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1:3 #24 bos, Tere Te $15-2 ry, LassaT, send Lim back to LIT, KELLE iza resta di Sas, si to sei as governor. but we at AL Caix 5:5, Gas- Gaize arritz. c Botz s: Hispaniola, Sat 100; 23. oise in V Cut azi a srá, 1429, te tesecogey executed A is one Durres, Listrica trasmisgive government, brer wie were B2; , a tbe asi secara Cozies bre a prisoner2 ET162 vievezt of Sari con radacz tas be scoa1 be kept strictly cus, but si a zára az to greet in iross case the peasaze. Ice captain 12. La corona ; ad tie fort te of the vessel is rich the veteran sailed, Le tuer cetted Tattered tracked with respect for his years and merit, 224, brikete Erla, az units of all ožered to take of his sisekes it but the prikre, wete szini avut in confusion; soper would not alorit. “Since," said he, 2.i te rassueren of ice litrie gar. "the king Las comanded that I sbould obey In ay aart ia tier cases, and indi. his governor, be sball wird me as obedient to i and the wrats fate of the rest.

this as I have been to all his other orders. Iraila Saridi, Columbus sailed east- Nothing but bis commands shall release ward; and, landing his then, provisions, me.' and almolition in a plain near a rock on This excess of malice on the part of his win.ch a fort might be conveniently erected, enemies, served only to defeat its own purLe laid the foundation of a town, which, in pose. So enormous an outrage no sooner bonour of the queen of Castile, he called became known, than it shocked the minds Inat:lla. This was the first town founded of the most prejudiced. Ferdinand and by Europeans in the New World..

Isabella, who readily comprehended the While Columbus was successfully estab- obloquy which the act would necessarily lishing the foundations of Spanish grandeur attach to themselves, immediately com. in the New World, his enemies at home manded that Columbus should be released were assiduously labouring to deprive him from his fetters; and expressed their horror of his merited honour and emoluments; and and regret for the unworthy usage he had he at length resolved to return to Spain, to experienced. He was also enjoined to revindicate himself from the false charges pair to the court with all possible speed. daily made against him to the Spanish After some delay, occasioned by the emcourt-taking with him such ample testi- barrassment into which the court was thrown monials of fidelity and good conduct, that by the conflicting appeals of Columbus and his maligners were silenced; and the sun of his enemies, the admiral was suffered to court favour once more shone brightly upon undertake a fourth voyage; the object being the path of the intrepid mariner.

the discovery of a passage to the great It was now determined to supply him Indian Ocean, which, he supposed, must liberally with whatever might be necessary open somewhere between Cuba and the coast for the entire subjugation and settlement of of Peru. Four caravels only were furnished Hispaniola; and, accordingly, on the 30th for the expedition; and with these, on the of May, 1498, he sailed from Spain on his 9th of March, 1502, the veteran, quitting third

voyage. He steered in a more south- the port of Cadiz, once more spread his erly direction than on his preceding expedi- sails. tions; and, on the 1st of August, succeeded Forbidden, by the letter of his instrucin reaching terra firma—thus entitling him- tions, to touch at Hispaniola on his outward Belf to the glory of being the first to set voyage, he was nevertheless driven, by a foot on the great southern continent, to violent tempest, to seek safety for his ships which he had before opened a way.

in one of the harbours of the island. His Columbus continued to make further dis- arrival was no sooner made known to the coveries, and to add island after island to governor (Ovando), than he gave orders * Holmes' Annals of America.

and biographer, Don Ferdinand Columbus; "which + He kept these shackles until his death. “I he ordered to be buried with his body.”—Holmes' always saw those irons in his rooin,” says his son | Annals of America, p. 19.

for the instant departure of the vessels. neglect and indifference; and, at length, Quitting the inhospitable shore of the island, wearied by the importunities of the aged, he was driven, by a succession of storms, and no longer useful suitor, the king was Dearly to the island of Cuba, traversing the ungenerous enough to propose that Columbus gulf of Honduras, and coasting along the and his son should waive their claims to margin of that golden land which had so paramount dignities and fortune in the often filled his thoughts. The natives New World, and accept, in lieu of them, invited him, in vain, to strike into its titles and estates in the kingdom of Castile: western depths; but he pressed forward to but the proposition was rejected by Columbus the south, solely occupied with the grand with indignation, as being evidently intended object of discovering a passage into the to compromise those titles which were the Indian Ocean. At length, after advancing real trophies of his great achievements. a short distance beyond the point of Nombre At length, with spirits broken by such de Dios, he was compelled, by the fury of unthankful requital of his services, and the elements and the murmurs of his men, with a constitution impaired by a life of to abandon the enterprise, and retrace his unmitigated hardship, his health sank under steps. He was subsequently defeated in severe and reiterated attacks of the disorder an attempt to establish a colony on terra that had long afflicted him. His mental firma, by the ferocity of the natives; was vigour was not, however, impaired ; and, on wrecked on the island of Jamaica, where he the 19th of May, 1506, he confirmed, by a was permitted to linger more than a year testamentary writing, the dispositions he through the malice of Ovando; and, finally, had previously made, with special reference having re-embarked with his shattered crew to the entail of his estates and dignitiesin a vessel freighted at bis own expense, manifesting, in his latest acts, the same was driven, by a succession of terrible solicitude he had shown through life to weather, across the ocean, until, on the perpetuate an honourable name.

