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that awful fabric, and yet remembered the numerous Court, Lawnmarket, in the same land in which the ce. terrible stories which he had heard told respecting it. lebrated Editor of the Edinburgh Review first saw the Even before entering upon his hazardous undertaking, light. It is a flat, and has been shut up from time im. William Patullo was looked upon with a flattering sort memorial. The story goes, that one night as preparaof interest-an interest similar to that which we feel re- tions were making for a supper party, somerling ocspecting a culprit under sentence of death, a man about curred which obliged the family, as well as all the as to be married, or a regiment on the march to active con- sembled guests to retire with precipitation, and lock up flict. It was the hope of many, that he would be the the house. From that night to this, it has never once means of retrieving a valuable possession from the do- been opened, nor was any of the furniture withdrawn:minion of darkness. But Satan soon let them know that the very goose which was undergoing the process of he does not ever tamely relinquish the outposts of his being roasted at the time of the dreadful occurrence, is kingdom.
still at the fire! No one knows to wbom the house beOn the very first evening after Patullo and his spouse longs; no one ever enquires after it ; no one living erer had taken up their abode in the house, a circumstance saw the inside of it; it is a condemned house! There is took place, which effectually deterred them and all something peculiarly dreadful about a house under these others from ever again inhabiting it. About one in the circumstances. What sights of horror might present morning, as the worthy couple were lying awake in their themselves, if it were entered. Satan is the ultimus bed, not unconscious of a considerable degree of fear,— haeres of all such unclaimed property. a dim uncertain light proceeding from the gathered em- Besides the numberless old houses in Edinburgh that bers of their fire, and all being silent around them.-- are haunted, there are many endowed with the simple they suddenly saw a form like that of a calf, but with credit of having been the scenes of murders and suicides. out the head, come through the lower panel of the door, Some we have met with, containing rooms which had and enter the room : a spectre more horrible, or more particular names commemorative of such events, and spectre.like conduct, could scarcely have been conceived. these names, handed down as they had been from one The phantom immediately came forward to the bed, and generation to another, usually suggested the remem. setting its fore-feet upon the stock, looked steadfastly in brance of some dignified Scottish families, probably the all its awful headlessness at the unfortunate pair, who former tenants of the houses. We remember, moreover, were of course almost ready to die with fright; when it once hearing an aged citizen talk of a common stair in had contemplated them thus for a few minutes, to their the Lawnmarket, which was supposed to be haunted by great relief it at length took away its intolerable person, the ghost of a gentleman who had been mysteriously and, slowly retiring, gradually vanished from their sight. killed, about a century ago, in open day-light, as he was As might' be expected, they deserted the house next ascending to his own house. We regret not being able morning ; and from that time forward, no other attempt to point out the precise scene of so singular an incident, was ever made to embank this part of the world of light or to discover the name of the sufferer ; and can only from the aggressions of the world of darkness. mention, in addition, that the affair was called to mind
It may appear strange that any thing like supersti- by old people, on the similar occasion of the murder of ! tion should exist in Edinburgh, where, in the words of Begbie. The closed house in Mary King's Close, (bethe poet,
hind the Royal Exchange,) is believed by some to have Justice from her native skies
met with that fate for a very fearful reason. The in. High wields her balance and her rod,
habitants at a very remote period were, it is said, comAnd Learning, with his eagle eyes,
pelled to abandon it by the supernatural appearance ! Seeks Science in her coy abode;
