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LITERARY CRITICISM.

ually bad ; but surely a man may maintain this with. out indulging in theoretical hatred against it. The truth simply is, that improvements can be accomplish

ed only by the slow and imperceptible hand of time, An Essay on the Effect of the Reformation on Civil not by any sudden reformation of life or manners; and

Society in Europe. By William Mackray, Minister here, Mr M. must allow us to tell him, was the great of the Gospel, Stirling. Edinburgh. W. Black- evil of the Scottish Reformation, and the cause of the wood. 1829. 8vo, pp. 320.

strife, turbulence, and sedition, which scourged the coun

try for more than a century afterwards, that the Reform. It will readily be confessed, by all parties, that the ers thought improvements ought to be instantaneous, sixteenth century the century of the Reformation—is not gradual, and were thus induced to become as in. the most important, to say the least, in the history of tolerant as their Popish predecessors. We do not deny mas, since the promulgation of Christianity, and the that the Church of Ronie was the ostensible cause of foundation of the Christian Church. It is an era in much of the ignorance which prevailed throughout Eu. which men of every nation, every kindred, and of every rope anterior to the Reformation, but the radical source of succeeding age, are deeply interested ; it is one on which this ignorance must be sought for elsewhere. It solely we look back with enthusiasm and the future tri- originated among, and was introduced by, those hordes of umphs of which we anticipate with exultation ; for sin northern barbarians who overthrew the Roman Empire ; cerely do we agree with the motto from Cowper, which and, in proof of this, we merely refer Mr Mackray to Mr Mackray has prefixed to his work, and maintain the annals of the Pontificate of one of the greatest and that " 'tis the cause of man."

the best of the Roman Pontiffs, (for surely he will not Thus feeling as we do, and as all enlightened men, deny that some good, and pious, and holy men, have sat we doubt not, will do, we are disposed to hail with satis in the chair of St Peter,) namely, Gregory I., surnamed faction every attempt to elucidate the history of that the Great. That illustrious Pontiff, for such he was, important era, on the principles of sound philosophy, was not free from the superstitions of his age ; but no and of a pure and rational theology. Most truly has it man displayed more admirable prudence than he, in his been observed, that we ought “ to be serious in a serious management of the fierce and warlike nation of the Lom. cause;" and, therefore, we shall always rejoice to see bards. All that can be charged against the Romnish the effects of the Reformation discussed in a dignified Church (and the charge is heavy enough) is, that she and teniperate manner, apart from the fanatical decla- took undue advantage of these circumstances after the mations of ignorant enthusiasm on the one hand, and Pontificate of Gregory; and the ambition of the Pontiffs the philosophical lukewarmness of stoical indifference made them grossly abuse that spiritual supremacy on the other. This work could not have appeared, which, after the Pontificate of Hildebrand, or Grégory indeed, at a more seasonable time ; and we recom. VII., was awarded to them, whether right or wrong, by mend it to all who think as the illustrious Reformers the unanimous consent of the Western, or Latin Churcb. of Germany, England, and Scotland, would probably Now, in order to make ourselves understood, we main. think, were they to appear among us, on the great ques tain, in opposition to what appears to us to be Mr Macktion which is at present agitating the nation. How they ray's hypothesis, that men are not able in every age to would think, we do not pretend to determine ;_some of appreciate civil liberty; and, therefore, we think it un. our most eminent Scotch divines believe that it would fair to allege it against the Roman Church, that she de. be in favour of Catholic emancipation.

stroyed the liberties of mankind for so many centuries But, while we thus speak in general commendation of after her undue assumption of the temporal and spiritual the work before us, we are far from saying that it is supremacy. That she endeavoured, and was too successfaultless, either in style or argument; and, therefore, ful in restraining the freedom of the human mind, we Mr Mackray will allow us the liberty, so far as our li- freely admit, as the fact is indisputable ; but we do sin. mits will permit, of very briefly analysing some of his cerely believe, and we are ready to prove it when called statements, while we assure him that we do this in upon, that her domination, though at first repugnant, the greatest good-feeling towards him, and respect for his became afterwards systematie ; and she herself was unabilities. For ourselves, however, we must say, that we conscious that the extravagant powers she arrogated to have hitherto studied the annals of the Reformation, and herself were not virtually jus divinum. Nothing, in. of our own country, very imperfectly, if many of Mr deed, was more natural than that the pontifical supre. M.'s arguments or conclusions be correct. First of macy of Rome should at last be universally acknowall, then, respecting civil liberty, about which Mr M. ledged. The advantages, local and general, were all on commences his first chapter, we dissent altogether from the side of the Holy See; and the radical evil lay, not the argument which he evidently is anxious to establish, so much in the assumption of this power in an ignorant that, had it not been for the Church of Rome, civil li. and turbulent age, as in the using of it too frequently berty would have been earlier enjoyed by mankind, and to a gratitication of the worst of passions. The asso. that there was nothing but tyranny before the Reforma- ciations of pious zeal had been always in favour of Rome; tien. Popery is bad, morally, politically, and spirit, and it was the destruction of the Western Empire,

