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He lean'd against it, for he felt

Worn both in heart and limb. Twelve tall death-tapers burn'd within

Had she expected him?
An aged woman raised the latch,

And cried, “ Just powers! a ghost !” She fled, I totter'd after her

The cottage floor I cross'd;
I saw a bed—a female corpse

And then all sense I lost!

It was a judgment merciful,

That Heaven had clos'd her sight
To his most monstrous crime, whose arts

Had seal'd her bosom's light.
She hung by him, she clung to him ;-

The innocent, the free,
Walk'd with that fearful form of sin,

Even to the gallows-tree.
Me he could never bear,—he turn'd

From me with curses dire;
He swore no other hand but mine

Had quench'd his household fire.
He rail'd at base revenge,-all this

And more I well could bear
From him, wretched, raving man,

Abandon'd to despair.
But Mary, in her madness, placed

Reliance on his tongue;
She look'd abhorrence on me,-how

That look my bosom wrung!
How gladly had I died for her-

Nay, ten times over died,
Could I have saved her from the woe

To which she was allied.
She told me, that when she and hers

Had from a false world gone,
'Twas right and fit such canker worms

As I should still live on.
She said his finger, foully doom'd

To die upon the tree,
Would make for all my kind on earth

A royal ransom-fee.
And when stern justice did its last,
Her cry was,

« Give me him
My love he still shall be, although

His eye in death is dim!” They frown'd on her, they mock'd at her

Idly she sobb'd and sigh'd ;
Upon a gibbet high they tix'd

The godless parricide.
And there an armed sentinel

Was order'd night and day,
To watch, lest any hand should steal
The felon's corpse away.

IV.
The first night that the watch was kept,

The winds forgot to moan;
The moon shone full, the sentinel

Seem'd grieved to be alone
As to the dead man's face he glanced,

That ghastly look'd like stone.
The next night that the watch was kept,

The sky was rent in twain;
The winds wail'd like despairing souls,

Plash, plash, rush'd down the rain.
A shot !-'twas fired too late I had

Secured the frightsome load,
And gallantly my trusty black

Tore up the miry road.
The grey light of a drooping morn

The widow's cottage show'd.
The horse was rein'd_his rider paused

Before the lattice dim

V.
They gave the murderer a grave

On that furze-crested hill,
Where my boy lip first drank the love

That lingers on it still.
She-the heart-broken bride

was placed Beneath the old elm-tree, That in the silent churchyard grows

Where sleep her family.
Forgive me, God! I can't but wish

That they had buried me!
They say that at her dying hour

She gave my faith its due ;
And wept to think how her poor brain

Had imaged things untrue.
She wished me happy-bootless wish!

A feather will not raise
The mountain load of heaviness,

That on the spirit weighs.
In vain small bird, bright wild flower,

River and rustling tree,
Keep in my old paternal glen

Blithe summer jubilee.
The hill displays its golden furze,

Its daisy glades in vain ;
No smile that Nature sheds can light

A dull dark world of pain.

1828.

By the Ettrick Shepherd. Thou art gone! thou art gone with thy sceptre of mild

ness! Thy smiles, and thy tears, and thy moments of wildness. But this humble memorial to thee I dedicate,

Mild 1829.

For thou hast dispell’d our despairing and sadness,
And industry and toil hast enlighten'd with gladness,
And bustled in our harbours with commerce and
freight,

Blest 1828.

The reaper rejoiced as he counted his sowing,
And heap'd up his garners and barns to o'erflowing ;
And thy winter has breathed with a soft autumn heat,

Kind 1828.

No frost ever sheeted our rivers and fountains,
No drifted snow ever cover'd our mountains,
And thou leavest our flocks on an ever-green height,

Sweet 1828.

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In the region of love thy reign has been glorious, work on the Tonga Islands, which she was quite in eestary at In the hearts of the maidens thy sceptre victorious ;

receiving. Poor Finow is dead, and he died not in battle, but on

a bed of sickness. And there will yet be news of great moment and weight, PHRENOLOGY. We observe that the indefatigable Mr Combe Of 1828.

is about to commence a course of lectures on Phrenology, which he is to continue twice a-week, for three months. We may pos

sibly have a few remarks to make upon them during their conIt is true thou hast run some extravagant rigs,

tinuance; and, in the meantime, the following letter, which we Making idiots and fools of the Catholics and Whigs;

have received from Mr Combe, explains, in a manly way, the

grounds upon which he proceeds, and his reasons for calling our But still thou hast left us triumphant as yet,

attention to the subject :-
Strong 1828.

