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Republic. For example, we read of this very remark- ing completed in an expensive style; and another, withable occurrence :

in fifty yards of it, is being constructed for the use of “As I was taking up my reins to continue my route, the convent of Augustin nuns. Another large church, I saw a fawn sporting on a rising ground within ten newly erected at the west end of the city, was opened yards of me. It stamped its foot, advanced, stopped and dedicated to St Teresa on the 29th of May. The short, frisked, then stopped short again, and stared at rest of the temples devoted to religion, and the nature

I had mechanically drawn one of my pistols from of their endowments, have been already mentioned in the holsters, and had cocked it, whilst I was witnessing the personal narrative. these manœuvres. The little animal still stood staring “Viewed at a distance, few cities present a more beauat me, with its large black eyes, innocent and unsus- tiful aspect than this, and internally, though not stri. pecting, and its little black glossy nose and chin perked kingly pleasing, there is nothing in it save a degree of out in impudent defiance. It stamped its foot again, dulness that can excite absolute dislike. Its height above as offering wager of battle, gave another frisk, and the level of the sea is about 1800 feet. The variation darted off. What a fool I was, thought I, why didn't of temperature between the nights and days, so peculiar I pull the trigger ? I dashed my spurs into the sides to the high table lands, is not found here; the mean of my little horse, who never wanted that encourage heat, from the 1st of January to the 1st of July, is 75 ment, and was up with my companions in a twinkling." deg., at night, 63 deg. : in the summer months, the

This magnanimity on the part of the late Secretary average may be taken at 10 degrees higher ;-a modeto his Britannic Majesty's Mexican commission, is only rate temperature for a city situated such as this is, in rivalled by his amiable deportment on the following oc- 14 deg. 28 min. north latitude, and 92 deg. 40 min, west casion:

longitude."-Pp. 465-8. “ In passing down the town of Antigua, I saw two or three children as they were squatting on the high scription, but rather refer our readers to the work itself


We could easily give more extracts of a similar dewindow seats, amusing themselves with their playthings; which will be perused with pleasure and instruction by they poked their little faces through the iron bars of the all who feel interested in the rising prospects of Guate. lattice, and I stopped to regard them; their beauty and

mala. innocence had attracted me; but, after gazing at them an instant, I passed on."

Mr Thompson's bump of Philoprogenitiveness is Twelve Dramatic Sketches, founded on the Pastoral probably very large. But as a more favourable speci. Poetry of Scotland. By W.M. Hetherington, A.M. men of his “ Narrative," we extract his account of Edinburgh. Constable and Co. 1829. SANTIAGO, THE CAPITAL OF GUATEMALA.

Dear to all our tenderest and purest associations is “Santiago de Guatemala, the capital, stands in the the pastoral poetry of Scotland. We love it the more midst of a large handsome plain, surrounded on all that our native land possesses no Arcadian climate, or sides by sierras of a moderate height, and at the dis. any of the supernumerary luxuries of nature. We love tance of from three to seven leagues. These mountains, it the more because summer the season in which pas. which give to the view the whole valley of Mexico in toral poetry is born--bonnily and blithely as it blinks miniature, are not so far off but that the eye may disco. upon our heathery hills and stream-enlivened glens, is ver, through the rectilinear streets, in every direction, with us, nevertheless, a fleeting and a wayward guest, the verdure of the trees with which the surrounding balmy and beautiful in its hour of glee, but coy in its heights are clad, and which, with the sloping meadow approach, and often sudden and hurried in its departure. lands of different hues, affords a refreshing object, form. The pastoral poetry of Greece and Italy is full of the ing, as it were, a screen to the little city which lies in voluptuous serenity of their unchanging skies; whilst the midst, glaring with its white walls, and domes, and ours is of a more chequered and April character, steeples of yessa-cement, in the rays of a tropical sun. “ smiles and showers together.” Is it, therefore, the