which took place in it, on the very first night after they but, when we inform the reader that such beliefs are had made it their residence. At midnight, as the goodman only cherished among a very humble or very old-fashion-was sitting with his wife by the fire, reading bis Bible, ed class of people, this surprise will vanish. The truth and intending immediately to go to bed, a strange is, that Edinburgh is at present two cities--two cities dimness which suddenly fell upon his light caused hian not less differing in appearance than in the character of to raise his eyes from the book. He looked at the their various inhabitants. The fine gentlemen, who candle, and saw it was burning blue. Terror took posdaily exhibit their foreign dresses and manners on session of his frame. He turned away his eyes from Princes' Street, have no idea of a race of people who the ghastly object ; but the cure was worse than the roost in the tali houses of the Lawnmarket and the West disease. Directly before him, and apparently not to Box, and retain about them many of the primitive yards off, he saw the head as of a dead person, looking modes of life, and habits of thought, that flourished him straight in the face. There was nothing but a among their grandfathers. Such people, however, cer- head, though that seemed to occupy the precise situation tainly still exist; and in some of the sequestered closes in regard to the floor which it might have done had it and backcourts of the Old Town, there may at this very been supported by a body of the ordinary stature. The day be found specimens of people well entitled to the man and his wife fainted with terror. On avaking designation“ prisca gens mortalium.” Edinburgh is darkness pervaded the room. Presently the door opet. in fact two towns more ways than one. It contains an ed, and in came a hand holding a candle. This came upper and an under town,--the one a sort of thorough- and stood that is, the body supposed to be attached to fare for the children of business and fashion, the other the hand stood_beside the table, whilst the terrifie! a den of retreat for the poor, the diseased and the igno- pair saw two or three couples of feet skip along the rant. The one is like the gay surface of the summer floor as if dancing. The scene lasted a short time, sea, covered with numerous vehicles of commerce and but vanished quite away upon the man gathering pleasure ; while the other resembles the region below the strength to invoke the protection of Heaven. The house surface, whose dreary wilds are peopled only by the was of course abandoned, and remained ever afterwards wrecks of such gay barks, and by creatures of incon- shut up. ceivable ugliness and surpassing horror. In short, “ the march of intellect" proceeds along the South Bridge,
ORIGINAL POETRY. without ever once thinking of the Cowgate. Such being the state of matters, it will no longer
AN EARTHQUAKE. seem incredible that legendary superstition should exist in Auld Reekie. In the course of our experience we
By Henry G. Bell. have met with many houses which have the credit of 'Twas day, and yet there came no light, being haunted. There is one at this day in Buchanan's Or only such as made more horrible':
Robbing the downy joys of its warm nest,
Purest! be not a dove.
“ Even as a rock,"
Changeless ! be not a rock.
“ Even as thyself;" — My soul's best idol! be but as thyself ;Brighter than star, and fairer than the flower ; Purer than dove, and in thy spirit's dower Steadier than rock; yes, dearest! be thyself
The desolation that before
was hid In the black shroud of darkness. The red sun, Blood-stain'd and dim, look'd on the fallen city Like an affrighted murderer on the corse Mangled beneath his foot. The work is done! Silence is in the streets ! Fanes, domes, and spires, lie crumbled on the ground; Hovels are tost on palaces; and gold Shines upon heaps of dust and scattered stones. The voice of man is o'er; his might is crush'd Like a bruised reed; the labours of his hand Are strew'd as leaves before a tempest. Mark Where his rich temples lie! and see! As the gaunt earthquake, with his giant stride, Again goes staggering by, how, roaring, fall His everlasting pyramids, and mock, In reeking loneliness, the pride that called Their feebleness eternal. The silent multitude, in breathless awe, Stand on the shore of the mute, sullen sea, — A dense dark mass, and fear is on their souls, Like an o'erhanging cloud. Their lips are white As the salt foam, and quivering in despair ;They gaze, but speak not. In the wither'd heart, The half-form'd prayer dies. The grey-hair'd man, Mad with the misery that death has wrought, Thinks of his murder'd children, and blasphemes The God he worshipp'd in his youth. The child Looks on his mother, and, perplex'd to see Her depth of agony, forgets to weep. — The very ocean seems to share with them Their tongurless terror, and is hush'd as death. Yet hark !_far off there comes the hollow sound Of rushing waves.- Nearer and louder !-LO! The waters have arisen, and instinct With a strange life, needing no winds to guide, Are sweeping on in their wild majesty! Arm'd with the voice of thunder when it leaps Among the mountain chasms, see! they come But louder, wilder, and more terrible, The bursting shriek of that lost multitude Along the barren sands !-Up-up to heaven! Shaking the Almighty's throne, that dread sound rose, That last unearthly Miserere !-Hush! The billows are upon them. They have pass'd Forever and forever from the earth;The lordly element has won its prey, And howling proudly holds its reckless course.
AH! LOVE IT IS A FLEETING FLOWER.
By the Editor of the Inverness Courier, AH! Love it is a fleeting flower,
That charms but whan it's new;
Maun still the sairest rue.
I've tint my rest for smiles ;
The thrall of woman's wiles.