To the Editor of the Edinburgh Literary Journal.
SIR,- It is now ten years since I first ventured to advocate

the cause of Phrenology, in opposition to the almost universal Thou hast chill'd the soul of the mariner with wonder, prejudice of the public against it. During the whole of that Thou hast howl'd in the wind, thou hast boom'd in the period, I have made no appeal to the conductors of the pe

riodical press, either to deprecate their severity, to bespeak their thunder;

courtesy, or even to solicit their attenti n to the subject. This But the smiles of repentance in thee were innate,

proceeded from no opinion that their influence was unimportant,

but from a desire to re t the cause of Phrenology, in the first inGood 1828.

stanice, on its own merits exclusively. The experience of ten

years has shown, that this course was equally safe and beneficial; Thou hast garnish'd the fields of Greece that were gory,

and, in now soliciting your acceptance of a ticket to my next

course of lectures, I merely mention, that the subject is known (Restored 10 her quiet, but not to her glory!)

to a large and enlightened portion of the citizens of Edinburgh ; And humbled the pride of a vain autocrat,

that the stuay of it is daily extending, and that it bas met with

favour in exact proportion to its being understood. It will affiord Brave 1828.

me much pleasure, therefore, if you, as the head of a respectable

Journal, shall now consider it as not unbecoming to form one of Thou art gone! thou art gone, to return to us never,- principles and evidence. I am, sir,

my audience, with a view to acquiring some knowledge of its In the sepulchre of Time thou art shrouded for ever ;

“ Your very obedient servant,

“ Geo. COMBI." And the shadows of Oblivion shall over thee set,

“Edinburgh, Jan. 1st, 1829. Mild 1828.

Theatricnl Gossip.--Alexander has opened the Caledonian

Theatre with a great assortment of farthing candles, calling theinMount Benger, 31st Dec. 1828.

selves stars.- A monkey and a goat have made their appearance at the Theatre Royal ; also two new pieces called "The Married

Bachelor," and “The First Foot, the latter of which is hapA CHRISTMAS SONNET.

pily timed, and well acted by Mackay, Denham, Murray, and

Miss Noel.-Young Kean has played Rumro, at Drury Lane, to By the Rev. Robert Morehead.

Miss Phillips' Juliet. The Christmas Pantomimes have been

brought out at the London theatres in great force; one is called The morn returns, saluted once by song

“The Golden Bee, or the Fairy Hive." and the other "Little

Red Riding Hood." What has become of our own manager's proOf angel voices, sounding in the ear

mised pantomime ?-Irish Johnstone, the best Bralgruddery, Sir Of pastoral simplicity, all fear

Lucius O'Trigger, and Major O'Flaherty, which the stage ever Bidding depart, and sending peace among

had, died a few days ago, in his 82d year. Man's dwellings ;-even now the notes prolong

WEEKLY LIST F-PERFORMANCES.

Dec. 26 Jan 2. Their joyful salutation, year by year,

SAT. As You Like it, Married Bachelor, & Bottie Imp. Conveying it to climes far distant, where

MON. Mason of Buda, Free and Easy, & The Fatal Rock. Then savage nature reign'd alone, nor tongue

Tues. Green-eyed Monster, Married Bachelor, Do.

WED. The Two Friends, Free and Easy. Do. Was heard to utter praise:-) wondrous Child, THUR. Charles Edward, The First Foot Cramond Brig, & Do. What light bas spread o'er human kind, since smiled

FRI. Guy Mannering, Do., The Fatal Rock. Thine eyes first on the light of day, amid

Books very recently published.-Memoirs of Scipio de Rici,

translated by Roscoe, 2 vots. 8vo, L.1, 1s, boards. --The CastiThat group domestic, who each opening lid

lian, by the author of Gomez Arias, 3 vols. post 8vo, L.1, 118 6d. Watch'd anxious,-now around Thee nations wait,

boards.-Hungarian Tales, by the author of the Lettre de Cach

et, 3 vo's. post 8vo, L.l, lls. 6d. boards.-Elements of GeograNo less thy kindred, bung on Thee their fate! phy, 12mo, 2s. half-bound.-Belfrage's Counsels for the Sanctu

ary, post 8vo, 75. 6d. boards.- English History made easy, on a

popular plan, 18mo, 3s. 6d. bali-bound.-Conversations on the LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.