This was 7th of November, 1504, he anchored in the the closing scene of his eventful life: on port of San Lucar, twelve leagues from the following day (May 20th), he expired. Seville.

The body of Columbus was first deposited While yet in this haven, his best friend, in the convent of St. Francisco; but, in Isabella the Catholic, descended to the 1513, it was removed to the Carthusian tomb; and the king, her husband, who convent of Las Cuevas, at Seville, and had not at any time been really well disposed placed in the chapel of Santa Christo, with towards Columbus, felt it no longer necessary great funereal pomp, a splendid monument to affect an interest in the welfare of one being erected over the remains by order of to whom his crown was so much indebted. Ferdinand, who likewise placed the memoIn vain were his past services urged to the rable inscriptionking as a plea for consideration : the original

"A Castilla y á Leon terms of the capitulation made with him,

Nuevo mundo dió Colon."* and their infringement in almost every In the year 1536, the relics of this extraparticular, were represented; as, also, was ordinary man were transported to Histhe necessitous condition of the worn-out paniola, and interred by the side of the admiral. Ferdinand was too busily occupied grand altar of the cathedral of the city of with other affairs to give heed to the appeal St. Domingo. But here they did not rest, of one from whom he could expect no further as, on the cession of Hispaniola to the advantage; but after some delay, occasioned French, in 1795, it was determined by the by the insufficiency of his means to journey Spaniards to remove them to the island of from San Lucar, Columbus at length reached Cuba, as relics connected with the most gloSegovia, and presented himself before the rious epoch of Spanish history. Accordingly, king, who received him with great demon- on the 20th of December, 1795, in the prestrations of regard, and assured him that sence of an august assemblage of the dig. he (Ferdinand) fully estimated his important nitaries of the church, and the civil and services; and, far from stinting his recom- military officers of the island, the vault pense to the precise terms of the capitula- was opened : within it were found the fragtion, more ample favours should be bestowed ments of a leaden coffin, a number of upon him in Castile.

bones, and a quantity of earth, evidently The affectation of regard exhibited by

*"To Castile and to Leon Columbus gave a New Ferdinand, was speedily supplanted by World.”

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the remains of a human body. These were introduced amongst them by those whose
arefully collected, and put into a case of mission should have been to elevate and
gilded lead, secured by locks; the case was protect them, have, in the course of those
ihen inclosed in a coffin covered with black two centuries, reduced their number by four-
velvet, and the whole placed in a temporary teen millions of victims. It is declared by
mausoleum. On the following day there some American authors, that, since the arrival
was another grand convocation at the of the Saxon race in Northern America,
cathedral. The vigils and masses for the wars, maladies, and intemperance, have
dead were chanted, and a funeral sermon destroyed more than twelve millions of red-
was preached by the archbishop. After skins. Since the end of the 18th century,
these solemnities in the cathedral, the coffin a visible diminution of the native Indian
was transported to the ship, attended by a population has progressed ; yet it is asserted,
grand civil, religious, and military pro- that not one of the tribes which existed at
cession. The banners were covered with the epoch of Columbus, has been utterly
crape; the boom of minute-guns mingled annihilated.*
with the chants and responses of the choir; The primitive type of the Indian, as it
and the most distinguished persons in the then appeared, is now only to be found in the
colony took turns to support the coffin. great deserts of this vast continent, far from

The reception of the body at Havanna the contaminating influences of that liquid was equally imposing: a splendid procession fire, so fatally introduced amongst them by of boats conducted the remains from the civilised man: far, also, from that derasship; and the vessels of war in the harbour tating malady, the small-pox; and from the rendered the honours due to an admiral and focus of all European evils—the American captain-general of Spain. On arriving at plantations. In those deep solitudes comthe Mole, the coffin was received by the prised between Texas on the south, the governor of the island, and the high dig- valley of the Mississippi on the east, the nitaries of the church, and was then con- British possessions on the north, and the veyed, with the utmost pomp, to the cathe- Pacific Ocean on the west, it is that the dral Masses, and the customary services Indian must now be sought. It is there for the dead, were again performed by the they can still be found in their aboriginal biabop; and the mortal remains of Columbus character, with their native faculties un. were then finally deposited in the wall on restrained, and their original habits undethe right of the high altar, where they still teriorated-free denizens of the earth, in the remain.

