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CLARK UNIVERSITY ADDRESSES

NOVEMBER, 1913

EDITED BY
GEORGE H. BLAKESLEE

Professor of History, Clark University

NEW YORK
G. E. STECHERT AND COMPANY

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION. DR. George H. Blakeslee...

vii

I. CONTRASTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALITY IN THE

ANGLO- AND LATIN-AMERICAN. Señor Don Federico A.

Pezet, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten-

tiary from Peru. ....

1

II. Pan-AMERICAN POSSIBILITIES. John Barrett, Director-

General of the Pan-American Union, formerly United

States Minister to Siam, Argentina, Panama and

Colombia.....

20

III. A GLANCE AT LATIN-AMERICAN CIVILIZATION. Francisco

J. Yanes, Asst. Director, and Secretary of the Govern-

ing Board, of the Pan-American Union..

30

IV. THE MEXICAN SITUATION FROM A MEXICAN POINT OF

View. Lic. Luis Cabrera, recently Speaker of the

House of Representatives in the Mexican Congress... 47

V. THE FUNDAMENTAL CAUSES OF THE PRESENT SITUATION

IN Mexico. Nevin O. Winter, Author of "Mexico and

Her People Today''.

64

VI. THE MEXICAN SITUATION. S. W. Reynolds, formerly

President of the Mexican Central Railway Company,

Limited.....

82

VII. DEMOCRACY ON TRIAL. John Howland, D.D., President of

Colegio Internacional, Guadalajara, Mexico..

95

VIII. THE PRESENT SITUATION IN MEXICO AS SHAPED BY Past

EVENTS. Leslie C. Wells, Professor of French and

Spanish at Clark College....

... 104

IX. THE PRESENT DAY PHASE OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE.

F. E. Chadwick, Rear Admiral, United States Navy,

Formerly President of the Naval War College; Chief

of Staff to Admiral Sampson in the Spanish War.. 108

X. THE MONROE DOCTRINE FROM A SOUTH AMERICAN VIEW-

POINT. Honorable Charles H. Sherrill, Envoy Extra-

ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Argentina,

1909-1911...

121

XI. SHOULD WE ABANDON THE MONROE DOCTRINE? Hiram

Bingham, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Latin-American

History, Yale University........

126

XII. THE MONROE DOCTRINE. Honorable George F. Tucker... 151

XIII. THE MODERN MEANING OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE. J. M.

Callahan, Ph.D., Professor of History and Political

Science, West Virginia University....

161

XIV. THE MONROE DOCTRINE. Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D.,

Professor of Government, Harvard University.. 172

XV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR LATIN-AMERICAN TRADE. Hon.

John Hays Hammond, LL.D.

176

XVI. ADVANTAGES OF MAKING THE CANAL ZONE A FREE CITY

AND FREE PORT. W. D. Boyce, Publisher, The Sat-

urday Blade and Chicago Ledger....

XVII. SOME ECONOMIC FACTS AND CONCLUSIONS ABOUT SOUTH

AMERICA. Selden 0. Martin, Ph.D., Graduate School

of Business Administration, Harvard University...... 197

XVIII. THE PROBABLE EFFECT OF THE OPENING OF THE PANAMA

Canal on Our ECONOMIC RELATIONS WITH THE PEOPLE

OF THE WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. Hiram Bing-

ham, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Latin-American

History, Yale University.............................. 216

XIX. SOME OF THE OBSTACLES TO NORTH AMERICAN TRADE IN

BRAZIL. John C. Branner, LL.D., President of Stan-

ford University......

... 235

XX. AMERICAN INTERVENTION IN CENTRAL AMERICA. Philip

Marshall Brown, Assistant-Professor of International

Law and Diplomacy, Princeton University; formerly

American Minister to Honduras......

XXI. THE DOMINICAN CONVENTION AND ITS LESSONS. Jacob

H. Hollander, Ph.D., Professor of Political Economy,

Johns Hopkins University, Formerly Special Commis-

sioner Plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, and Finan-

cial Adviser of the Dominican Republic. ............. 263

XXII. IN JUSTICE TO THE UNITED STATES—A SETTLEMENT WITH

COLOMBIA. Earl Harding............................. 274

XXIII. THE RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES WITH THE LATIN-

AMERICAN REPUBLICS. Leopold Grahame, formerly

editor of “The Buenos Aires Herald” and of “The

Argentine Year Book”..

XXIV. THE MIND OF THE LATIN-AMERICAN NATIONS. David

Montt, General Correspondent of "El Diario Ilus-

trado," Santiago, Chile......

............ 299

XXV. HIGHER EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA. Edgar Ewing

Brandon, Ph.D., Vice-President of Miami University.. 307

XXVI. THE UNIVERSITIES AND AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL RELA-

TIONS. George W. Nasmyth, Ph.D., President of the

Eighth International Congress of Students; Director

of the International Bureau of Students.............. 321

XXVII. PATAGONIA AND Tierra Del Fuego. José Moneta, Cap-

tain, Argentine Navy, Commanding Battleship "Riva-

davia,” formerly member of the Argentine Boundary

Commissions with Chile and Brazil...

328

XXVIII. THE Physical BASIS OF THE ARGENTINE NATION. Bailey

Willis, Ph.D., Consulting Geologist to the Minister of

Public Works, Argentina, 1911-1913; Member of the

United States Geological Survey ........

... 342

XXIX. THE ADAPTABILITY OF THE WHITE MAN TO TROPICAL

AMERICA. Ellsworth Huntington, Ph.D., Assistant

Professor of Geography, Yale University............. 360

INTRODUCTION

Increasingly intimate relations between the United States and the countries of Latin America will be one of the striking features of the next few decades. Since the days when these sister republics began their independent existence a century ago, their people and our own have been neighbors to Europe, but strangers to each other. Happily this period of mutual isolation has now come to an end.

The reasons for this separation of a hundred years are not hard to find. The United States was absorbed in its own internal development and gave little thought to other countries, least of all to those with whom it had no necessary association. As an agricultural land it exported surplus raw materials—wheat, corn, meat and cotton—to England, France and Germany, and received in return the best grades of manufactured goods. A rapidly swelling stream of immigration maintained some connection with these older nations across the Atlantic. The diplomacy of the United States was largely limited to problems concerning either Europe or the lands immediately beyond our borders. The large tourist class of today did not exist during most of this period; even the relatively few who went abroad for sightseeing had no desire to visit countries which they regarded as primitive, sparsely settled and racked by constant revolutions. In fact there was nothing which tended to bring the United States and South America into close contact.

Latin America, also, found no common ties during the past century to bind it to this country. Although it was strongly influenced by North American precedents in its revolt against Spain and in the form of its national constitutions the connection between the two sections went no further. Like the United States the rapidly developing republics of the South sent their raw materials to Europe and bought manufactured goods in return. They received hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Latin countries of the old world and borrowed from European bankers the vast sums

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