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between 1787 and 1820. Many facts have been collected from the proceedings of Congress, legislatures, and learned institutions; also from law books, reports of judicial tribunals, and from the various official publications issued in different parts of the country.

In regard to the wars with Great Britain, France, Tripoli, and Mexico, I have endeavoured to be courteous and impartial in writing the descriptions of those events. The accounts of the

The accounts of the many Indian wars that have taken place since the settlement of Jamestown, in 1607, to the close of the Seminole war in 1842, may appear too full as to detail; but they are, in reality, brief (the importance of those sanguinary conflicts being borne in mind), and restricted to only a few of the most noted incidents that took place during the struggles with the savage hordes,

Unwilling to rely solely upon my own efforts in the collection of data employed in this history, and with the view of avoiding any important omission, I engaged the services of several literary gentlemen, who have rendered me most essential aid, particularly with reference to the Indian wars. I am also much indebted to the managers of the respective libraries, and especially of the British Museum, who have accorded to me every desired facility in making researches.

The time and convenience of the reader have been observed, by adopting a divisional arrangement of matter, so as to place all the details respecting any particular subject in immediate connection. As, for example, the history of slavery is given at the periods when it became of national importance -in 1808, 1820, and 1850. The early history of Louisiana, and of the respective States, will be found as connected narratives, each complete in itself; at least, as much so as the nature of things has permitted.

The Maps accompanying this Work have been compiled from the most reliable authorities. Some of them illustrate important events never before published; and these, in part, were copied from manuscript drawings found by me in the closets of persons who had no appreciation of their historic value.

The political history of the United States for the past half century has not been fully considered, on account of my having been familiar with many of those who have taken an active part in public affairs; and the time has not yet arrived when their proceedings can be impartially criticised. The most important epoch of the nation's history has occurred since 1844, as it was then that the slavery question became portentous. It was supposed that the compromise of 1850 would set at rest that exciting issue. Providence, however, denied the boon. From time to time, the politicians, North and South, have, with an unbridled sectional zeal, fanned the flames of discord between the people of different parts of the country; and when, in 1860, the anti-slavery parties of the North succeeded in electing a President totally antagonistic to the extension of involuntary servitude

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clime. Ibuez sarity of them have been content to follow in the steady prosecution of the raful arts, trade, commerce, and agriculture—thus promoting their cows hapjáness, and advancing their country's wealth. Being disinclined to muigase in public pursuits, they have, from time to time, confided the Thanayant of the governments to others, who, unfortunately for the Jermanency of the Republic, have not been, in many cases, pure in heart: thry requmard confidence in men who were more ambitious than patriotic; and under their guidance, for upwards of a quarter of a century, the wrotest Republic, and the noblest political structure conceived by man, has bain on the decline. In 1861 occurred a mighty outburst of sectional antagonian. The result of the sanguinary conflict is still in suspense; and I clon, this Work while thousands of my countrymen's bones lie, unburied, side by side with fragments of shot and shell !

TAL. P. SHAFFNER.

July 4th, 1803.

THE CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA,

The election of Abraham Lincoln to the the general assembly of this state, ratifying the presidency of the United States, on the amendments of the said constitution, are hereby 6th of November, 1860, was looked upon South Carolina and other states, under the name of

repealed; and that the union now subsisting between by the southern states, represented by the the United States of America, is hereby dissolved." conservative parties of the country, as a declaration of war. It was known that he The secession ordinance was immediately entirely owed the accident of his election followed by a declaration of the causes to the faction diametrically opposed to which had provoked it. In this document, southern interests; and the conclusion was it was alleged that the people of South natural that he must, perforce, select his Carolina, in convention assembled, had, on counsellors from amongst the prominent the 2nd of April, 1852, declared that the men of that faction, and consult their pre- frequent violations of the constitution of judices and views in his administration of the United States by the federal governthe power placed in his hands. The feeling ment, and its encroachments upon the of dissatisfaction created by this state of reserved rights of the states, fully justified affairs, at length found vent in threats of South Carolina in its withdrawal from the resistance; and the southern states bas-federal union; but, in deference to the tened to go out of a Union which could no opinions and wishes of the other slavelonger offer a guarantee for the protection holding states, it forbore, at that time, of their rights, or any permanent sense of to exercise such right. That, since that security. They felt that the domination of time, such encroachments have continued the daily increasing hostile feeling of the to increase, and further forbearance had Dorth, would eventually, and in detail

, de- ceased to be a virtue. stroy their institutions, confiscate their pro- Numerous grounds for dissatisfaction perty, and imperil the lives of their people. were then enumerated; and it proceeded

