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an exhibition of the devoted courage of our movement was generally known in Washtroops - the most brilliant incident of the ington, and congress had adjourned for the day. Not one yard of intrenchment, or purpose of affording its members an opporone rifle-pit, protected the men at Black. tunity to attend the battle-field. Victory burn's Ford; who, with rare exceptions, was looked upon as inevitable; and so were, on that day, the first time under fire, generally was the idea taken up by the inand who, taking and maintaining every habitants of the sovereign city, that people position ordered, exceeded in cool, self- of all classes of society hurried, in every possessed, and determined courage, the species of vehicle, across the Potomac, that best-trained veterans. Twice the enemy they might be in time to see the grand was foiled and driven back by our skir- tournament which was to decide the formishers and Longstreet's reserve companies. tunes of the south, and the supremacy of As he returned to the contest with increased the northern states." numbers, General Longstreet had been re- Orders were issued by General M‘Dowell inforced from Early's brigade, with two for the grand army of the Potomac to be in regiments of infantry, and two pieces of motion, en route for its different positions, artillery. Unable to effect a passage of so that they might be reached before daythe stream, the enemy kept up a scattering break of the 21st. It was also commanded
, fire for some time. The fire of musketry that each man should have four days' was soon silenced, and the affair became rations cooked, and in their haversacks ; one of artillery. The enemy was superior anticipatory of their gaining Manassas, and in the character as well as in the number holding it until supplies could reach them of his weapons; provided with improved by rail from Alexandria. munitions, and every artillery appliance; On the part of the confederates, it does at the same time occupying the command not appear that any preconcerted plan of ing position. In the onset, the fire of the battle had been formed; and that the whole confederates was directed against the federal of the movements depended upon the deinfantry, whose bayonets, glistening in the velopment of the enemy's designs, and the sun, alone indicated their presence and tact, activity, and energy called into action force. This drew the attention of a battery to meet the exigencies of the occasion. on a ridge, which commanded the position; General Johnstone being the senior in but for a time the aim of the federals was rank, assumed command of the confederate inaccurate. This at last was corrected, and forces then concentrating at Manassas; but shot and shell fell thick, and burst in the as he entirely approved the tactics of midst of the confederate battery, which, General Beauregard, he did not at all nothing daunted, continued its destructive interfere with the carrying out the designs fire. By degrees, the battery was then of that officer. advanced, by hand, out of the range which Returning to the narrative before referred the enemy had ascertained. From this to,* it is said that the effective confedenew position the confederate guns con- rate force, of all arms, ready for action in tinued their deadly fire, until, at length, the field, on that eventful morning, was less that of the enemy slackened: the intervals than 30,000 men, divided into eight bri. between their discharges grew longer and gades, occupying the defensive line of Bulllonger, and finally ceased. It was then Run. In his entire ignorance of the visible to the confederate army, that the lines enemy's plan of attack, General Beauregard of their baffled enemy had broken, and that was compelled to extend his force along the whole army was fiying in wild confusion the stream for some eight or ten miles, and utter rout, strewing their line of re- while the enemy developed his purpose. treat with castaway guns, blankets, and He had abandoned his original plan of knapsacks, and dotting the route they had marching on Manassas by the town routes taken with the wounded and killed of their from Washington and Alexandria, and had army."
resolved upon turning the left flank of the The repulse at Bull-Run only stimulated confederate army. the federal commander-in-chief to further Soon after sunrise on the 21st, the efforts; and, having quickly determined enemy appeared in force in front of a posiupon his order of battle, General Scott, on tion held by Colonel Evans, at the Stone Sunday, the 21st of July, ordered General bridge, and opened a brisk cannonade. In M.Dowell to advance on Manassas. « The • The First Year of the War; p. 117.