Life of Christ, 18ino, 25. 60. half-bound.Winter Evenings at
College, 2 vols. 18mo, 8s half-bound.-Wadd on Corpulency, &c.

with plates, 8vo, 8s. 60. boards.–Saul at Endor, a Dramatic We learn that a volume of Discourses, by the Rev. Dr Walker,

Sketch, by the Rev. E. Smedley, 8vo, 3s. 60. sewed. - A Sunday Professor of Divinity in the Scotch Episcopal Church, and in- Bok, Moral Discourses for Young Persons, 2 vols. 1*mo, s tended chiefly for the use of Theological Students, will be pub. cloth.-Merry Thoughis for Merry Moments, oblong folio, 5s. lished during the course of the present winter

sewed.-The Thrush, a Collection of Songs, 12mo, 4s. 6d. boards. We understand that a very full reply to Professor Pillans' Let

- The Nightingale, a Collection of Songs, 12mo, 4s. 6d. boards. ters on the Parochial Schools of Scotla' d is in the press, and will

M'Gavin's Scots Worthies, vol. II. 8vo, ils. ; vol. I., sixth edi. be published in the course of a few weeks.

tion, evo, 11s.- Protestant Reformation Vindicated, by the auDr Andrew Ure, M.D., has in the press a large cctavo volume,

thor of the Protestant, 1s. 6d. entitled a New System of Geology, in which the great revolutions of the earth and animated nature are reconciled at once to modern science and sacred history.

TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. The Rev. J. D. Parry, M.A., of St Peter's College, Cambridge, We have much pleasure in promising a poem from the pen of has in the press the Legendary Cabinet, a Selection of British Na- Mrs Grant, of Laggan, in our next. tional Ballads, ancient and Modern, from the best authoritics, " The First Foot" is an interesting tale, but not exactly acwith Notes and Illustrations.

cording to our taste.--It is quite impossible that we can notice a A work entitled the Natural History of Enthusiasm, is in the work on the Authenticity of Ossial's Poems," publishe 1 so far press.

back as 1825, the more especially as the subject seems deservedly We observe that the first number of " The New Scots Maga- to have lost its interest. We think " An Admirer of the Imagizine" was published on Wednesday last. Its original articles con- native" could send us something good, illustrative of his pen sist of a well-written Summary of Politics for the years 1-27 views regarding the Imagination. S." of Aberdeen would have and 1824, Remarks on the present state of Eclesiastical Affairs, e ployed his time to greater advantage had he given us a better comprising some tolerably severe animadversions on the Christ- account of the work of which he speaks, than that to which he ian instructor, and the conduct of Dr Andrew Thomson, a no- objects. - The Essay on the “Spirit of the Provision of the Law tice of the Ayrshire Sculptor, and a Review of Malcolm's Remi. of Scotland regarding Injury and Wrong" is ably written, but niscences and Campaign. The work is cheap, and very neatly rather too professional for our pages. arrange, and has oir best wishes for its success.

We purpose giving a place to “ The Alpine Horn" when we We understan / that Captain Dillon's Voyage to the South Seas, can find room; and we beg to state generally that a ennsiderable in the course of which h: discovered the remains of La Pe- number of poetical communications are in the same predicament rouse's vessels, is about to be published by Colburn. We are in- -not rejected, but waiting for their turn._" A. L.” will not suit formed that Cantain Dillon visited the Tonga Islands, and had us, but he will improve as he proceeds. -_-" The Last Night of the several interviews with the interesting natives, already introduced Year," " Weep, weep for me," and the « Lines

to a Lady," do to the public in Mariner's Narrative. Dillon saw Mariner's adopt- not come up to our standard. - P. K." of Aberdeen, and “X. ed mother, MáG Wábe, and presented her with a copy of his Y. Z." of Brechin, will not be overlooked.

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LITERARY CRITICISM.