midst of scenery that is at the same time buch were the last honours paid to the grand, gloomy, and poetic; the stamp of memory of this great man, by whose enter which is visibly impressed on all men and prise and skill a new world was rediscovered, thingst within the sphere of its influence. and sources of boundless wealth opened for The fact of the aboriginal Indians still the advantage of a country which treated retaining possession of large portions of the bim with injustice while living, but would soil of their forefathers, in circumstances bave deified him when he could no longer the most peculiar, perhaps, that ever occurred appreciate its gratitude.

to any portion of the human race, bas Before entering upon the discoveries by given rise to some of the most interesting the Cabots and their successors, it may be discoveries which can possibly be presented proper to glance briefly at the remnant of to the view of the pbilosopher, the philan. ihe aboriginal populations, now spread over thropist, the civilian, or the statesman. In the area of the North American continent. order that the subject may be adequately That tho whole country was thickly inha- appreciated, it will be desirable to present a bited long previous to the earliest discovery very brief outline of the physical, mental, and of any portion of it by Europeans, is mani- moral characteristics of the race. With the fest by the fact, that, up to a period within exception, perhaps, of the Esquimaux, all two centuries of the present time, the native the Indians have the same physical characinhabitants of the northern portion only, teristics. The bronze or copper colour, the numbered from sixteen to seventeen mil- straight, coarse, black hair, the hazel eyes, lions of people. Within the period referred the high cheek-bones

, and erect form, are to, civilisation has deprived the inhabitants still common to them all; although there is of two-thirds of their territory. Iron wea- some difference in the stature of different pons, the fire-brand, cholera, and the vices * Prescott : vol. i., p. 429. + Ibid., p. 132.

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tribes. The Osages are very tall, and the the Omahaws, the Kansas, and the Osages. Shoshonees are below the middle stature. All these tribes speak dialects of the DahEach race and each tribe has its peculiar cotah tongue. The Assinniboins are known physiognomy. To a European or Anglo- also by the names of Ossinneboins, OssinAmerican, all Indians look alike; but one nepoilles, Stone Indians, and Hohays. This accustomed to them can distinguish the last is the name they give themselves. The tribes with almost unerring certainty: Otoes and Missouries, now united, are re* Thus a Dahcotah is as readily distinguished nowned among the tribes of the Missouries from a Chippeway or a Winnebago by his for their bravery. They can muster about features as his dress. Yet the difference is 300 men.

Yet the difference is 300 men. The Ioways still dwell on the not so great as to induce a belief that all Mississippi. They have from 100 to 200 | the tribes are not descended from the same men. The Osages are divided into three

stock. The Esquimaux of Greenland and tribes, and can boast more than 1,000 warthe eastern part of the continent, differ from riors. The Kansas inhabit the plains about the red Indians in complexion, stature, and the heads of the Arkansas and Red rivers. in the position of the eyes, which are set Their number is unknown. The Omahaws obliquely in their orbits. The Indians in live high up the Missouri. Besides these the northern part of North America are tribes, there dwell on the Mississippi, bedivided into several great families. The tween the river Des Moins, the Wisconsin Algonquin, or Chippeway race, is one of the and the Missouri, the Sacs and Foxes, a two most numerous now in existence. All branch of the Chippeway tribe. They the tribes of New England were Algon-speak the Chippeway tongue, and number quins, if we take identity of language, above 1,000 men. On the Missouri are the manners, and customs as a proof of the Pawnees, divided into three tribes, of which fact. The vocabulary of the Narraganset the Arikarees are a branch. They live by tongue, proves them to have been a branch hunting the buffalo, and are said to have a of the Algonquin stock. The Mohegans, language of their own. The Mintarees or considered the progenitors of the other Bigbellies, the Mandans, the Crows, and tribes in New England, spoke the same the Blackfeet, also live on the Missouri, tongue. The tribes in Maine claimed the and each is said to have a language of its same origin. The Delaware, or Lenni own. Their numbers are unknown. The Lenape, were of the same family, and their Shoshonees live between the head waters of language has been pronounced the most the Missouri and Columbia rivers. They perfect existing The Iroquois, or Six are almost constantly on horseback, and are Nations, once dreaded from the Atlantic to at war with the lower tribes of the Misthe Mississippi, are Algonquins. This souri. On the Colombia river are the tribe did, and still does, extend from the Chohunnish, the Skilloots, Echeloots, Multmouth of the St. Lawrence to the Missis- nomahs, Clatrops, and other tribes. Their sippi, and thence northward to Great Slave baunts and numbers are unknown. They Lake; for so far do the Nayheeowawk or live by fishing as well as hunting, and differ Knisteneaux extend their rambles. On in manners and customs from the tribes the western side of the Mississippi is an- east of the Rocky Mountains. They are other great Indian family; viz., the Sioux neither so well fed nor clad. Most of these or Dahcotah. The Dahcotah proper in- tribes have the practice of flattening the habit the country on the west side of the heads of infants between boards, whence Mississippi, north of the Wisconsin, to the the general name of Flat-heads. They sources of the Mississippi. Their territory have some commerce with ships on the extends westward to the Missouri. This north-west coast. Nothing is known of the tribe speak a language radically distinct languages of any of these people. From the from that of the Algonquin race. Their south of the United States, there are four origin is unknown, and their own tradi- tribes; viz., the Chickasaws, Choctaws, tions are at variance on this point one Cherokees, and Creeks. All these have with another.