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A.D. 476, five hundred and twenty-three years after the may Heaven in future avert !) ere it was established on battle of Pharsalia, which laid the foundation for the its proud pedestal. But take this constitution, which rise of the ecclesiastical power. The Church, however, is our boast and our glory, and plant it in Turkey, Rusafter the Pontiffs obtained the mastery, did not destroy sia, Spain, or Portugal, and the people would not encivil liberty, for the best of all reasons, that none pre- dure it a single hour, simply because they are unable to viously existed to destroy. But, since the contrary ap- appreciate it. In like manner, establish the Protestant pears to be the hypothesis of Mr Mackray, will he have faith in these countries, and on the very same principle, the goodness to describe that liberty which was enjoyed the Turks would prefer Mahomet, the Russians the by the ancient Church, by the world before the reign of doctrines of the Greek church, and the Spaniards and Constantine the Great, before the rise of the kingdom of Portuguese would still bend the knee before the Visthe Lombards in Italy, the Pontificate of Gregory the gin's shrine. Great, or even that of his successor, Gregory VII. ? We It is impossible for us to agree with Mr Mackray's venture to say, that there was no such thing as liberty arguments at p. 21, et seq., respecting the Popes, at all, according to our notions of it; and that the peo- wliere he alleges that at first they made a wilful and ple were not one whit more enlig'itened before the as- | direct “ conspiracy against the liberties of mankind," sumption of the supremacy by the Pope, than they were that “ mind was doomed to stagnation,"_and that after it, when the Pontiffs were stimulating all Europe they filled up “ to the very uttermost the measure of to the i'anatical chivalry of the Holy Wars, or Crusades. their atrocious wickedness,” by establishing the InThen, again, let us go farther back : let us go to far- quisition. As to the last assertion, we have nothing famed Greece and Rome; and here we shall first hear to say, and most sincerely do we join our author in Mr Mackray:

his reprobation of that infamous tribunal. But we “ Diffuse knowledge,” says he, “ among a people, have sometining to say as to the first. In the name of cenfer upon them liberty of thought and of investigation, Heaven, what liberties? According to Mr Mackray, and you give them resources that cannot be exhausted, one would think, that before the assumption of the su. energies that cannot be overcome. Memorable is the il premacy by Gregory VII., the nations of Europe were lustration of this remark, which we find in the history of all that is excellent-civilized, enlightened, religious, Greece. What was it that raised her little states to the ingenious, and free living in a very elysium of free. commanding eminence which they occupied among the dom; and that the Bishops of Rome beheld this with nations of the world ? It was liberty. Greece was the diabolical hatred and envy, and conspired to take their land of freedom, while the people of other lands were civil liberty away. The very reverse was the case. slaves. And why was Greece free ? Because she was Liberty indeed! Where is Mr Mackra y's authority for intelligent,” &c. p. 20.