"The houses are all built in tropical squares of about less valuable ? Nay, is it not, therefore, a thousand 120 to 160 feet; and sometimes the front of one house times more valuable? Is it not clouds that impart to occupies a whole quadra ; but none of them exceed sunshine more than half its glory? Is it not the gentle eighteen or twenty feet in height; of course they are under-tone of sadness that gives to joy its most refining only of one story-a precaution not so much suggested influence ? The Scottish peasantry are no fabulous and by fear of earthquakes, as enjoined by the old Spanish ideal race; and it is among themselves that they have law.

found poets to chronicle, in words fervent with the feel. “ The streets are neatly paved, either with common ing and the strength of truth.--the simple joys and stones, or more generally with a grey-streaked marble, griefs that fling their sun-blinks or their shadows across which makes them very slippery, and riding or driving the circumscribed sphere in which they move. Human very dangerous. They slope from each side towards the nature, in whatever guise, is full of interest ;-—it is a centre, along which runs almost perpetually a streamlet great problem which all are anxious to solve, and the of clear water, the edges of which being covered with very highest will stoop to the very lowest in search of verdure, give to the city a picturesque, though deserted an explanation. From the sun blazing in the empyrean, appearance. In some few of the streets there are trot. to the small flower concealed among the grass, the distoirs, particularly in the Plaza, or chief square, where tance, at first sight, hardly seems greater than from the they are covered with a colonnade, extending all round mighty denizen of the high places of the earth, to the the square, excepting on the side occupied by the cathe- lowly cottar far away in his secluded shieling. But there dral ; opposite to this is the palace, with the govern. is a connecting link; for, in the great scheme of creation, ment offices; and, on the two other sides, are retail what is a sun more than a flower, and why may not the shops of all descriptions of dry goods; whilst the area solitary peasant be called into existence fór nobler pur. is used as a market, where the Indians come daily to sell poses than even the proudest monarch ? Cincinnatus was their poultry, fruit, and other provisions. In the cen. a peasant, but did he not save the Republic? Tell was tre is a fountain of excellent water, issuing from a cro- a peasant, but did he not give freedom to his country? codile's head of indifferent workmanship,

Burns was a peasant, but did the class to which he be. “Many of the churches are large, and of fine archi- longed cast a stigma on his genius; or was it not rather tecture. They are kept much cleaner and neater than by elevating that class to his own level, that he gained they are at Mexico. A new one, called the Pantheon, the greenest laurel-leaf in his wreath of fame ? with spacious vaults for a cemetery under it, is just be. The peasantry of a country seem always more identi.

fied with the country itself than any other portion of its Clasp'd in your arms, the heaving of my bosom inhabitants. This is peculiarly the case with Scotland; May tell my joy; but words and thanks are feeble. for both our national poetry and music (the best food

M. Gray. Thou dear kind creature ! but we two have upon which patriotism can luxuriate) have almost en.

known tirely a pastoral origin. We must be understood, how- And loved each other now so long, so well, ever, as using the word pastoral in its most extended That many words of compliment were idle. sense, and not in its limited application to the affairs Flowing from bordering fountains ; playfully,

B. Bell." Yes, Mary, we have been two sister-streams, solely of sheep and cows, and an amiable but very ima- And singing with light glee, the one glides on, ginary set of personages ycleped shepherds and shep. A dancing, sparkling, joyous wanderer ;herdesses. Our poetry and music speak to us of a more The other winds along its silent way, varied range of rural scenes and objects, and of a people Trifling with meadow-towers, and waving grass, who can do more than listen to the bleating of their On its green margin. lambs, and babble softly to the running streams ; they

M. Gray.

Well, I'd rather be speak to us

The dancing, singing, sparkling one. What harm

Can spring from innocent mirth ?
Of hearts resolved and hands prepared

B. Bell.

None, Mary, none;
The blessings they enjoy to guard ;

But while one heart gives utterance to its joy, they speak to us of those external appearances of nature

Another broods in secret, silent raptures to which we have been accustomed from our childhood ;

Yet gratitude may dwell alike in both, - they assist in forming, and humour when they have Reflect in its own character its sense