this quarter the two armies were engaged an hour afterwards, the telegraph had in slight skirmishes for more than an hour, flashed the intelligence through all the while the main body of the federals was cities of the north, that the federal troops marching through the Big Forest, to cross were completing their victory, and, ere Bull-Run some two miles above the con- night, the struggle would be over for ever federate left, and thus to take the southern with the southern states. forces in flank and rear. This movement The exultation thus occasioned, was, howwas discovered in time to check its pro- ever, but of short duration, and its intensity gress, and ultimately gave opportunity to rendered the disappointment that followed form a new line of battle, nearly at right doubly mortifying. The retreat of the conangles with the defensive line of Bull-Run. federate troops was arrested by the energy
The enemy having crossed the stream, and resolution of General Bee, aided by began his detour from the turnpike, at a the support of the Hampton Legion, and point nearly half-way between Stone bridge the timely arrival of General Jackson's and Centreville, pursuing a winding nar- brigade, which consisted of five regiments. row track of a rarely used road, through a "A moment before,” it is recorded, “Gendense wood, until near the Sudley road. eral Bee had been well-nigh overwhelmed The column numbered 16,000 men of all by superior numbers. He approached Genarms, with twenty-four pieces of artillery, eral Jackson with the exclamation—“Geneighteen of which were rifled guns. eral, they are beating us back.” To which
The brigade of General Burnside here, the latter responded —“Sir, we'll give them as well as at Fairfax Court-house, led the the bayonet.' Bee immediately rallied his advance; and, about 9.45 A.M., debouched overtasked heroes with the words—“There from a wood in sight of the position occu- is Jackson, standing like a stone wall.* pied by General Evans, and about 500 Let us determine to die here, or to conyards distant from the Louisiana battalion quer." commanded by Brigadier Wheat. An at- Up to this moment the event of the day tack upon the latter was immediately made, was undecided. The enemy, considering and continued with vigour for more than himself master of the field, was advancing an hour; but so determined was the valour large bodies from his centre, to complete with which the assailants were resisted, the victory already supposed to be within that, galled and staggered by the torrents his grasp. Beauregard, who had watched of fire poured upon them by Wheat's bat- the course of the battle from a hill comtalion, reinforcements were called for, and manding the whole panorama, found, to arrived, increasing the attacking force to his infinite chagrin, that orders he had 3,500 bayonets, and eight pieces of ar. given in the morning for a division on the tillery, opposed to less than 800 men, and flank and rear of the enemy at Centreville, two 6-pounder guns. But, despite these bad miscarried, and that it was necessary great odds, the confederate troops main- new combinations should be adopted to tained their front to the enemy for more meet the arrangements of the federal comthan an hour, when General Bee came to manders. their aid with his command. The joint force, “ About noon, the scene of the battle little exceeding five regiments, with six was unutterably sublime. The hill occupied field-pieces, was now opposed to 15,000 in the morning by Generals Beauregard, federal troops. A fierce and destructive Johnstone, and Bonham, and their staffs, conflict ensued: a withering fire poured placed before the spectator a grand moving fast from either side; while the numerous diorama, of which the accompaniment was artillery of the federals swept the con- the roar of artillery, which rolled round federate lines.
the base of the hill like protracted thunderThe action now became general: more of bursts. For one mile in length the valley the federal brigades had been brought into seemed a boiling crater of dust, smoke, and
the conflict; and heavy losses were sus- fire. Occasionally, the yells of the con| tained on both sides. At length the order tending forces, as they advanced towards i was given by General Bee to retire. As the each other in the mortal strife, and alter
shattered battalions fell back, the slaughter nately fell back, were heard above the roar was deplorable; and the enemy fondly of the artillery." imagined the field won. News of victory The condition of the field became, at was carried to the rear; and, in less than • Hence the sobriquet,"Stonewall” Jackson.
length, desperate: the left flank of the second effort for the recovery of the disconfederate force was overpowered, and puted ground was made by General Beauinstant support was necessary to avert in regard, in which the whole line shared, evitable defeat. Fortunately for the south- and himself led in person. The result of ern cause a reinforcement was at hand. At this impetuous movement was, that the this moment, the Generals Johnstone and entire open ground was swept clear of the Beauregard galloped upon the field, and enemy, and the plateau remained finally in were instantly occupied in the reorganisa- the possession of the confederate troops, tion of the troops that had so gallantly with the greater part of the batteries placed withstood the shock of battle, and the upon it by the federals. At this juncture weight of superior numbers. With the General Bee was mortally wounded, at the colours of the 4th Alabama regiment borne head of the 4th Alabama regiment; and by his side, General Johnstone charged to Colonel Burton also fell, shot through the the front, and confidence was at once re- heart. This officer was struck while graspstored. General Beauregard took the coming the standard of his regiment, and
. mand of the left wing, while Johnstone calling upon the remnants of his troops to retained the supreme direction of the whole follow him. After he had fallen, he said army; and the battle was again re-estab- to the men who gathered round him—“To lished. But the aspect of affairs was criti- your ranks! They have killed me; but cal in the extreme. Beauregard's force never give up the field." The last comin front of the enemy, at this moment mand of this noble soldier was implicitly numbered 6,500 infantry and artillerists, obeyed : his men silenced and captured the with thirteen guns, and two companies of battery he had died to obtain. Stuart's cavalry.
The conflict raged with terrific vigour. The enemy's force bearing down upon The enemy, driven back on several points, his position, consisted of a body of 20,000 fought with desperate resolution, and had infantry, seven companies of regular rallied under cover of a strong reserve cavalry, and twenty-four pieces of im- posted on a plateau, near the intersection of proved artillery. Besides these overwhelm- the turnpike and the Sudley or Brentsville ing odds, heavy reserves of infantry and road, whence demonstrations were made to artillery were massed in the distance around outflank and drive back the left of the the fords of the river, visibly ready to ad- confederate force, and to cut it off from vance at any moment.