this mighty transformation of the northern barbarians ? Our author goes on in a similar style, and then con. Why, in the very heart of Italy, and almost at the gates cludes that Greece lost her freedom when she became of Rome, the Lombards, a nation of incorrigible bar. “corrupted by the gold, and enervated by the luxuries, barians, had established themselves in all the pride of of conquered nations.” Now, Mr M. must allow us to savageness, and insolence of successful victory. This tell him, that this is all pure declamation, and that was in A. D. 570, in the reign of Justin II., and in the while we admit the facts, we'deny the theory. By li. last year of the Pontificate of John III., the sixtieth berty, our author must mean public opinion ; but will Bishop of Rome; and this powerful kingdom, which be maintain that public opinion ever existed in Greece ? began then to exist, continued for more than 200 years. Indeed, the liberty of Greece is a Utopian theme; and Liberty indeed! We challenge any man to look into we really thought that it had been long exploded the history of those ages, and then to tell us that such by men of learning. and left only to schoolboys. a felicitous state actually existed. The Bishops of We maintain, therefore, in opposition to Mr M., that Rome have done evil enough to mankind; bui Mr there was no such thing as that which he calls liberty, Mackray must suffer us to tell him once more, that and which we call public opinion, (for the terms are sy- his zeal is, in this instance, greater than his knor. nonymous,) in Greece ;—that she was governed for the ledge, and that it is too much to make them actually most part by popular clamour, as witness the Atheni- the enemies of the human race. We vindicate them ans; and, in farther proof of this, we shall lay down not; but we maintain that the Popes only took ad. certain propositions of our own for Mr M.'s consider- vantage of the ignorance they found; they did not beation, which will at once illustrate our meaning. 1. gin it. Has Mr Mackray forgot what Cæsar Baso. There can be no real liberty, or righily-grounded public vius has said of the 7th century alone, which, for its opinion, where there is no proper religious feeling.–2. barbarism and wickedness, he denominates the iron age ; That, consequently, there was no real liberty in the an- for its dulness and stupidity, the age of lead; and for cient states. 3. That where there is no public opinion, its blindness and ignorance, the age of darkness? And the government is arbitrary, and the people ignorant. yet, no doubt, he will charge this on the Popes! -4. That public opinion necessarily supposes certain And this brings us to combat another of our author's pre-requisites, that is, that it is but the effect of which notions, as connected with this boasted state of civil knowledge, religion, and civilization, are the causes.-5. liberty in the primitive times. At the period of the Re. That it depends on the middle class of society, because formation, begun by Luther, or rather by Zuinglius, that class is, in general, best instructed.

who was in reality the first Reformer, the church of Now, as these propositions are very different from Mr Rome was never in a better state ; for it is a fact be. Mackray's notions, we leave our readers to say whether yond dispute, that it was only in those countries, far he or ourselves are visionary. But nothing, it appears removed from the Holy See, that ignorance, superstito us, can be more evident than this, that before a peo- tion, and licentiousness, prevailed to excess. The Pon. ple can appreciate the advantages of civil liberty, they tiff was the illustrious De Medici, surnamed Leo X.must undergo a preparation for it, and mu·t be, to a a Pontiff, we maintain it, as illustrious for his virtues, certain extent, enlightened and educated. The same as he was for his birth and his magnificent genius. It remark applies to religion ; for though truth is in every was a singular arrangement of Providence, that the age the same, eternal and immutable, it is nevertheless Reformation should save begun under a Pontiff re. liable to be op:rat d upon by human passions, preju- markable as the munificent patron of letters and of dices, and errors. Look at the British Constitution. learned men. Surely Mr Mackray is not a sincere be. It sprang not up to its present perfection like a mush. liever in the hackneyed report, thut Leo promoted the room, in a nighi, but was the work of centuries, and was sale of indulgences merely to gratify his sister's ara. accompanied by tremendous national convulsions, (which, rice ; if he be so, we are prepared with ample proof

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to the contrary. Leo X. was one of the most learn and alive only to the things of this present world, deems ed and polished princes of his age ; and it was his ex. the Covenanters' contest beneath his regard, because it cessive proneness to the encouragement of his favour. was connected with religion. Alas! for such men !"ite pursuits, which induced him to act with such singu- Pp. 87, 88. lar imprudence in the matter of indulgences. Where. ever manuscripts were to be had, they were purchased

Thus writes Mr Mackray, in this inflated and decla. by Leo ; wherever learned men were to be found, they matory style, which, after all, is a mere verborum pre. were invited to his court with a splendid profusion : he lium; and we might quote farther, but the above is has the immortal honour of being the first to encourage riously speaking, however, if they who do not conceive

sufficient to prove that he is raving on the subject. Se. and patronise the Greek language in Italy ; at his own expense he set up a printing-press for the printing of the Covenanters to be so pure and immaculate as they the Greek Classics in Bologna ; and he made it his appear to our author, are thus to be censured in the business to adorn Rome with buildings of splendour. empty vauntings of sectarian pride ; and if the Cove. Yet this is the Pontiff-even this illustrious man who

nanters are entitled to all the fulsome adulation of this is condemned in the cant of illiterate enthusiasts as the writer, we say again, that we have hitherto consulted “ Beast," "