One account, and the made some progress in civilisation. The most probable, represents them as having Cherokees have a written and printed lanbeen driven from the confines of Mexico guage, said to be radically different from all by the Spaniards. The branches of this others. They number about 15,000 souls. tribe are the Winnebagoes, the Otoes, the The Choctaws and Chickasaws are each loways, the Missouries, the Assinniboins, more numerous.

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In some tribes, especially those of marle op v 12, ata rres Jancoran origin, it is held the duty of each 30tare or 093e:

I wan to marry all the sisters of a family, terart 1re firm te an: 'I arize ne 's urd to have is many wives as he can supgot on je undi pere de 25 en 3 205. rer. n most ribes, and we believe in all, girility of smrdoria? :3 5 Der nears. zcest is held in abborrence; and instances Tie jestiv Trs 3 Irurz heir

it levoted itachment are not uncommon. mret frisoHites. Em tide - Every Indian submits in youth to a protribes, 3 strac ar 3 Pera Tibe 'ess I severe mental and corporeal discimost respect int ir art. II. ES TIL me: Iuring the course of which, frequent he is servei de rest 1 te ritam. ertais oi ong and rigid abstinence are xated obe est pas no esta tarde. Sy which the system is reduced, the itmest este unters Is nu te magination rendered more suscep. person ni prert ire resizeze stered ice. Dreams are then encouraged: by Fe nav panis az is je rases = nese te zovire is taught both his duty and worm rent ut at CES SE Kai Is iestny; and in them his guardian and retire arri. Fasts re Inie or muitou, who is to protect him in life and him: and, ng ez rar se irteni im in death, appears in the shape satistied, is rise arbre 20.7 some umar animal, thenceforth to be gires great deace. Tur Tus he creet ut his adoration. He is taught all the latan mies, the se in ur e Dietis izai. azd during his whole life men is 59 prirds ied. Be sur is de ze is rich indifference. An Indian exclusive site tre. Te ze op de siden etnis suicide; not because the aze cr he is easieni teze CIT Teices act cter him a refuge, but beof te rae si. I beards 2e ens Inse pariske azd fortitude are the first to plant er, 3 raad zii ei mezi nesci a vartior, and none but a coward ard r.cecasins sér. s r 23. 2 un pas or misfortune. This sterncat mud, to brez vua zi iurses es cierpose is another lesson early and dogs, 2.d, c 3 marta, CUT 1 Ee learns also to despise labour, baggage. Tre were do 26 1 Bettce s Tarrior and a hunter, to assothis, but erzeder is a missionate se ize idea of disgrace with any other distribution of lamis cares E. de se estreni, ard to leave to the women all regarded as an interior rice, and cheese crcitary duties of life. He is a stern transferred as property. Peisgans is ges. ad uz bending fatalist : whatever of good erul. Every man Las as many wives as te or of evil may happen, he receives it with can support, and, in marriages, the will of in perturbable calmness. If misfortunes the bride is seldom or never consulted; a press upon him which he cannot resist, be man addrekkes himself directly to the can die; and he dies without a murmur, parents of bis intended wife, and her fate The opinions, traditions, and institutions of depends on their will. The custom of his own tribe, are endeared to him by babit

, dowry is reversed among Indians; the man feeling, and authority; and, from early makes certain presents to the parents of his infancy, he is taught that the Great Spirit wite, instead of receiving a portion with will be offended by any change in the cus: her. The marriage ceremony is always toms of his red children, which bare all wory simple, and, in most tribes, there is been established by him.' Reckless of conmone at all. Adultery is punished by cut- sequences, he is the child of impulse ; un. ting off the nono, or otherwise mutilating restrained by moral considerations, what110 ofending female; sometimes, though ever his passions prompt he does. Belier. Timely, with death: in somo tribes, this ing all the wild and débasing superstitions por me is regarded as a venial fault, and in which have come down to bim, be has no 1975 the husband lends his wife to a friend practical views of a moral superintendence,

point omposition on her part. Divorces to protect or to punish him." Government

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