Manassas. It is unnecessary to detail the Conscious of this vast disparity of force, movements by which this design was frusGeneral Beauregard, as he posted his lines trated. for the impending shock of battle, addressed At length, the federal commander made the troops in words of encouragement and his last effort to retrieve the fortune of confidence. He was answered with loud the day: but a simultaneous attack by the and éager cheers, and all felt assured of confederate force, on his front, his right victory.
flank, and rear, was irresistible. Forced While these events were taking place in over the narrow plateau made by the inthe confederate army, the federals had tersection of the roads mentioned, he was taken possession of a plateau occupied in driven into the fields, where all order and the morning by General Bee. Here some discipline was lost; and the masses combatteries were placed, and brought into menced to break up in every direction immediate action, playing with destruc- towards Bull-Run. The whole of the artive effect upon the forward battalions tillery advanced to the last scene of conof the southern army. At length, about flict, had fallen into the hands of the con2 P.M., General Beauregard gave orders federates: the entire force was demoralised for the right of his line to advance and and utterly beaten; and there were no recover the plateau. The attempt was made, possible combinations by which the success and, for a moment, was successful. The of the confederates could be further disfederal lines were broken, and swept back puted. from the open ground; but, reinforced by From the long.contested hill, the retreatfresh regiments, the troops were rallied, ing masses of the federal host were seen recovered their ground and guns, and re- rushing over the country, in fierce haste, sumed the offensive.
as the panic in their rear gathered strength But the success was only transient. A and utterance. The rout had become general. The fields were covered by the authorities were compelled to put it swarms of soldiers, madly rushing from the under a strong guard, to keep off the fugiechoing yells and mocking cheers of their tives who struggled to get on the northern victors.
trains. Some fled wildly into the country; The fugitive host was pursued, but did and many escaped across the Susquehanna, not need such pursuit to complete its dis- compelling the negroes whom they met, to organisation. The discomfited troops were exchange their clothes with them for the followed to within range of the federal uniforms: and thus, for four or five days, position at Cub-Run bridge, when a shot was the excitement kept up, and increased took effect upon a crossing team; and the by momentary apprehensions of the advance waggon being overturned, obstructed the of the confederate army, flushed with vic. passa ge of the bridge. As the frightened tory, and intent upon further conquest. masses crowded towards this chance of For some unaccountable reason this imporescape, the confederate guns made deadly tant step was not taken, and the opportu. bavoc with the train-carriages and artillery nity offered for a crowning triumph to the waggons, which were quickly shattered confederate arms was lost. into use less fragments. Cannon and cais- The loss on both sides, in this tremendous SODS, ambulances and train-waggons, inter- affair, was serious. The confederate troops mingled with hundreds of soldiers, rushed lost 360 killed, 1,483 wounded, and 150 down the hill in one common heap, strug- missing. The federal army also counted gling and screaming, to cross the stream 481 killed, 1,011 wounded, and 1,216 missand get away from their pursuers. ing: giving a total, on the one side, of
Sights of wild and terrible agony met 1,902; on the other, of 2,708. The southern the eye in every direction. The retreat reports of the federal loss, estimated it, in did not in the least slacken until Centre- killed, wounded, and prisoners, at upwards ville was reached ; and there the sight of of 4,500, besides twenty-eight pieces of artilNiles' brigade, the reserve, formed in order lery, 5,000 muskets, nearly half a million of on the hill, seemed somewhat to reassure cartridges, a garrison flag, and ten colours ; the van of the fugitives. But the rally was sixty-four artillery horses, harnessed; soon ended by a few discharges of artillery, twenty-six waggons, and a large amount which the confederates had got into posi- of camp equipage, clothing, and other protion. The rout was renewed, and teams perty, abandoned in the flight. and men poured on, passing their own camp, The result of the rout of Bull-Run, and rushing frantically for the distant and the yet more deplorable failure at Potomac. The road over which the grand Manassas, necessitated a change in the army of the Potomac had but recently tra- military government of the United States. versed southward, gay with unstained ban- General Scott was, therefore, virtually ners, and echoing with shouts of antici- superseded; and General G. B. M Clellan pated triumph, was now, for more than ten received an appointment to the command miles, covered with the fragments of a of the army of the Potomac. His fitness for panic-stricken and scattered army. Such the important trust will be hereafter seen. were the results of a single day's disaster. The new commander was a favourite, in
It is impossible, we are told, to conceive consequence of some successes in Northa more deplorable spectacle than was pre- Western Virginia, which had been exagsented in Washington on the night of the gerated into great victories. He was only 21st of July, as the remnants of the force in his thirty-fifth year. came struggling in. During the evening The determination of the southern people of the previous day, it had been reported, to establish the independence of