And each may, like sweet flowers of different hue, been formed, all the peculiarities of national and indi- Of bliss. vidual character ;-they become, in short, a part of our. selves, they are entwined round the finest chords of

Drummond, the friend and lover of the two maidens, our heart, and they vibrate with its every pulse. “Scots enters soon afterwards, to inform them how desolating

the wha hae wi' Wallace bled !"_“Ye banks and braes o' ravages of the plague have become. He describes, bonny Doon !”—“Should auld acquaintance be for- first, its progress in London, which elicits the following got ?"-"O the broom, the bonny, bonny brooin!" - reflections from one of his fair listeners : 6. Will ye go to the ewe-bughts, Marion ?"-" The B. Bell.

Dreadful tale! flowers o' the forest are a' wede away !"_" waly, Alas for them! Poor wretches ! 'mid that scene waly, love is bonny !"_" Lochaber !” —these are words Of all-accumulated miseries pent, and airs that will outlive the Grampians, they will To them no strong untainted mountain gale perish only when Scotland is no more.

Comes, bearing on its wing the dews of life; The author of the tasteful and interesting volume be- No lark, careering near the gates of morn, fore us seems to be deeply imbued with the spirit we

Comes like a sweet-tongued messenger to tell

Of Heaven's returning love and clemency; have been attempting to point out. His plan of illus. Even the bright skies hang lurid o'er their heads. trating, in a series of Dramatic Sketches, the pastoral Oh! how unlike the dome of stainless blue, virtues of the Scottish peasantry, we think a happy one, Gilded with sunbeams, smiling over us, especially as he very judiciously founds each sketch With love and beauty most magnificent ! upon some little incident in one or other of our popular Poor wretches! Death is awful! but to die songs. We are thus as it were brought into more im. In such a scene, where earth is one huge grave, mediate contact with persons to whom we had been pre- The air a pestilence, and heaven's own brow viously introduced, old friends start up before us, and Murky and scowling—'tis too horrible. the past almost becomes the present. The author, speak- But the plague has already found its way to Scotland, ing of himself in his preface, says, “ To the country he

and in the following spirited passage Drummond disowes his birth ; there he spent all the bright years of in

closes the melancholy truth : fancy, boyhood, and early youth; among rural scenes and rural manners, the capacities of his heart were first called Drum. Forgive the unwilling messenger of evil; into action ; and in the country it was, that while listening

And listen to me calmly. We have heard to the words of experience, virtue, and religion, from the

With grief and pity of the fate of London, lips of many a sage and manly peasant, his mind acqui- Yet, deeming us by distance, and the free

And 'twas a moving tale of awe and wonder ; red what must continue to be its own peculiar modifica. Fresh breezes of our northern mountains, safe, tion of character.” That modification seems well adapt. We felt, at most, that sympathetic fear, ed for the task which Mr Hetherington has underta- Which mortals must feel when they talk of death ; ken. An unobtrusive pensiveness, an ardent patriot. But now the Pest its banner has unfurld, ism, and a sincere attachment to all the works of na. And, like a thunder-cloud, comes lowering on, ture, characterize his “ Sketches,” in which there is Stemming the gale, and scattering wide around, not a thought that could offend the most fastidious. Even on our shores, horror, despair, and death.

They are full of gentle feelings, lively pastoral de. High hearts, that had but leap'd with stern delight, scriptions, and agreeable and animated pictures of Scot. To meet assailing enemies, wax weak tish character. They bear the following titles, all of With shuddering dread: Man's brow, that lofty brow, which will engage the sympathies of his readers :-). Is pale and haggard, red and wild her eyes. Bessy Bell and Mary Gray.-II. The Lowland Lass In populous cities, where the mingled tide and the Highland Lad..III. Cowdenknows.-IV. The of human life its fullest billow rolls, Ewe Bughts.-V. The Tochered Maiden of the Glen. There hugest Ruin stalks, there reigns Dismay -VI. The Harvest Field.VII. The Bush aboon Tra- | With all her frenzied train, Dunedin fair quair. VIII. The Old Maid.--IX. Logan Braes.-Trembles upon her rocky throne; Dundee Å. The Choice. XI. The Rocking. And, XII. The Mourns her lost thousands; ancient Perth groans deep, Snow Storm. Of these the first is our chief favourite, As frequent funerals blacken o'er her streets : and from it we shall principally make our extracts. It Green youth, strong manhood, drooping age, alike