Borysthenes, and the Don ; and dividing into two branches, the Ostrogoths spread over Pannonia, whilst the Visigoths twice ravaged Italy, sacked and plunder.

ed Rome, and penetrated even into Gaul and Spain. History of the Revolutions in Europe, from the Sub- The Franks and the Alemanns came from the banks of

version of the Roman Empire in the West, till the the Rhine, the Maine, the Weser, and the Elbe, and Abdication of Bonaparte. From the French of C. W. joined to swell the torrent that inundated the country of Koch; by Andrew Crichton. 3 vols. Being the the Cæsars. The Saxons came from beyond the Elbe, xxxiii, xxxiv, and xxxv vols. of Constable's Miscel. and keeping chiefly by the sea-coast, committed ravages lany. Edinburgh. 1828 and 1829.

there similar to those which other barbarians were busy

with in the interior. Lastly, the Huns, the fiercest of This is a valuable and interesting work, every page all, came from the remote districts of Northern Asia, to of which teems with important knowledge. It presents which the Greeks or Romans had never penetrated, and a clear and impartial panoramic view of the history of having first attacked Byzantium and the Eastern divi. the world for the last fourteen centuries ; and in an ably sion of the Empire, they then precipitated themselves on written introductioa furnishes a brief sketch of the pre- the west, under the conduct of the famous Attila. For vious progress of society, from the earliest authentic upwards of two hundred years all was confusion, blood era. The work was published in 1813, shortly after shed, and darkness. Not a single nation was to be the author's death, and was speedily acknowledged as found in Europe whose rights or boundaries were asentitled to rank high among the literature of the Conti. certained and established. The old order of things mient; it is now for the first time introduced to the Eng. had been swept away at once ; and it was not to be ex. lish reader.

pected that so great a mass of discordant elements could Koch divided his work into eight sections or periods, immediately arrange themselves into an harmonious beginning with the year 406, and ending with the year and appropriate disposition. Gradually, however, this 1789 ; but a ninth period has been added by his friend, began to be the case. Much internal commotion still biographer, and editor, M. Schoell, comprising an ac- existed, but out of the chaotic mass, new and distinct count of the French Revolution, and thus bringing Empires sprang up, like islands rising in the ocean. down the History of Europe to the year 1815. The The Franks established themselves in Gaul ; the Ale. two first volumes contain Kocb's original work; the manns became masters of Germany; the Huns contented greater part of the third is ‘occupied with Schoell's ad- themselves with Russia ; the Visigoths disputed with dition. "We shall endeavour to give our readers some the Mahometans from Africa the dominion of Spain; idea of the contents of the whole, by mentioning very and the Saxons crossed over into Britain, and formed generally and briefly the leading subjects which are the political association known by the name of the Heptreated of in the different sections. Our abstract may tarchy. Whatever difference there might be in other serve not only to interest them in the work itself, but respects, there were two features which gave all these to a certain extent may refresh their memory of those nations a general resemblance to each other, and ingreat events, to a more detailed account of which the vo- creased the probability of mutual co-operation towards lumes before us are dedicated. At a season when all the ultimate advancement of civilization. These were classes are admonished to indulge in a salutary retro- —the feudal system, and the Christian religion, both of spect of the occurrences of a past year, it will not, per- which were now universally adopted, and materially haps, be uninteresting to the intelligent mind to con. tended to soften the harsher characteristics of the times. trast with its own temporary concerns, the principal oc- The only other event of this period to which it is necurrences of past centuries,-occurrences which influ. cessary to allude, is the new religion which Mahomet enced the destiny of a world.

founded in Asia, and the Empire which he extended The first period into which our author divides his through Africa into Spain. View of the Revolutions of Europe, extends from the The second period, which extends from the year 800 year 406 to 800. It was in the early part of the fifth to 962, introduces us to the ascendency of the Empire century that the mighty fabric of the Roman Empire, of the Franks under Charlemagne, and the Carloviswhich had been long tottering to decay, fell finally and gian race of kings. It was por till a much later period forever into ruin. Their far-extended possessions, which that the different independent kingdoms, which rose upon it hrd cost them ages to acquire, were, in the course of the ashes of Roman greatness, began to consider the care. a few lustrums, snatched from them, one after another, ful preservation of a just balance of power as the most and over-run by barbarians, who trampled under foot essential part of European and international policy. all the institutions and improvements which Roman They had been too long accustomed to acknowledge the greatness had introduced into their most distant colo- ascendency of one country, to be surprised at finding nies. The Vandals came from the banks of the Elbe themselves again becoming tributary to the superior and the Vistula, and passing through Germany, entered genius of a great conqueror. Charlemagne, who sucGaul, plundering and destroying wherever they went. ceeded his father Pepin in 768, eclipsed every monarch The Goths came from the banks of the Dniester, the that had preceded him, since the days of Julius Cæsar.