Antichrist,"

" " The Man of Sin," . The the annals of our country very imperfectly. With this Enemy of Religion," "an Ignorant Bigot," " a Su- deplorable, unguarded, and absurd declamation, no perstitious Priest."'The names of these his illiterate sound thinking and rational theologian will agree. It enemies are destined to slumber in the obscurity which had with the Reformation, and its effects on civil so.

any one should ask, what connexion the Covenanters ! they deserve, but the name of the illustrious De Medici, the Poitiff at the Reformation, and even that of ciety in Europe ? the only legitimate answer would

Does our author his pious and virtuous successor, Hadrian VI, will live be, that that they had little or none. duly appreciated. Such a tribute does Leo X. demand; to the saintship, were so dissatisfied with Presbyas long as learning is estimated, and sound philos sphy require to be told that those very Covenanters, whom,

as a sectary, he elevates with all the Romish hovours such a tribute is not denied him even by Luther; and verianism as established in 1688 in Scotland, that they one thing is clear, that, arguing from human princi, actually intrigued with the Episcopal party to restore ples, had Luther been Leo X., and Leo the Monk of King James ?--that Balfour of Burley, and Graham of Wittemberg, the Reformation of religion would most Claverlious, held frequent meetings for the purpose, probably liave been now to commence. Let the reader then observe the reasoning which we ing in this country at this moment, which prove the fact

and that original manifestoes of King James are exist. here employ, and to which we beg ple Mackray's at beyond a doubt? What a collision ! what a picture, tention. Why did not the Reformation commence un. der John Huss, or Jerome of Prague, Wicklifte, or, to

worthy of the pencil of an Allan or a Wilkie! The go to a much earlier period, the Waldenses ?

stern and gloomy fanatic Burley, and the high-minded

Was it because the Church of Rome was more corrupt under each other, and who had often sought each other's death

and brave cavalier Graham, men who mortally hated the Pontificate of Leo, than at either of the above pe--the wretched murderer of Archbishop Sharpe, and riods? It could not be ; for the sale of indulgences, the loyal defender of legitimacy, holding a conference the ostensible cause, was not a decree of Leo's. Was

together! : it because Luther possessed more courage and self.de.

We have now done with our criticism on Mr Mack. votion than either of these? It could not be, as the ray's book,-a work which contains no inconsiderable sufferings of the Waldenses, the heroism of Hass and intermixture of erroneous historical facts and sound Jerome, and the boldness of the Rector of Lutterworth, will testify. But it was simply this the want of pro- at the outset, that our author is, in several respects, en.

reasoning. We repeat the opinion which we expressed per religious feeling, and of a certain degree of informa- titled to praise for his Essay—and that he did well to tion, before any essential change can be attempted with lay it before the world, at this particular crisis. success to be wrought on a people.

But enough on this subject. We must pass over many of Mr Mackray's assertions, to which we have equally strong objections, and conclude by laying the following The Collegians, being a Second Series of Tales of the extract, with one or two observations on it, before our

Munster Festivals. In three voluines. London. | readers, by which they will see how widely Mr Mackray Saunders and Otley. 1829.

has wandered from his subject, in his zeal to set forth the common cant and erroneous reasoning of the times. This is a work of rather a singular description, and Speaking of the exploits of the Covenanters, after a great of more than ordinary interest. How the author's first deal of very infiated writing, he thus expresses him. series of the Tales of the Munster Festivals was reselfi

ceived, we do not well remember ; but we recollect

that we read the book, and were much pleased with the " Nor do we hesitate to declare, that, for our part, humour which pervades it. We had not, however, at we should blush to claim kindred with the man who that period the opportunity which we now have of ex. could survey the portion of our country's history, in pressing our opinion ; and, as a second series " is bewhich these transactions are recorded, without feeling fore us, we are desirous not to overlook the merits of

both gratitude and adıniration. Of such men we are the author. | aware there are not a few. "The cold blooded infidel' These Tales profess to delineate the manners of the