Betake them to the mountain solitudes

And distant glens, in headlong fearful light,

There hoping to escape the blue destruction.
M. Gray. Welcome to Lednoch ! my sweet sister. And now, charged with this tale of woe,

I come friend!

To warn you, and to speed you hence, away
Thrice welcome to my heart !

To some remote retirement, where the gale,
B. Bell.
My dearest Mary!

Forever freshen'd by the breezy speed

opens thus :

Of some clear rushing stream, may yet repel

And prejudices, from my mental sight The dire contagion, till the sultry heats

Depart, and truth, severe but glorious, beams Of summer bave departed, and the keen

Upon my soul. o world! how false thou art! And vigorous winds of winter shall arise

How hollow are thy pleasures ! In thy joys, To sweep afar the noxious exhalations,

How treacherous ! nought hast thou but it bears And pour a healthful renovating flood

The bias or the stamp of evil. Love, Of life through the glad air.

That even in thee some faint resemblance claims By their lover's advice, Bessy Bell and Mary Gray To what it was erewhile in Paradise,consent that a “ Bower” shall be built for them in a se.

To what hereafter it shall be in Heaven,cluded and romantic situation ; and, having retired to it, they beguile the time in innocent recreations and Even Love, alas ! full oft misleads the heart.friendly converse. Speaking to Drummond of patriot. Fall an unwonted, and a holy calm,

Have I not felt upon mine own sad breast ism, Mary Gray says,

I knew not whence or wherefore, till my soul M. Gray. But, tell me, Drummond, how would you Smiled at afflictions? And I look'd to heaven, defend

And to the earth around me, and I felt That strange attachment to particular scenes

On me and with me, the mysterious powers
Which forms no trivial part of the romantic?

Of that high world to come,--the World of Spirits !
Drum. It scarcely needs defence. It is a bond Ye sister-spirits, newly enter'd there!
Between the living and the dead-a spell

Do ye behold me from your bower of bliss ?
Evoking all of lovely, good, and great,

And do your viewless hands even now prepare That e'er have cast a grace, a dignity,

To touch the master-chords of my jarr'd heart,
A glory, all-imperishable, o'er

And tune its tones to soft harmonious peace ?
The scenes that gave them birth, or saw their deeds : 'Tis done! 'tis done! and I repine no more.
And, when we tread that hallow'd ground, our souls, That lone deserted bower, and these twin graves,
Kindling, acquire the sacred inspiration,

Shall they be all forgot? Shall future times
Making their virtues ours. Breathes there a man Of them know nothing ? No! while flowery spring
Whose soul can harbour villainous intents

Shall prank the greensward gay; while summer suns
Against sweet maiden-innocence, while near

Shall Hush the full-blown blossoms on the boughs ; The grave where lies the young, the beautiful,

While autumn shall heap high her mellow fruits, The famed in tender song? Or who could dare, And savage winter wrap his brow in storms, With lawless purpose, or hands stain'd in guilt,

So long shall youths and gentle maidens come To violate the sanctity which reigns

In pensive pilgrimage, to view the bower Where calmly sleeps the grey-hair'd patriarch? And graves of Bessy Bell and Mary Gray. And who can tread the memorable tields

The plot of all the Sketches is of an equally simple Where freedom's battle has been fought and won, and inartificial kind, but on this very account they are Nor feel thy mighty spirit, Independence,

more true to human life. A great number of songs are Great in his bosom? “Is there can there be A Scot who can behold red Luncarty,

introduced, in the style of the “ Gentle Shepherd," and Nor think he sees the hoary tumuli

many of thein are very sweet lyrical compositions. We Teem with the shades of his great ancestors ?

have only room for one : Or who can steal, with sneaking, craven foot, O'er ground that echoed once the undaunted tread

'Tis sweet wi' blithesome heart to stray Of Wallace, Liberty's own chosen son ?