Or sunshine to the day,
My bonny winsome May;
I brought frae the deep green sea;
Wi' the odours of Arabie. But my lowly suit thou sparn'st, proud maid;
An' the heart I fain wad bring, Sae I sit beneath the willow shade
Frae morn till night, an' sing, Ah! Love it is a fleeting flower,
That charms but whan its new, And they wha deepest feel its power,
Maun still the sairest rue.
LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.
Mr R. CHAMBERS is at present engaged upon two more Rebellions, the history of which will occupy an early volume of Constable's Miscellany. The first of the two narratives refers to the brief but brilliant career of the famous Dundee in 1689, which Mr Chambers himself, we understand, characterizes as approaching nearer in interest to the insurrection of 1745, than any other transaction of the kind, which he has yet had to record. The second narrative embraces the unlucky enterprize of 1715, and completes, with his four former volumes, a series of historiettes regarding the attempts of the Cavaliers and Jacobites of Scotland, in behalf of the House of Stuart, from the first opposition to them by the Covenanters in 1637, down to the extinction of their hopes in 1745.—This industrious and graphic writer is now on the point of publishing his voluminous collection of the Legendary Poetry of Scotland, which we had the pleasure of announcing a few months ago, and which we are inclined to believe will be the best collection extant.
A History of the most Remarkable Conspiracies, connected with British History, during the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, by Joha Parker Lawson, M.A., the learned and able author of “ The Life and Times of Archbishop Laud," is in preparation for Constable's Miscellany, in one volume. This work will contain, we understand, amidst other interesting matter, Ac
" Even as a dove,"
No, purest! be not to me as a dove ;The spoiler oft intrudes upon its rest,
counts of the Assassination of James I. and III. of Scotland, the appeared in coats of mud-coloured brown, with snuff-covered Raid of Ruthven, and the Gowrie Conspiracy, the Gunpowder kerseymere vests, in small grease spot patterns, embroidered at the Plot, and the Famous Ryehouse Plot.
edge with tobacco juice or heavy wet; the tights made small or Memoirs of the celebrated Lady Fanshawe, wife of the Right large, and of any thing you can serew out of the stitch; a check Hon. Sir Richard Fanshawe, Bart. Ambassador from Charles II. shirt, without sleeres. This is the ne plus ultra of swell toggery. to the Court of Madrid, are about to appear.
Any sort of coat you can grab is also much in favour; some of A work is announced under the title of Letters from Turkey, these coats have dd greasy collars. At balls, the waistcoats are Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine, by R. R. Madden, Esq. The au- of all sorts which the Fancy cribs of Field lane, and Monmouth thor, who is a physician, has been sojourning for four years in street, can furnish; but those that fit are most fashionabls. these countries, and was enabled, by virtue of his profession, to
The ephemeral reign of waistcoats with straight collars is fast ascertain the actual state of Turkish society, manners, and cus declining, from constant wear. The new waistcoats, which are in toms, and to furnish more accurate information than has ever ap- high vogue with those who have good flesh-bags, are cut very peared on the subject. During his travels in the East, he visited skimping over the craw, and are liked by the snips, because they the sites of Troy, Memphis, Thebes, and Jerusalem, and other consume less stuff: besides, they are more lively and consistent interesting ruins.
with the airy example of Dusty Bob, and other models of eleganee. A copy of Burke's Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetcy of For dress-balls, the most approved costume consists of short kickthe United Kingdom has just reached us. The work, in point of seys, open at the knees, red garters, and striped worsted stockaccuracy and extent of information, surpasses any that has yet ings; a yellow fogle, à la Ned Stockman, a white castor, faise appeared, being compiled from the communications of the nobi. collar of foolscap, which meets the lug, mustachios of Day and lity, and containing the Baronetcies of Scotland and Ireland, to
Martin's japan, or horse-hair. Sometimes vests have buttons of gether with various new and important additions.
different patterns; but livery buttons should be avoided. Many A History of the late Catholic Association of Ireland, from its
of the canine blades take their tykes to publie assemblies, with institution in 1760, to its final dissolution in 1829, by a member brass squeezes round their throttles ; the tail shaved. Greengroof that body; to which are added the opinions of a distinguished cers ornament their hinder quarters with a carrot, stuek a la spiTraveller on the actual state of Ireland, and on the Elections of got and fosset. Carpenters prefer a two-foot rule; snobs a pegEngland, will appear in a few days.
ging-awl; and tailors a thimble, placed gracefully over the sixth Mr Horace Smith, the author of Brambletye House, Zillah, joint from the vertebræ. &c., has a new novel in considerable forwardness, to be called
Theatrical Gossip.-Poole has produced a successful farce at " The New Forest.'