France, Spain, Germany, and Italy, submitted to his ing to acknowledge the right which the Emperors had arms. Nor did he figure only as a warrior, but also as exercised of confirming the Popes, he claimed for the a legislator, and munificent patron of letters. The em- Popes the prerogative both of confirming and dethroning pire of the Franks thus became paramount in Europe ; the Emperors. In support of this arrogated authority, ihe monarchies of the north, Denmark, Norway, Swe- he was involved in a long war with Henry IV. of Ger. den, Poland, and Russia, had not yet emerged from the many ; but its conclusion was such as tended rather to confusion and darkness in which they had long lain. strengthen than diminish his pretensions; and, ere long, The descendants of Charlemagne, however, not possess the kings of Portugal, Arragon, England, Scotland, ing his abilities, which were indeed far beyond the age Sardinia, the two Sicilies, and several others, became in which he lived, divided his empire into three distinct vassals and tributaries to the Papal See. portions, nearly akin to the modern Italy, Germany, “ In every respect circumstances were such as to hasten and France. One cause of the dismemberment, and and facilitate the progress of this new pontifical soprerapid decay of the power of Charlemagne, will be found macy. It had commenced in a barbarous age, when in the greater influence which the Normans, or nations the whole of the Western World was covered with the of Scandinavian origin,—the Huns, in Hungary, Mora- darkness of ignorance ; and when mankind knew neither via, and Russia, and the British, united into one mo- the just rights of sovereignty, nor the bounds which reanarchy, first under Egbert, and afterwards under Alfred, son and equity should have set to the authority of the began to possess in the affairs of Europe. As yet, how- priesthood. The court of Rome was then the only school ever, all these countries were in their infancy, and con- where politics were studied, and the Popes the only tending with those numerous difficulties which continu- monarchs that put them in practice. An extravagant ally beset the childhood of nations.

superstition, the inseparable companion of ignorance, The third period, which extends from the year 962 to held all Europe in subjection ; the Popes were reve1074, embraces an account of the successes and power renced with a veneration resembling that which belongs of Otho the Great, Emperor of Germany, who nearly only to the Deity; and the whole world trembled at the succeeded in again converting the whole of Christendom utterance of the single word, Excommunication. Kings into one great State, of which the Pope was the spiritual were not sufficiently powerful to oppose any successful head, and the Emperor the secular ; the latter enjoying resistance to the encroachments of Rome ; their authori. the important prerogative of confirming or rescinding ty was curtailed and counteracted by that of their vas. the election of the former. In Spain, the Mahometan | sals, who seized with eagerness every occasion which the dynasty of the Ommiades expired in the eleventh cen. Popes offered them, to aggrandize their own preroga. tury, and the Christians under Sancho the Great, king tives at the expense of the sovereign authority." of Navarre, acquired an ascendency, which, though it To these causes of ecclesiastical sovereignty are to be fluctuated, they never afterwards entirely lost. In added others,-in particular, the multiplication of reliFrance, under the weak sway of some of the Capetian gious orders, the institution of religious and military kings who succeeded the Carlovingians, the feudal sys- orders, and the expeditions to the East, known by the tem grew to such abuse, that the more powerful barons name of Crusades. The superstitious opinion then preusurped almost all the rights of royalty. In England, valent, that the end of the world was at hand, led to the successors to Alfred, giving themselves up to the many pilgrimages to the Holy Land, where the devodominion of pricsts and monks, saw their subjects, the tees proposed to abide the second coming of the Lord. Anglo-Saxons, first subdued by the Danes under Sweyn So long as the Arabs were masters of Palestine, they and Canute, and the Danes, in their turn, were con protected and countenanced these pilgrimages, from quered by the Normans under William. It was not which they derived no small emolument; but when the till the tenth century that the Gospel found its way into Seljukian Turks, a ferocious and barbarous people, conthe Scandinavian nations; and Canute the Great, who quered the country, in the year 1075, every kind of insucceeded to the throne of Denmark in 1014, was the sult and oppression was heaped upon the Christians, first monarch who made Christianity the established re- which at length gave birth to the resolution to expel the ligion of that kingdom. In Sweden, about the same Infidels from the Holy Land. There were, in all, seven time, there prevailed a strange mixture both of doctrine Grand Crusades. The first was undertaken in the year and worship, Jesus Christ being profanely associated 1096, by Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine ; the with Odin, and the pagan goddess Freya confounded second in 1147, by Conrad III., Emperor of Germany, with the Virgin. The Poles are a nation whose name and Louis VII., King of France; the third in 1189, by does not occur in history before the middle of the tenth the Emperor Frederic I., surnamed Barbarossa, Philip century. They were one of the Sclavonian tribes set- of France, and Richard Caur-de-Lion of England; the tled north of the Elbe; and being subdued by the Ger- fourth in 1202, by Boniface, Marquis of Montserrat ; mans, were obliged to embrace Christianity. The Greek the fifth in 1217, by Andrew, King of Hungary ; the empire had sunk at this era to the lowest degree of cor- sixth in 1228, by the Emperor Frederic II. ; and the ruption, fanaticism, and perfidy.