The state of South Carolina was the first thus:-"A geographical line has been drawn to take action in this matter; and, without across the Union; and all the states north wasting time in useless argument, and with of that line, have united in the election of little preparation for war, it determined, a man to the high office of president of the by the free exercise of its authority as a United States, whose opinions and purposes sovereign state, to separate itself from are hostile to slavery. He is to be entrusted the Union. A convention was accordingly with the administration of the common summoned ; and on the 20th of December, government, because he has declared that 1860, an ordinance of secession, dissolving the government cannot endure, permathe compact between the state of South nently, half slave, half free;' and that the Carolina and the other states united with public mind must rest in the belief that it under the constitution of the United slavery is in the course of ultimate extinc. States of America, was resolved upon by tion." Pursuing this deprecatory tone, the an unanimous vote, and recorded in the declaration concludes by saying, that “secfollowing words :

tional interest and animosity will deepen

the irritation; and all hope of remedy is “ An Ordinance to Dissolve the Union between the rendered vain by the fact, that the public

State of South Carolina, and other States united with her under the compact entitled . The Con- opinion at the north has invested a great stitution of the United States of America.' political error with the sanction of a more “We, the people of the state of South Carolina, erroneous religious belief. We, therefore, in contention assembled, do declare and ordain, the people of South Carolina, by our deleand it is hereby declared and ordained, that the gates in convention assembled, appealing to ordinance adopted by us in convention on the 23rd the Supreme Judge of the world for the day of May, in the year of our Lord, 1788, whereby rectitude of our intentions, have solemnly the constitution of the United States of America was ratified; and also all acts, and parts of acts, of declared that the union hitherto existing na vapn this state and the other states of freight being well under weigh, the whole

pa America, is dissolved ; and that the of the garrison, with the exception of # of South Carolina bas resumed her some half-dozen men, left for an ulterior Bruiion among the nations of the world as purpose, embarked in boats, and rowed to

garate and independent state, with full Fort Sumter, which thus received a conwant to levy war, conclude peace, contract siderable addition to the force already staÄrrät:ces, establish commerce, and to do all tioned there. Here they found the in. 61147 acts and things which independent dividuals sent forward by the schooners, na may of right do."

with a large quantity of warlike stores In pursuance of this declaration, the which they had contrived to bring from representatives of South Carolina, in con- Fort Moultrie. The object of Major Angrase, on the 24th of the same month, derson being so far successfully accomaddressed the following communication to plished, he considered his position suffithe speaker of the house of representa- ciently tenable to hold out until he could tives :

receive instructions or reinforcements from “Sir,- We avail ourselves of the earliest oppor- the federal government. tunity, since the official communication of the intel- Meantime, the men left at Fort Moultrie, that the people of the state of South Carolina, in cations, began to spike the guns, to cut ligence, of making known to your honourable body, as soon as the last boat had left the fortifitheir sovereign capacity, have resumed the powers down the flag-staff

, to burn the gun-carment of the United States, and have thereby dis- riages, and to damage the fortifications in solved our connection with the house of representa- such points as might render them no longer tives. In taking leave of those with whom we defensible. have been associated in a common agency, we, as

The conduct of Major Anderson was well as the people of our commonwealth, desire to do so with a feeling of mutual regard and respect subjected to severe criticism. On the one for each other-cherishing the hope that, in our side it was looked upon as a masterpiece future relations, we may better enjoy the peace of strategy; on the other, as totally unwar. and harmony essential to the happiness of a free ranted, and provocative of hostilities. Of and enlightened people. “ John M.QUEEN. W. W. BOYCE.

the latter opinion was the secretary at war “M. L. BONHAM. J. D). Ashmore. of the federal government, who, in conse« Dec. 24th.

quence of what he looked upon as a viola“ To the Speaker of the House of Representatives.” tion of good faith, tendered the resignation

On the 19th of the month, the secession of his office; and it was accepted by the leaders at Charleston had issued orders then president of the United States, James that no more federal soldiers should be Buchanan. permitted to enter the forts in that har- On the 29th of the same month, combour; and as the position of the garrison missioners from South Carolina transmitted at Fort Moultrie, under the command of to the president of the United States, Major Anderson, would have been ex- a notification of their powers to treat tremely hazardous in the event of any hos- with the federal government for the detile demonstration by the secessionists, that livery of the forts, magazines, lighthouses, officer determined on removing his troops, and other real estate, with their appurstores, and munitions to Fort Sumter, tenances, within the limits of South Carowhere he would be better able to defend lina, and also for an apportionment of the himself from an attempt to dislodge him. public debt, and for a division of all other It was accordingly reported in the fort, property held by the government of the that an attack was meditated by the people United States as agent of the confederated of Charleston, and that the removal of the states, of which South Carolina was rewomen and children to a place of safety cently a member; and, generally, to negowas desirable. In furtherance of this idea, tiate as to all other measures and arrangethree schooners were engaged, and loaded ments proper to be made and adopted in with what was supposed to be the bedding the existing relation of the parties, and and household effects of the families belong for the continuance of peace and smity ing to the garrison. It was reported that between that commonwealth and the gorthe people and goods were to be landed at ernment at Washington. Fort Johnson, or James Island, in the The commissioners then proceeded to direction of which they affected to sail. state, that, in the execution of the trust