Drury Lane, entitled, " My Wife! What Wife?"_" King Lear" The author of Hungarian Tales is about to publish Romances has been revived at the same Theatre; Young, Lear,-Miss Philof Real Life, in three volumes.
lips, Cordelid.-At Covent Garden, " The Maid of Judah," and The second volume of Mr Atherstone's Poem, the Siege of Ni.
"Home, sweet Home," continue a successful career.-The French neveh, is on the eve of publication.
Theatre goes well on; and Elliston is making the Surrey pay.The Rivingtons announce a volume of an interesting nature, The Italian Opera seems a more doubtful speculation. On Tuesto be called The German Pulpit, being a collection of serions by day last, there was a performance at Covent Garden in aid of a the most eminent modern divines of Germany; selected and
fund for raising a monument to the memory of Charles Dibdin. translated by the Rev. R. Baker.
Many of his best songs were sung in fine style ; and, in the musiThe King of Bavaria has published a volume of Poems at Mu
cal afterpiece of “ The Padlock,” Miss Paton and Madame Ves nich, the profits of which are devoted to an institution for the tris conjoined their powers-the latter amusing the Londoners blind.
with the exhibition of a wooden leg, incidental to the pert of Mary Queen of Scots, and other Poems, by John Heneage Jes. Leander, which she sustained.--"O'Donoghue and his White sè, Esq., will appear in a few days.
Horse," a melo-dramatic spectacle for Easter is preparing at Drury LECTURES ON DRAMATIC POETRY.-James Sheridan Knowles, Lane.--"The Provok'd Husband" haring been very successfulst Esq., author of Virginius, &c., has been invited to London, and
this last Theatre, is to be revived at Covent Garden, and will be several of the principal towns in England, to deliver a Course of strongly cast. Lord and Lady Townly, Charles Kemble and Mis Lectures on a subject to which few men living can do greater Chester; Richard and Miss Jenny, Keeley and Miss Nelson ; Sir, justice-Dramatic Poetry. We understand he is about to com- Francis Wronghead and Mr Manly, Fawcett and Warde. The mence his tour immediately, in the course of which he will pro- play will be beautifully performed.-Madame Catalani is in Dublin, bably visit Ireland.' We believe he will remain a short time at
-Miss Smithson is in Holland, astonishing the Dutch; but she Dumfries first, on his way to England; and it is not unlikely that
is speedily to visit London.-Charles Kembie, who takes his bens he may be in Edinburgh in the course of next autumn. What
fit here to-night, has not been drawing above three good houses ! gives a peculiar and striking interest to Mr Know les' Lectures, in the week. He is to be succeeded, on Monday, by Miss P. H. are his powers as an elocutionist. His readings and recitations are Kelly. It would have been much better had they been here to animated and beautiful in the extreme.
gether. A new piece was produced on Thursday night, called, MR Ford's COLLECTION-We have pleasure in calling the at- “ The King and the Czar;" it was successful in London, but west tention of our readers to the very curious collection of old and off rather heavily here. A Miss Clarke is expected to make her rare books, and some interesting and valuable portraits, which debut soon, with the view of filling Miss Noel's line of perts have been recently brought to Edinburgh for private exhibition Nous Verrons. and sale by Mr Ford. We have gone over the collection more
WEEKLY LIST OF PERFORMANCES. than once, and though small, have found in it many things which we could not easily have met with elsewhere.
April 4-April fo. New Music.-Mr Finlay Dun, whose fine taste and musical
SAT. Bold Stroke for a Wife, & High Life Below Stairs. acquisitions are so well known in Edinburgh, has recently pub. Mon. Macbeth, & Falls of Clyde. lished two songs, both of which possess much merit. They are Tues. Beaux Stratagem, & Catharine and Petruchio. called, " The Mad Maiden's Song," and " The Bonnie Lad that's WED. King Henry IV. & Falls of Clyde. far awa';" the melody of each is very sweet and flowing.