casts a look of ineffable disdain on the cause and the Irish; and, in both his present and former works, the doings of the Covenanters, because he regards them as author has succeeded admirably. Our chief objection nterely the paltry conflic.ings of some insignificant sects. to the " second series" is its title. Why it should have The servile advocate of arbitrary power turns away from been termed “The Collegians” we cannot ascertain, them with disgust, because he is jealous of everything unless it be so designated because the two heroes, Mi that has the air of a struggle for freedom. The bigoted | Hardress Cregan and Nir Kyrle Daly, (names not very adherent of another system of ecclesiastical jurisdiction romantic or euphonious,) happened, at the outset of their dislikes them, because the Covenanters thought not al. career, to be fellow.students at College. But, letting this together as he thinks, but made their appeal, from the pass, the story is in itself entitled to much praise. It is a dogmas of erring man, to the unerring oracles of God. faithful picture of the simple, superstitious, and ignoWhile, last of all, and unhappily this is the most nume. rant, but warm-hearted and hospitable, peasantry of Ire. tous class of all, the worldly man, immersed in secularity, land. We have their habits, their phraseology, their

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modes of thinking, their manners, as vividly placed be- gent and thinking being, what does it prove? Just the fore us as if we resided among them; while the dialogue is very reverse of what the author intends. If mat, from very cleverly sustained, and displays all that mixture of his very nature and constitution, must decide in a parcredulity, absurdity, and never-failing jocularity, for ticular way,-if his judgment must prefer virtue to vice, which the Irish are universally celebrated. In point of good to evil,- if his will must follow these determina. plot and incident, the tale itself is one of no common lions,-and if his actions must be in conformity to his interest.

volitions, then it would seem to be proved, in direct The moral, too, to be drawn from it is excellent, and contradiction to Mr Cribhace, that in the strictest and one which cannot be too forcibly impressed on the minds most absolute sense of the word, he acts under the in. of those who allow their passions to triumph over their fluence of necessity. The first link in the chain of

The case of the lovely Eily O'Connor has been causes being necessary, the last must be necessary also; that of many a hapless maiden ; and the scene between and our author's argument of course falls to the ground. Eily and her uncle, the good old parish priest, in vol. Mr Cribbace rejects the notion of the self-determining ii. chap. xxv. is admirably managed. The humour, on power of the will; and substitutes in its place what he the other hand, of Lowrie Looty, Myles Murphy, the is pleased to call," the man's self-determining power dealer in ponies, whose relationship extended over all over his will." Does Mr Cribbace not perceive that a Ireland, and several of the other characters introduced, “ determination of the man ” is an act of the will ? He must ensure for the author the reputation of possessing substitutes two volitions instead of one ; but whether a very perfect knowledge of the class of people be this additional volition be free or necessary is still as undertakes to describe. We gladly, therefore, refer the doubtful as before. reader to the “ Collegians," and assure him that he will There are a few inconsistencies, too, in the work, find this second series of the “ Tales of the Munster which ought not to pass without notice. For example, Festivals " well worthy his attention.

Mr Cribbace speaks (p. 91) of a volition being indepen. dent of the will. This is a solecism and an absurdity. He admits in one place that "the will possesses the

power of directing the current of thought;" while, in An Essay on Moral Freedom: To which is attached the same page, he asserts that, “ with respect to the in. a Review of the principles of Dr Whitby and Pre- tellectual powers, it is altogether a passive effect, and sident Edwards, on Free Will; and on Dr Brown's they alone are truly active." This is a contradiction in Theory of Causation and Agency. By the Reverend terms in regard to a proposition upon which he founds Thomas Tully Cribbace, A.M. Edinburgh. Waugh his whole argument. & Innes. 1829. 8vo, pp. 311.

But while we make these remarks, and while we can.

not allow that the author has made good his point, we The question whether man is a free agent, or is by no means deem his work unworthy of an attentive bound down in all his actions by fixed and irreversible perusal. It is written in a pleasing and philosophical laws, we have ever regarded as one of those mysterious style; many of the illustrations are apt and happy; and subjecıs about which much will be said, and very little though he may have failed, it should be remembered erer distinctly understood. But, nevertheless, hopeless that a failure is excusable on a subject which has been and intricate as the controversy is, we by no means con- agitated by philosophers for two thousand years without sider it either uninteresting or unimportant. Many of any hope of coming to a definite or satisfactory conclu. the most brilliant discoveries in science have been made sion. in the prosecution of enquiries whose solutions lay beyond the reach of human ingenuity. There is undoubtedly a line of demarcation between what may and what A Reply to Sir Walter Scott's History of Napoleon. may not be discovered, but it is a boundary faint and ill defined ; and, in their attempts to pass this “ul.