In the blushing dawn o'infant day; No! while we breathe the air that proudly waved

But sweeter than dewy morn can be, ()'er Scotia's banner on thy fated field,

Is an hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee! Triumphant Bannockburn! we must be free!

An hour wi' thee, an hour wi' thee, We must pass over the scene in which the coming on

An hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee; of the plague, and the death of the two sister friends, is

The half o' my life I'd gladly gie very affectingly told, and can only give an extract from

For an hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee! Drummond's final soliloquy, (the whole of which is The garish sun has sunk to rest; good,) after he has buried them in a grave of his own The star o'gloaming gilds the west; making :

The gentle moon comes smiling on, Drum. My task is done ! and what is now to me

And her veil o'er the silent earth is thrown. The world—inankind-life-death-or any thing?

Then come, sweet maid, O come with me! What am I to myself?

The whisp'ring night-breeze calls on thee. A record of what might have been, but was not !

0, come and roam o'er the lily lea, A spectral semblance of what is, and is not !

An hour i' the mild moonlight wi' me.
A breathing form, dead at the heart, that dies not !

For wealth let worldlings cark and moil,
I am a fear, a wonder to myself,
Stricken and blasted to the core !-cease, cease,

Let pride for empty honours toil,

I'd a' their wealth and honours gie, Ye smouldering fires of fate!-and thou, my soul,

For ae sweet hour, dear maid, wi' thee. Be still, and learn to yield thee to thy doom!

An hour wi' thee, an hour wi' thee, Oh! what a precious spot of earth is this,

An hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee. With its two little narrow grassy mounds !

Earth's stores and titles a' I'd gie
There sleep the young, the beautiful, the good!

For an hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee.
But goodness, beauty, youth, could not avail
The fell destroyer's progress to arrest !

We have little doubt but that Mr Hetherington's Oh! who that had beheld them in their bloom,

modest volume will find its way to many a quiet cot. Glowing with all the loveliness of life,

tage, and be read by the blaze of many a farmer's ingle, : 1 Could, even in his gloomiest moods of mind,

to a circle of admiring and delighted listeners. Have ever dreamt their death so near ?

Death-Death- Obscrvations on the Phronological Development of Full of mysterious import is that word !

Burke, Hare, and other atrocious Murderers ; Breathed over recent graves, it is a spell

Measurements of the Heads of the most notorious To call forth the departed; or to bear Our souls beyond the limits of this world,

Thicves, fc. By Thomas Stone, Esq. President With all its scenes and beings palpable,

of the Royal Medical Society. Edinburgh. Robert Into the land of shadows, doubts, and fears

Buchanan, Wm. Hunter, and J. Stevenson. 1829. The land of hopes, of glories, and of truths !

This is one of the most efficient knock-down blogs Death !-yes, I feel its presence. Errors, mists, which phrenology has yet received. Nobody can read