seventh in 1248, by Louis IX., King of France. The fourth period comprehends upwards of two cen- The only Eastern possessions which the Europeans turies, from the year 1074 to 1300. A number of im- found themselves masters of, after a succession of portant events, possessing no immaterial influence over wars, which thus lasted for nearly two hundred years, the future destinies of Europe, took place within these were the towns of Tyre and Ptolemais. But the adtwo centuries. The Cæsars had passed away, the Char- vantages which the See of Rome drew from the Crusades lemagnes had gone down into the dust, the Othos ex- were immense, and led to its encouraging similar expeisted no longer; but a new and powerful monarchy was ditions in the west and north of Europe. Accordingly, about to arise, forming one of the most splendid of all we find that, about the same time, holy wars were carthe pageants that ever passed across the stage of his ried on-1st, against the Mahometans of Spain and tory. This was the dominion of the Roman Pontiffs. Africa ; 2d, against the Emperors and Kings who reHitherto they had, in general, succumbed to the most fused obedience to the orders of the Popes; 3d, against influential monarch of the times, whether Frank or Ger- heretical or schismatic princes, such as the Greeks and man ; but this was a humiliation that little suited the Russians ; 4th, against the Slavonians and other Pagan haughty and ambitious spirit of Pope Gregory VII, nations on the coasts of the Baltic; and, 5th, against “ a man," says Koch, “ born for great undertakings; the Waldenscs, Albigenses, and Hussites, wh as remarkable for his genius, which raised bim above garded as heretics. The Knights of St John, the his times, as for the austerity of his manners and the Knights of the Temple, and the Teutonic Kniglits, were boundless reach of his ambition." So far from consent. numerous bodies, combining religion with military pron.

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ess, which sprang into existence in consequence of the ving others under their protection, rescinding and an. Crusades, and afterwards contributed greatly to the re- nulling their acts and proceedings, summoning them to nown of chivalry, which was now about to give $0 pe- their court, and acting as arbiters in their disputes. The culiar a colour to European society and manners. history of the Popes is the history of all Europe. They

" In general, it may be said,” our author remarks, assumed the privilege of legitimating the sons of kings, " that these ultramarine expeditions, prosecuted with in order to qualify them for the succession ; they forobstinacy for nearly two hundred years, hastened the bade sovereigns to tax the clergy ; they claimed a feudal progress of arts and civilisation in Europe. The Cru- superiority over all, and exerciscd it over a very great saders, journeying through kingdoms better organized number; they conferred royalty on those who were am. than their own, were necessarily led to form new ideas, bitious of power ; they released subjects from their oath and acquire new information with regard to science and of allegiance; dethroned sovereigns at their pleasure ; politics. Some vestiges of learning and good taste had and laid kingdoms and empires under interdict, to been preserved in Greece, and even in the extremities avenge their own quarrels. We find them disposing of of Asia, where letters had been encouraged by the pa- the states of excommunicated princes, as well as those tronage of the Caliphs. The city of Constantinople, of heretics and their followers ; of islands and kingdoms which had not yet suffered from the ravages of the bar- newly discovered ; of the property of infidels or schis. barians, abounded in the finest monuments of art. It matics ; and even of Catholics who refused to bow bepresented, to the eyes of the Crusaders, à spectacle of fore the insolent tyranny of the Popes. grandeur and magnificence that could not but excite their 6 Thus it is obvious that the Court of Rome, at the admiration, and call forth a strong desire to imitate those time of which we speak, enjoyed a conspicuous preponodels, sight of which at once pleased and astonished derance in the political system of Europe. But, the them. To the Italians especially, it must have proved ordinary course of human affairs, this power, vast and of great advantage. The continued intercourse which formidable as it was, began, from the fourteenth cen. they maintained with the East and the city of Con- tury, gradually to diminish. The mightiest empires stantinople, afforded them the means of becoming fami- have their appointed term; and the highest stage of liar with the language and literature of the Greeks, of their clevation is often the first step of their decline. communicating the saine taste to their own countrymen, Kings, becoming more and more enlightened as to their and in this way advancing the glorious epoch of the true interests, learned to support the rights and the marevival of letters.”