Soon after 9 P.M., the schooners and their confided to them, it was their duty to furnish the president with an official copy the three forts ; but an attack on, or attempt to of the ordinance of secession, by which the take possession of either of them, will be regarded state of South Carolina had resumed the command into either of them which you may deem

as an act of hostility, and you may then put your powers she delegated to the government of most proper to increase its power of resistance. the United States, and had declared her You are also authorised to take similar steps whenperfect sovereignty and independence. ecer you have tangible evidence of a design to proThey further stated, that they had been

ceed to a hostile act.” prepared to enter upon the negotiation with “These," wrote the president, “were the the earnest desire to avoid all unnecessary last instructions transmitted to Major Anand hostile collision, and so to inaugurate derson, before his removal to Fort Sumter; the new relations, as to secure mutual and, under the circumstances, it is clear respect, general advantage, and a future of that Major Anderson acted upon his own good-will and harmony beneficial to all the responsibility, and without authority-unparties concerned. “But,” continued the less, indeed, he had 'tangible evidence of a document, “the events of the last twenty- design to proceed to a hostile act on the four hours render such an assurance im- part of South Carolina, which has not yet possible. We came here the representatives been alleged." of an authority wbich could, at any time The first impression upon the mind of within the past sixty days, have taken the president, upon learning that Anderson possession of the forts in Charleston harbour; had left Fort Moultrie, and taken possession but which, upon pledges given in a manner of Fort Sumter, was to command him to that we cannot doubt, determined to trust return to his former position, and await to your honour rather than to its own there the contingencies referred to in his power. Since our arrival here, an officer instructions; but, before any step could be of the United States, acting, as we are taken to that end, intelligence reached the assured, not only without, but against your federal government, that the authorities of orders, has dismantled one fort and occupied South Carolina, without waiting for explaanother; thus altering, to a most impor- nations, had assumed a hostile aspect-that tant extent, the condition of affairs under the Palmetto flag floated out to the breeze which we came.” The commissioners then at Castle Pinckney; and that a large milistate, that until such circumstances are tary force of the states bad also taken poş. satisfactorily explained, they must suspend session of Fort Moultrie, covering the two all discussion upon arrangements for the federal forts with the flag of South Carolina, adjustment of mutual interests: and, in instead of that of the United States. conclusion, they urged the immediate with- “At this gloomy period of our history, drawal of the troops from the barbour of observes the president, “startling events Charleston; which, under existing circum- succeeded each other rapidly. On the very stances, were a standing menace that ren- day (the 27th of December) that possession dered negotiation impossible, and threat of these two forts was taken, the Palmetto ened speedily to bring to a bloody issue, flag was raişed over the federal customquestions which oughť to be settled with house and post-office in Charleston; and temperance and judgment.

on the same day, every officer of the cusThe reply of Mr. Buchanan to this com- toms-collector, naval officer, surveyor, and munication, after recapitulating the state appraiser-resigned their offices. In the ments and arguments adduced, unequivo- harbour of Charleston we now find three cally deprecated the event which had pro- forts confronting each other, over all of duced the difficulty, and referred to a me- which the federal flag floated only four morandum of instructions given to Major days ago; but now, over two of them, this Anderson for his guidance at Fort Moultrie; flag has been supplanted, and the Palmetto in which it was observed —

flag has been substituted in its stead. It

is under all these circumstances that I am You are carefully to avoid every act which would needlessly tend to provoke aggression; and urged immediately to withdraw the troops for that reason you are not, without necessity, to from the harbour of Charleston; and am take up any position which could be construed into informed that, without this, negotiation is the assumption of a hostile attitude ; but you are impossible. This I cannot do--this I will to held possession of the

forts in the harbour, and, if not do." attacked, you are to defend yourself to the last ex. tremity. The smallness of your force will not

He then states, that, while writing, he permit you, perhaps, to occupy more than one of had received information from Captain

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