THUR. Provok'd Husband, $ King and Czar. MB Wilson's Concert. This concert was very judiciously Fri. Mountaineers, & Do. conducted, and was pleasantly varied by the introduction of some fipe old English madrigals. “The Golden Bee," a very spirited
TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. composition, by the Authoress of “ Aloyse," was sung with much “A. L. B." of Glasgow writes temperately and well; and the taste by Miss Tunstall, and is likely to become a popular favour author of the article in question may perhaps profit by his opi. ite
nions.—"F.” of Dundee has our thanks; we shall be glad to hear MR MURRAY'S Concert.-We observe that this splendid vio- from him again; we think he succeeds best in the sentimental linist is to give a concert in the Assembly Rooms on Tuesday. He mood, judging by the commencement of his communication.is to be assisted by the Misses Paton, and Miss Inverarity, who is "A Friend" has not changed our opinion on the subject he writes on this oceasion to make her first public appearance, and of whose about. When “G. Barbour" next honours us with a letter, va musical talents very favourable reports have reached us. She is shall be obliged by his paying the postage. a grand-niece, we are informed, of Robert Fergusson, the Scot- There are some good lines in " Nature, an Allegory;" but, as tish poet, whom she is said to resemble very much in countenance. She is only sixteen ; but if what we have heard of the power of Morven," the lines on " Hope," to " Misfortune,” to “ Spring."
a whole, it is imperfect.-We regret that " The Chieftains of her voice, the fire of her manner, and the brilliancy of her execu- and the Stanzas by “D. L. B.," will not suit us. tion, be correct, she must be a wonderful girl of her age.
“Cato," to whom we owe an apology, will positiveiy find , Fancy DRESSES. -For evening dress, some slap-up coves have packet at our Publishers' now.
have become gods; but it rejects entirely the idea of a LITERARY CRITICISM.
Supreme Being, who has created and preserves the uni.
Its highest conception of power and happiness The History and Doctrine of Budhism popularly illus. This state of Budha, or Nieban, is entirely negative,
is to be in a state of Budha, or to obtain Nieban. trated; with Notices of the Kappooism, or Demon and consists in not being subject to weight, old age, Worship, and of the Bali, or Planetary Incantations of Ceylon. By Edward Upham, M.R.A.S. disease, or death. It is to be obtained only after a long With forty-three Lithographic Prints, from original progress of metempsychosis, and a succession of punish
ments and purifications in hells and purgatories, which, Singalese Designs. London. R. Ackermann. 1829.
by the decrees of fate-Damata_necessarily follow 4to.
moral or immoral conduct. Four persons have already This is a learned and valuable work, upon a subject passed into the highest state of existence, namely, that of much greater interest and importance than the gene- of Budha, of which persons Gaudma was the fourth ; ral reader may at first sight suppose. Budhism is the and his doctrines are to remain in full force for 5000 most ancient faith of which any authentic records exist; years, at the expiration of which period, (nearly onefor even what may be termed modern Budhism, which half having already passed,) a fifth and last person will is a modification of the original doctrine, and a slight appear; and when he transmigrates into the state of deviation from pure Paganism, is 2340 years old. It Budha, the present system of things shall have an end. owes its existence to Gaudma, or Godama, (whence the Mixed up with this predominating belief, which, many Teutonic word God,) who, having been probably a great centuries ago, found its way into Egypt, and was thence warrior-king and lawgiv.r in that remote period, taught carried to Greece by Pythagoras, are a thousand will his people to believe that he was endowed with super- fancies and incomprehensible legends, betraying the human powers, and on his death was deified, as has al- gorgeous luxuriance of Eastern imagination, and show. ways been the case in rude ages. The previous tradi- ing, after all, how very short a length man's spirit, cations regarding a Budha, go back to a period long ante bined and confined by the trammels of materiality, can rior to that at which the Mosaic chronology fixes the proceed when it attempts to soar, unaided, beyond the Deluge. The creed which Gaudma disseminated, and paltry range of its own weak senses. which is preserved in its purest state in the Island of But, notwithstanding the absurdities of the Budhist Ceylon, extends over all the Indian isles, and the creed, historical and scientific conclusions of the most greater portion of the vast regions to the eastward of interesting nature may be deduced from its doctrines the Ganges, among which may be included Birmah, and traditions; and this, of itself, would make it wor. China, Tartary, and Thibet. Its doctrines thus influ. thy the most careful and laborious investigation. If, in ence the moral and intellectual character of not fewer | retracing the stream of time, we are to look for the foun. than three hundred millions of the human race. These tain from which all the generations of man have proare considerations which convert, into matters of deep in. ceeded, and if that people is likely to be the most anterest, the most minute details that can be gathered from cient who inhabit districts acknowledged as the original the almost unexplored heaps of Eastern manuscripts, nursery of all the arts now spread over the world, it is pictorial representations, and other antiquities which are clear that we must turn to the East, and that there known to exist, but which no scholar, previous to Mr Budhism, if it