By Louis Bonaparte, Brother of the Emperor. A

Translation from the French. London. Hurst, tima Thule," philosophers have recovered many a goodly tract, which seemed altogether inaccessible to the less

Chance, & Co. Edinburgh. Constable & Co. 1829. daring spirits of a former age.

THERE can be no doubt that, when Sir Walter Scott The author of the work before us advocates moral | undertook to write a Life of Napoleon, he did not con. freedom. He commences with a view of the doctrine template the production of a profound and philosophical of causation; and, after clearing the subject from the work, but merely of a popular history. His leading sceptical doubts and difficulties of Mr Hume, he pro- object was, to present the public with the prominent ceeds to propound his own argument. His leading aim features of the transactions of France, from the rise to is to show, in the first place, that every act depends upon the conclusion of the Revolution ; and, in particular, 10 the will,--and that the will is, in its turn, dependent supply a full account of the extraordinary career of upon the judgment; whence he attempts to establish Bonaparte, which should satisfy the ordinary reader, by! what he terms “intellectual liberty,” and to prove that its general truth and accuracy, but still leave the field the wi is free, liecause the judgment, on which it de- open for the curious and minute investigator. Vieving pends, is free. The only exception he admits to this Sir Walter's production in this light, we are not entitled rule is, where the will is influenced by appetite or pas. to expect either the deep research of a Gibbon-the insion, when he concedes that it becomes subject to ne- tellecrual vigour of a Hume-or the felicitous propriety cessity. He concludes with a view of the origin of evil, of a Robertson. The Author of Waverley needed not and some strictures upon the works of President Edwards to rest his immortality upon his nine volumes concernand of Dr Whitby.

ing Napoleon ; and lie could afford, therefore, to write Our author, however, is by no means successful in hastily, and to trust, in a considerable degree, to indus. establishing his great position-the freedom of the will try for accomplishing a task to which others would have “Man acts as he wills”-very true ; but this is not the been anxious to bring the whole resources of their question. The will, according to Mr Cribbace, is mind.

passive." Two forces act upon it-- the judgment and That a work written upon these principles, and with the passions. How then can its motions in any re- these views, should be without blemishes, was not for a spect be spontaneous ? But, says Mr Cribbace, the moment to be expected ; and we confess our wonder on judgment is free ; which, in his opinion, is only in perusing it, was that it did not contain many more other words to assert, “ that man is an intelligent and than we were able to discover. The brochure now thinking being." But, granting that man is an intelli- before us, by the late Emperor's brother, tends to con- ;

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vince us still farther that the errors Sir Walter Scott has convey a vague knowledge of Christianity, by means of committed are neither very numerous nor very momen- speculative and metaphysical theories. This might be tous. The Ex-King of Holland entertains, quite pro- enough were religion only an abstract science. perly, a very fraternal regárd for his brother's memory, | its highest aim is to communicate real practical wisdom, and talks in very magniloquent terms of the “ exagger- correct views of duty, as well as of doctrine, are indisa ation," - the “ injustice,”-the “ falsehood," — the pensable. The force of eloquence, or the brilliancy of “calumny,"_nay, the “excessive calumny,"

,” “ spread | imagination, may, no doubt, sometimes awaken virtu. throughout the work of Sir Walter Scott;" but when ous emotions in the mind. But such emotions will he comes to establish these charges, which he attempts prove unavailing, unless they produce active exertion. to do by taking hold of every passage in the successive They are, in general, mere temporary sensations, provolumes which he considers at all objectionable, and ceeding rather from instinctive sensibility, than from pointing out wherein it is to be reprobated, he falls far deliberate conviction, and may be speedily effaced by short of the expectations he had raised. The sum and the renewed supremacy of debasing passion. In all substance of his “ Reply,” bating a good deal of loose cases, therefore, an appeal must primarily be made to declamation and undignified acrimony, only is, that Sir the judgment, and, through it, to the feelings. In man's Walter has made a few trifing errors in dates, in the natural condition his understanding is darkened ; and names of places, and in some geographical details. this obscurity must be removed . The finer suscepOthers may, perhaps, think that there are more impor. tibilities of the conscience are deadened ; and these tant faults in the work, but Louis Bonaparte, though must be resuscitated : The treacherous disguises which he has the will, wants the talent to make them appa- | vice assumes are attractive ; and these must be un. rent. This “ Reply,” however, is curious, considering masked: The prevalence of self-deceit has distorted the quarter from which it comes, and the nature of some all just sense of right and wrong; and its power must of its statements ; although, in point of argument, it is be subdued. The affections of the soul are estranged exceedingly weak, and will certainly rebound from Sir from the pursuit of virtue ; and these must be reclaim. Walter's coat of mail-an imbelle telum, sine ictu. ed. It is only by thus making Christianity bear on

the several situations and tempers of those to whom it

is addressed, that any substantial instruction can be Londiniana ; or, Reminiscences of the British Metro. received, and that any permanent benefit can ensue. polis ; including Characteristic Sketches, Topogra.

