the Two fundamental materials in the manufacture of all modern methods of garbage disposal have come suddenly to the fore. high-power explosives are nitrate, chiefly as nitric acid, and Dumping has long since been shown to be unsanitary. The concentrated sulphuric acid, made from pyrite or sulphur; we burning of garbage is now the rule in many cities. In Minne- produce only a third of the pyrite that we need. apolis, with its $110,000 incinerator, the burned garbage has Mercury is used as a fulminate to explode cartridges and been utilized for steam produced in the generation of elec- shells, and is essential for the safe and effective use of all high tricity.

explosives. We produce only a part of what we need. Now, however, Minneapolis has found a more profitable Antimony is required for hardening lead and bullets. We means of disposal, Beginning with April, the city began to feed produce only a tenth of what we need. its garbage to hogs. The city collected the garbage, so Alder- Mica is indispensable as an insulating material in the manuman Dight tells us, placed it on board cars at a certain garbage facture of electrical apparatus. Again we produce only a small collection station, and sold it at $1.26 a ton. At the price the part of what we need. value of the garbage collected by the city during 1917 would And so we might go on. A bill to provide for the immediate amount to some $30,000. The saving to the city in the cost of expansion of our supply of these minor minerals was introduced coal to burn the garbage would increase this sum to about into Congress. It has now passed the House of Representatives, $50,000.

and, we are glad to say, by the emphatic vote of 290 to 7. As the price of garbage is advancing, because of the price It provides, however, a ten-million-dollar appropriation instead of pork, the saving should be all the greater to taxpayers. Like of the fifty million dollars requested. A reading of the “ ConMinneapolis, Madison, the capital of Wisconsin, had used the gressional Record” discloses the fact that the smaller appropriaincinerator plan. Mr. Nelson, the City Auditor, writes to The tion was voted, not so much because of any lack of faith in the Outlook that the city now sells its refuse to the farmers for project, but because a smaller sum was deemed sufficient to $1.25 a ton delivered at loading stations near by, from which it begin with. Another reason was the report that our war is hauled away by the farmers who live in the vicinity.

expenses are now a billion dollars a month. Another city which has recently tried hog feeding is Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where the garbage had hitherto been dumped.

THE ROAD OF SILENCE Writing to The Outlook, Mayor Rall says that the new system has been almost entirely a clear gain.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City has In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, the reduction system has been been doing a good work in its lectures on art for the benefit of employed, but now the hog-feeding system is used. Mayor the deaf. These lectures were delivered by Miss Jane Walker Kiester says that the saving to the municipality by what he calls during the winter ; they came to an end with one of May 2 the " piggery plan" may reach no less than one hundred and on "Myths in Marble. Of course such lectures appeal to a fifty per cent.

restricted audience; and the audience has also been the smaller Proper garbage utilization is now more than a mere economic because only comparatively few people have known about them. method of disposal. It has become a patriotic duty. We must The lectures are given by the means of lip reading, an art of conserve all our assets—even our garbage assets—in order to seeing another's thought. increase our food production.

The subject of art is peculiarly appealing to the deaf. They are necessarily deprived of music, the spoken drama, sermons,

lectures, and that great world of spiritual and intellectual stimOUR MINOR MINERALS

ulus which reaches the hearing child through his ears ; hence It is all very well to talk about increasing our Army in art is one field to which the footsteps of the deaf instinctively France, but the controlling factor is ships. We must have turn. This is Miss Walker's belief, and in her lectures she more ships.

seeks not only to teach various phases of the history of art, but Mr. Lane, Secretary of the Interior, recently suggested a plan also to give some stimulus to those who watch her to use their whereby the crying need for ships could in some degree be met. own hands, and, if possible, themselves to become creators of He proposed that our mines of so-called minor minerals, espe- beauty. cially those the production of which was essential to the making In this connection we may remember that among such creaof munitions of war, be developed to their fullest capacity, so tors the Italian painter Pintoricchio was called "11 Sordacthat the ships now bringing to our shores some two million tons chione” because of his deafness, that Goya and Sir Joshua of these minerals be released for taking men and supplies to Reynolds were deaf, while, of course, the case of Beethoven is France. The minerals come from many distant sources—from the best known of all. There have been other artists also travel. China, Ceylon, Chile, Spain, Madagascar, Australia, Greenland. ing this “ Road of Silence,” as Margaret Baldwin, in a recent The import involves long voyages, delays in loading and unload- number of the “ Atlantic Monthly," calls it. ing the bulky materials, and the congestion of our ports.

Why should we not make the otherwise dreary lives of the Chief among our minor minerals is manganese. It is an essen- hard of hearing more beautiful by bringing them more and tial for high-grade munition steel. Because of the lower grade more in contact with the beautiful ? The little deaf New of our manganese ore, we have been getting over three-quarters York City child, coming from some crowded and unbeautiful of our supply from abroad, principally from Brazil; the collier home, as it passes through the spacious galleries of the MetroCyclops, supposed to have been lost, was, it is reported, loaded politan Museum and feels about it the presence of lovely forms with it. Owing to lack of facilities in Brazil, all the ore has been and colors, may be awakened to a new, and perhaps a creative, smelted here. Certain Montana companies, however, have in- life. vested, it is said, a million and a half in machinery to develop the manganese supply of that State, and they have developed it THE MAGNITUDE OF THE MEAT INDUSTRY amazingly. This shows what can be done by private initiative In value of products, what is our greatest industry? Most with ample means.

men would probably reply, Food. And they are right. It is very The idea that lies behind the legislation now pending in much our greatest industry. It is followed by textiles ; iron, Congress, however, consequent upon Mr. Lane's suggestion, is steel, and their products ; chemicals and allied products ; lumthat the Government should establish a minimum price to ber and its manufactures ; paper and printing ; metals and encourage small producers. Similar to the case of manganese is metal products other than iron and steel ; leather and its prodthat of chromite, of which two-thirds of our supply comes from ucts; and, finally, vehicles for land transportation. abroad. Chromite is an alloy for particular forms of steel, such The subject of land transportation suggests a comparison be as that going into armor-piercing projectiles. Tungsten is used tween its volume of business and that of any of our industries. in toughening the steel used in auto and airplane frames. Our It may surprise some to learn that the total annual revenue of chromium mines in Pennsylvania and our tungsten mines in our railways is not as great as the annnal value of food, textile, Colorado and Arizona may soon be the scenes of greater activity. or iron and steel products, indeed that the volume of business of

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