does not bring us to the fountain-head, Upham, has been able to turn to much practical use. will at least carry us a long way on the right course toSurely no enquiry can have more imperative claims wards it. In the progress of this voyage of discovery, it upon public attention than that which retraces its way, will be particularly important and interesting to obupon the most authentic data, to the very earliest years serve, in the first place, that in the Maha-Vansi, a work of creation, and which seems to point to a time when composed in Palee, (the sacred Budhist language,) and the great family of man formed but one community, which is one of the oldest and most esteemed of the sacherished the same belief, and observed the same rites. cred writings, the early history of the human race, That some grand convulsion in the material world over though laid at a much remoter date, is found to agree, threw this state of things, and scattered its fragments in many remarkable points, with our own Sacred Scripover the earth, seems to be beyond a doubt. Asiatic tures. The Maha-Mansi records the lengthened period tradition, though it cannot precisely explain what that of life allotted to the earlier inhabitants of the earth, convulsion was, or how it operated, carries us back to the non-existence of sin, the rationality of the animal the date of its occurrence, and almost seems, in some tribes, the extraordinary ascension of a certain Maha. vague and mysterious manner, to penetrate beyond the Mandatoo in a living state to heaven, the introduction barrier, and to present at least a glimpse of the primeval of falschood and nurder, and the rebellion of men world.
against the gods. These are very curious coincidences, We are strongly inclined to think, that according and will, no doubt, tend to confirm the Christian in his to the correct acceptation of the term, Budhism is a faith. system of Atheism. It, no doubt, inculcates a be- There are other coincidences equally deserving of no. lief in various gods, or rather in human beings who tice. Many of our readers are no doubt acquainted with
the theory advanced by Humboldt, that the twelve signs The doctrine of metempsychosis is the very essence are not the original Zodiac, but are derived from a more and groundwork of Budhism. It is not a mere fanci. ancient system of the lunar mansions in use in Central ful theory, but a moral system, which teaches that souls Asia. Mr Upham's work establishes the truth of this must atone by penances in inferior forms for sins com. theory. The solar zodiac, which the Budhists have mitted in any present stage of existence, and that it is also, is proved to have been the result of a more advan- only after they have occupied the bodies of men or ani. ced state of knowledge, and to have been derived from mals, more or less degraded, that they can finally be the far more ancient and original lunar zodiac. We fitted for Nirwana, or the slate of Budha. There being thus see that astrology, which owes its existence to the no Supreme Being, no great directing Mind, in the Bud. mixture of superstition and curiosity implanted in our hist creed, the system of metempsychosis was the only nature, is, in truth, the parent of astronomy, which is Other plausible method by which a scheme of rewards science purged from superstition by more accurate inform- and punishments could be introduced, without which ation. But this discovery leads to still further results ; po religion could ever be popular or useful. Budhism -it shows an affinity existing in the rites and practices inculcates, that Gaudma transmigrated through the of countries the most remote from each other, and be whole circle of the creation, through all the existences tween which we should not otherwise have been able to of land, sea, and air, and that he lived in every station trace any sort of connexion. We more particularly al. of human life. This took him three thousand years to lude at present to the very striking and singular analo- accomplish ; but if his faithful followers obey his con. gies which may now be perceived to subsist in the com- mands, they may very speedily transmigrate into the putation of time and zodiacal signs between the Tartar Dewa Loka, or Lower Heavens, where they will gradually Budhists of Northern Asia and the Aztech and Toltech rise in the scale of existences till they reach Nirwana, or tribes of America. It has long been disputed whether final bliss. In the book of the Jutakas, or the five hun. it was possible to prove that the tribes of Asia and dred and fifty incarnations of Budha, a complete history America had ever communicated with cach other ; but is given of his births among the different classes of if we find several arbitrary zodiacal signs the same in beings, and the substance of his intercourse with them, both countries, the question must certainly be considered for the purpose of illustrating three of the chief traits of as decided. That the astronomical arrangements and his character-purity, compassion, and wisdom. The divisions of modern Europe should very closely resemble book was originally written in Palee, and afterwards those of Budhism is less wonderful, for it was compara. translated into Singalese; a pictorial illustration accom. tively easy for the science to find its way into Egypt, panies each narrative; and the work altogether, judging and thence it spread by Greece over all the West. It by the specimens of it furnished by Mr Upham, must is of importance, however, to observe the very slight ad- be one of the most remarkable which the East pos. ditions which have been effected in this department of sesses. knowledge to the discoveries that were made by the Bud. The Budhist's belief in a series of bells, or abodes hists thousands of years ago.