The author of the Sermons now before us is decided. phical. Descriptive, and Literary. By Edward ly an experimental clergyman. He has the art of maWedlake Brayley. 4 vols. London. Hurst, Chance, king his discourses intelligible to the most ignorant, and & Co. 1829.

at the same time interesting to the most polished, of his

auditory. He seldom fascinates by florid declamation, OF recent years various works have appeared, in

or by sudden flashes of fancy,_or by powerful pa. tended to illustrate the ancient manners, and to describe thos. But whenever he employs such aid, his style of the ancient residences, of the inhabitants of London. rhetorie, though perhaps not disclosing to the mind's Some of these have been presented to the public in the eye the sublimest regions of thought, is uniformly bold shape of fictitious narratives ; while others have consist, and vigorous. He does not ostentatiously display the ed of little else than a true relation of chronological and profundity of his theological learning, by endeavouring topographical facts. Modern Athenians though we be, we

to elucidate those mystical points, which the skill of have always felt much interested in books which throw

man cannot unravel, and which, even if fully explained, light upon the old and quaint peculiarities of the great would necessarily prove unproductive of any salutary British metropolis, and have seldom suffered the most advantage. His abilities are principally directed to the humble production of this kind to escape our notice. philosophical analysis of the cardinal doctrines of Chris. The work now before us is eminently calculated both to tianity. In the developement of these, he inanifests such enhance the pleasure of a visit to the metropolis, and to lucid' arrangement-such acute reasoning—such ingeteach even its resident inhabitants many things of which nious illustration_such fervid feeling-and such ap. they were probably ignorant. It contains, among other propriate application of his subject to the different cir. details, a great quantity of amusing information regard. cumstances of his hearers, as justly entitle him to be ing the residences of former illustrious men, whether esteemed one of the ablest Divines in the Scottish they belonged to the literary or political world; it de. Church. scribes the scenes of broils, plots, and conspiracies which

While we deem it proper thus to express our estima. now occupy a page in the history of the country; and tion of Dr Thomson's talents, we at the same time doubt it is particular in its accounts of antique ceremonies, whether the work now before us will impart much ad. games, and processions, now either shrunk away from ditional lustre to his name. We do not mean to deny that their former grandeur, or, in many instances, altogether the Sermons contain many excellencies. There is much unknown. The work is, moreover, embellished with a

of that lucidus ordo in them which characterises all the number of minute etchings and engravings, still further productions of their author. They might even be efillustrative of the costumes and manners of bygone fective if delivered ex cathedra, where simplicity is so times. The representation of the procession of Parlia- desirable. Many of the discourses, however, which ment to St Paul's Cathedral, in 1715, strikes us as par- daily issde from the press only to be consigned to obli. ticularly interesting. At the same time, it is proper to vion, evince equally good qualities in no inconsiderable add, that there is not much original merit in this pub. degree. The same truths, indeed, must necessarily conlication, the editor having done little else but arrange stitute the substance of all sermons, because the princihis materials from the fruitful works of Stow, Pennant, ples of theology are unchangeable. But to invest these and other writers, who have gone over the same ground truths with the charm of novelty, by original illustrabefore him.

tion, derived from the numerous branches of human

knowledge with which religion is associated, and from Sermons on Various Subjects. By Andrew Thomson. the varied habits of mankind, ought especially to disD. D. Edinburgh. William Whyte & Co. 1829. lic opinion. We do not think that the general character

tinguish every discourse submitted to the ordeal of pub8vo. Pp. 544.

of Dr Thomson's present publication reaches this reTo improve the heart and regulate the conduct, by a quisite standard, though no one can peruse it without plain exposition of religious truths, ought to be the perceiving indications of a genius fitted for nobler achieve. great object of pulpit oratory. It is not sufficient to ments.

W

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