this pamphlet and believe in Phrenology ; we question Museum. To ascertain the size of each cranium, he whether Mr Combe himself can. We should not be took, 1st, its lineal dimensions, including its length, surprised to hear of his abruptly terminating his lectures breadth, and height; and 2d, he discovered its capain Dublin, and going into retirement for the rest of his city, by filling the skull with sand, weighing the quan. life. “ Assail our facts, and we are undone ; phreno. tity each contained, and reducing the specific gravity of logy admits of no exceptions,” has been his continual the sand to the specific gravity of the brain. "He then exclamation. “ Eh bien !” says Mr Stone, “ we'll take measured carefully both the absolute size of the several a look at your facts, and see how they answer.” Mr organs, and the relative size, or proportion which each Stone's former pamphlet on the same subject was a bears to the contents of the skull, or weight of the enlearned and able one, but this is a thousand times more cephalon. Upon these principles, (in the propriety of convincing, because there is no theorizing in it, no- which we can see no flaw,) he proceeds to give the size thing but plain statements and incontrovertible deduc- of Burke's cranium, the weight of the encephalon, and tions. He has " assailed their facts" with a vengeance, the measurements of his Destructiveness, Benevolence, and has succeeded in making it perfectly clear, that there Conscientiousness, and Amativeness. He then shows, is no such thing as a well-established fact in the whole 1st, that of Sir W. Hamilton's 50 crania, 37 have the science. We do not speak rashly, nor do we speak organ of Destructiveness, in its absolute size, larger partially. We have never been either phrenologists or than Burke, and consequently, that Burke's Destrucanti-phrenologists. We have paid some attention to the tiveness is, in its absolute size, below the average of subject, because all systems which pretend to explain these 50 crania ; and 2d, that the relative size of the the phenomena of mind must possess interest ; but we same organ, or its proportions to the lineal dimensions never committed ourselves so as to have our vanity em- of the cranium, is in Eurke also below the average. The barked upon either the one side or the other, and our 50 crania collected by Dr Spurzheim furnish Mr Stone eyes, consequently, shut against the truth, unless it coin- with nearly the same conclusions. He makes out also cided with the opinions we had undertaken to defend. an equally convincing case in reference to the other If phrenology was true, and could be proved to be so, three organs we have mentioned ; and the general re. we should liave been glad to have seen Mr Jeffrey, Sir sult is, that he most satisfactorily establishes these two William Hamilton, and Mr Stone, blown into the air, counter-phrenological propositions,- First, The organ or scattered abroad on the four winds of heaven ;-if it of Destructiveness in Burke was absolutely and rewere false, we were equally prepared to see Mr Combe latively BELOW the average size, whilst Benevolence buried for ever under his own skulls, or reduced to ashes and Conscientiousness were absolutely and relatively on a funeral pyre of his own “ Journal.” The paper war ABOVE the average size ; and, SECOND, The ceretoo amused us for a time. Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe, bellum, (by which the organ of Amativeness is princiare clever and ingenious men,very tough customers, pally supposed to be influenced,) was also BELOW the and able to bear a great deal without breaking. Jeffrey average size. rode a tilt against them, but they were not unhorsed; Mr Stone treats, in the second place, of Hare's denay, they gained ground by the rencontre, for Jeffrey velopment; and, if it be possible, this turns out still did not « assail their facts," but undertook to prove, on more powerfully against the phrenologists than even metaphysical principles, what no man on such principles that of Burke. To give variety and additional strength can either prove or disprove, that the mind does not act to his argument, he does not compare Hare's head with by means of separate faculties, but as a whole. Sir the two set of crania already described, but with those William Hamilton was the first who thought seriously of 28 Englishmen, 25 Scotchmen, and 27 Irishmen, of investigating the facts of phrenology, and he has cer- taken at random ; the measurements of whose heads, tainly done a good deal towards bringing them into dis- made by Mr Stone himself, with infinite industry and credit, and will probably do yet more ; but the present perseverance, are set down in separate tables. The acbrochure of Mr Stone, who has followed in the same curacy of these measurements is attested, both by Mr track, appears to us so complete a settler, that we do not Deseret, who is a professed phrenologist, and Mr Holthink Sir William need give himself much more trouble royd, a president of the Medical Society. The counterwith the matter.

phrenological proportions deduced, in an unanswerable The recent atrocities perpetrated by Burke and Hare manner, from the case of Hare, are, that his Destructive. naturally led all those who were interested in the truth ness is not above the average size ; and that many inor falsehood of Phrenology, to enquire whether the cra- dividuals of exemplary character, while they possess a nial development of these notorious persons corres- larger Destructiveness than Hare, exhibit a greater de. ponded with their acknowledged character. Mr Stone, ficiency in the alleged organs of Benevolence and Con. having turned his attention to this enquiry, was led to scientiousness. Though not bearing immediately on make a very extensive induction of facts, and the result the point in question, Mr Stone mentions a peculiarity of his labours he now communicates to the public. He in the formation of the head of this miserable murderer, treats first of Burke's head. Burke was a professional which serves to place phrenology in a truly ludicrous murderer, and altogether one of the most unprincipled point of view. We quote the passage : villains that ever breathed ;-if, therefore, phrenology