for condemned demons and mortals, where the most Budhism, as it now exists, is a reformed creed ; and, horrible torments are inflicted, adds great additional as we have already remarked, is believed to be founded weight to the doctrine of metempsychosis. These pu. on the ruins of Paganism. Gaudma, the fourth Budha, nishments, as we have already remarked, are not sup. did not approve of the doctrines which had been proposed to be awarded by any moral governor or creator ; mulgated or acquiesced in by the Budhas who preceded for the Budhas perform no other function than that of him; and though he could not extirpate them, he al. exhortation and preaching, but they are believed to have tered some, did away with others, and took the remainder been made necessary by the immutable laws of fate from into copartnership. Original Paganism seems to have all eternity. The oath administered to a Budhist, in been little else than a system of demon-worship, and a legal proceedings, is strikingly illustrative of this part belief in planetary influences. This, indeed, is gene of the religious opinions of the people. It is in these rally the foundation of all barbarous religions ;-men words : deify their hopes and fears, and attach superhuman powers to objects, with whose nature they are unac. “ If I have not seen, yet shall say that I have seen ; quainted. Climate, habits, and modes of life, modify if I shall say that I know that which I do not know, the creed ; which will thus be found to vary from that of then may I be thus punished : Should innumerable de other savage tribes in some of its details, but to preserve scents of the Deity happen for the regeneration and sal. a close resemblance in all its leading features. Gaud- vation of mankind, may my erring and migrating soul ma, however, in reforming Budhism, had not merely to be found beyond the pale of their mercy! Wherever I contend with Pagans, but with a more determined and go, may I be encompassed with dangers, and not escape formidable sect the Brahmins. The question has been from them, whether arising from murderers, robbers, often agitated, whether Brahminism or Budhism is the spirits of the earth, of wood, of water, or of air, or from most ancient system, and it is a question which, many all divinities who adore Budha, or from the Gods of the centuries ago, occasioned the most devastating wars in four elements, and all other spirits ! May blood flow India. The result has been that, at this day, the two out of every pore of my body, that my crime may be systems divide the East. In Central India, Brahmin. made manifest to the world! May all or any of ihese ism maintains the superiority; whilst, in the Indian evils overtake me within three days, or may I never stir Isles and all the ultra-Gangetic continent, Budhism is from the spot on which I now stand, or may the latsupreme. The truth seems to be, that both creeds are sani, or lash of the sky, (lightning,) cut me in two, so modifications of pure Paganism ; and it is of little con- that I may be exposed to the derision of the people! sequence which sprang up first. The Brahmins calcu. Or, if I should be walking abroad, may I be torn in late the antiquity of the world; the Budhists do not pieces by either of the four supernaturally endowed lions, believe in creation : The Brahmins eat of no animal ; or destroyed by venomous herbs, or poisonous snakes! the Budhists eat of all except nine, of which the ox is If in the waters of the river or ocean, may supernatural the principal : The supreme deity of the Brahmins is crocodiles, or great fishes, devour me, or may the winds Vishnu, and the remote periods at which he visits the and waves overwhelm me; or may the dread of such earth they term Avatars; the supreme deities of the evils keep me, during life, a prisoner at home, estranged Budhists are their five Budhas, of which only four have from every pleasure; or may I be afflicted by the inyet made their appearance. The great connecting link tolerable oppressions of my superiors; or may a plague between the two systems is the belief they both inculcate cause my death ; after which, may I be precipitated into in transmigration, of which we shall say a few words. hell, there to go through innumerable stages of torture,