their in the federal capital, that the army had country at all hazards, and at any cost, achieved a brilliant and decisive victory; may be conceived from the following anand the elation of the people was excessive. nouncement and invitation, published in But, the next morning, the news of the the Richmond Whig, on the 24th of July, defeat was brought by successive arrivals and reproduced in most of the secessionist of panic-stricken fugitives. One of the
papers :boats from Alexandria was nearly sunk by the mass of retreating soldiers upon its
“[The DEVOTED BAND]:— The shortest path to decks. Others rushed to the depôt, to con
peace is that which carries havoc and desolation to
our invaders. It is believed that there are five or tinue their flight from Washington; and ten thousand men in the south ready and willing to share the fate of Curtius, and devote themselves the Indian territory. The federal generals, to the salvation of their country: . It is proposed; instead of forcing a battle, had determined that all who are willing to make this sacrifice, shall arm themselves with a sword, two far-shooters, and to form a junction at Springfield—thus ina carbine each; and meet, on horseback, at some advertently leaving the confederate troops place to be designated, convenient for the great opportunity for organisation.. While at work in hand. Fire and sword must be carried to Cowskin Prairie, General Price received
, the houses of those who are visiting these blessings considerable reinforcements, making the upon their neighbours. Philadelphia, and even New York, is not beyond the reach of a long and numerical strength of his force about brave arm. The moral people of those cities can- 10,000; but more than one-half of the not be better taught the virtues of invasion than number were without arms. Nevertheless, by the blazing light of their own dwellings. "None need apply for admission to the
the confederate generals decided to march
Devoted Band,' but those who are prepared to take their life upon Springfield, and attack and rout the in their hand, and who would indulge not the enemy in his position. To that end their their lives to the destruction of the enemies of Barry County, from whence they proceeded least expectation of ever returning. They dedicate forces were concentrated at Capville, in their country.”
in the direction of Springfield, ninety miles On the 25th of the month, Fort Fillmore, distant, General M'Culloch leading the New Mexico, was surrendered to the con- advance. federate government, by Major Lynde, of On arriving at Cane Creek, the general the United States' army, and the officers received information that the federals had and men under bis command. The whole of left Springfield, and were advancing upon the stores and munitions of war were given him in great force, their vanguard being up: the men were released on parole. already within seven miles of him. After
By the 1st of August, General Rosen- two or three days' skirmishing by the cranz reported Western Virginia to be pickets of the respective forces, the immense entirely cleared of armed bodies of con- superiority of the enemy induced General federates. On the 5th of the same month, M Culloch to propose a retrograde movethe declaration of independence of the state ment, as he looked upon the unarmed men of Missouri, was proclaimed by Governor as incumbrances, and deemed the undisci. C. F. Jackson, who, thereupon, called plined condition of both wings of the army for 50,000 volunteers. At the time this likely to produce disastrous consequences proclamation was issued, there was no mili- in the event of an engagement. This view tary organisation of any kind in the state, of the case did not, however, accord with nor had there been a militia muster for the opinion of General Price, who wished more than fifteen years. The state was for an immediate advance; and being supentirely without arms, and without ammu- ported in his opinion by bis officers, a fight nition; "and, in this condition, with a noble was resolved on, General M'Culloch being enthusiasm, and a gallantry that put to the requested to lend arms from bis command blush the poor excuse of helplessness for such of the Missouri troops as were (offered, in the early part of the struggle, unprovided with them; but this requisition by Maryland, to excuse a cringing sub- he declined acceding to. In the course of the mission to tyranny, and a despicable fear same evening M‘Culloch received a general of consequences), the state of Missouri re-order from General Polk, commander of the solved alone, and unaided, if need be, to south-western division of the confederate confront and resist the despotic rule of the army, to advance upon the enemy in Misfederal government, and to fight it to the souri. He accordingly held another conissue of liberty or death.”
sultation with the officers of the two diviof the war in Missouri was sions, and offered at once to march upon in favour of the south. On the 6th of the troops from Springfield, provided he July, General Price arrived at Carthage, ac- had the chief command of the force. In companied by Brigadier-general M Culloch this exigency the conduct of General Price and Major-general Pierce, of the Arkansas was beyond all praise. He replied that he state forces; bringing with them about was not fighting for distinction, but for the 2,000 men, whose arrival was welcomed defence of the liberties of his countrymen, with joy by the Missourians in camp. On and it was indifferent to him what position be the following day, the force, under the re- occupied so that the end was accomplished. spective commands, proceeded en route for He said he was ready to surrender, not Cowskin Prairie, in N'Donald County, near only the command, but his life also, as a