jesty of their crowns, against the encroachments of the The increasing importance of towns, and the rise of Popes. Those who were vassals and tributaries of the free corporations, served also to soften many of the Holy See gradually shook off the yoke ; even the clera, harsher features of feudalism, and to make the people gy, who groaned under the weight of this spiritual des. more aware of their own rights. In England, the Com- potism, joined the secular princes in repressing these mons were admitted into Parliament in the year 1266, abuses, and restraining within proper bounds a power during the reign of Henry III., and this example was which was making incessant encroachments on their just soon followed by France and Germany. The old Ro- prerogatives." man laws were revived, as much superior to the juris. Abuse of power invariably leads to its destruction, prudence then in use, and, under the arrangement of and this was the case with the Popes. We may form Gratian, the Canon Law was added to them. The stu- some notion of the insolent arrogance of these priests, dies of jurisprudence and theology, which thus acquired by a single extract from a bull of Pope Clement VI., fresh dignity, led to other studies; and the Universities issued against the Emperor Louis of Bavaria, who inof Paris, Bologna, Padua, Salamanca, Cambridge, Ox. curred the censures of the Church for defending the ford, and others, date their origin early in the thirteenth rights of his crown, at the commencement of the fourcentury. In Italy, there arose a number of republics, teenth century :-“ May God,” says the Pope, in speak. and more especially those of Genoa and Venice. The ing of the Emperor, “ smite him with madness and dis. greatness to which both reached materially contribụted to ease ; may heaven crush him with its thunderbolts ; the revival of the arts and sciences in that country. may the wrath of God, and that of St Peter and St Paul, During this epoch, the kingdom of the Two Sicilies and fall on him in this world and the next; may the whole of Portugal were also founded,--the Inquisition was es- universe combine against him ; may the earth swallow tablished in those countries most subject to Papal do him up alive ; may his name perish in the first generaminion, Magna Charta, the basis of the English Con- tion, and his memory disappear from the earth ; may stitution, was obtained from King John,-and the Mo. all the elements conspire against him ; may his chilguls, coming from the north of the Great Wall of China dren, delivered into the hands of his enemies, be mas- from that district which lies between Eastern Tartary sacred before the eyes of their father !" The blow which and modern Buckharia-over-ran, under the guidance at lengih struck at the root of this overgrown pontifical of the famous Zinghis Khan, all Tartary, Turkistan, power came from the Reformers of Germany. It was China, and Persia; and then, directing their steps to not, however, till a somewhat later period than that of wards Europe, penetrated into Russia, and spread over which we talk, that the Reformation began to spread. Poland, Silesia, Moravia, Hungary, and the countries As if to prepare the way for this great revolution in the bordering on the Adriatic Sea. Towards the end of the human mind, several scientific discoveries were made, of thirteenth century, the Mogul Empire, from south to the last importance to the progress of knowledge. Among Dorth, extended from the Chinese Sea and the Indies to the principal of these may be mentioned, the invention the extremities of Siberia, and, from east to west, from of writing-paper, of oil-painting, of printing, of gunJapan to Asia Minor, and the frontiers of Poland in powder, and of the mariner's coinpass. In the south, Europe.

Venice and Genoa, and in the north, the cities of the The fifth period commences with the year 1300, and Hanseatic league, began to carry cominerce to great perends with the year 1453, when Constantinople was ta- fection. The different countries of Europe, amidst a ken by the Turks. It was during this period that the number of intestine wars and petty revolutions, were Papal authority attained its utmost height, and also be- gradually assuming their present form; whilst the Turks, gan to witness its decline and fall.

an Asiatic race, attacked the feeble shadow of Greek " Nothing is more remarkable,” says Koch, “ than and Roman power still existing in Constantinople, and, the influence of the Papal authority over the temporali- under Mahomet II., conquered the last Constantine, and ties of princes. We find them interfering in all their established for themselves a dominion in Europe. quarrels, addressing their commands to all, without dis- The sixth section extends from the year 1453 to 1618, tiaction, enjoining some to lay down their arms, recei- and brings us down to the more civilized and classical

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