66 The most remarkable and best-developed phrenobe worth a farthing, his Destructiveness ought to have logical organ in the head of Hare is his Ideality. At been enormous, and his Conscientiousness and Benevo- the time we took the measurement, one of the most lence very small. Whether this was the case or not, was highly-gifted and popular of our poets was present, what Mr Stone wished to find out. A difficulty met him whose genius is peculiarly characterized by the vividat ihe outset, for though phrenology be a science of pro- ness and power of his idealism. On applying the calportions, it is most unaccountably destitute of a scale of lipers to the organ of ideality in Hare, each leg of the measurement. What phrenologists therefore mean by callipers resting on the origin of the temporal muscle, large and small, or by what laws they determine that and transferring them to corresponding points on the an organ is either the one or the other, it is not very head of the poet, we found that Hare possessed a larger easy to say. But Mr Stone fell upon a plan which, organ of ideality than the poet. When applied to the whether it be the best that can be discovered or not, is former, the callipers rested on the origin of the muscle ; at all events perfectly fair, and gives phrenology quite when we attempted to apply them to the latter, they as good a chance as it does its adversaries. He com- came down far over the belly of the muscle. The ex. pared Burke's cranium, 1st, with 50 crania collected by periment was several times repeated ; and from whatSir William Hamilton; and 2d, with 50 crania collected ever point of the organ the measurement was taken, the by Dr Spurzheim, which are at present in the Edinburgh result proved to be the same. Hare's organ of ideality,

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also, is larger than the same organ in Sheridan, Sterne, duals of exemplary character, Acquisitiveness is often Canning, Voltaire, and Edmund Burke, the distinguish: absolutely and relatively less, and Conscientiousness ed and eloquent author of the Letters on the French absolutely and relatively larger in the former than in Revolution. Notwithstanding his superior development the latter. Yet, Mr Combe, upon this very subject, of the organ of ideality, it would be difficult to conceive has expressed himself in these words :-“ If two india more stupid and miserable wretch than Hare. When viduals were found to possess a larger development of we visited him, he was not inclined to answer any ques. Acquisitiveness ; but if, in the one Conscientiousness tions, until repeatedly assured by the Governor, that we was very large, and in the other very small, and we were not sent by the Sheriff to make any investigation were told that the one was a thief, and the other an ho. into the particulars of his case. To the enquiry, why nest man, how complete would the refutation be, if the in Court he had said it was indifferent which way he one possessing the larger Conscientiousness were found was sworn, and to the observation, that we had under to be the rogue !” Now, this is exactly what Mr Stine stood he was a Roman Catholic, he retorted, with a con. has found, not in one or two instances, but in a dozentemptuous sneer, he did not rightly mind what he “ Testatur utrumque caput; and how complete is the was.' To the question, whether his conscience ever refutation !' We shall allow Mr Stone to draw his in. troubled him, he answered, with a laugh, “No, with ferences in his own words. His pamphlet concludes the help of God. His whole demeanour was that of a thus: man evidently devoid of every moral reflection ; and he “ Formerly, it was maintained that the production seemed, with his head adorned, as if in mockery of of a single anti-phrenological fact would be sufficient to Phrenology, with large organs of Ideality, Causality, overturn the whole theory; but I am satisfied that, if and Wit, to be only a few degrees removed from the phrenologists would only, as Dr Spurzheim terms it, very lowest of the brute creation.”—Pp. 25-7.

go into nature ;' if they would have recourse to an The third division of Mr Stone's treatise is fully as unselected series of measurements, or manipulations, interesting and curious as either of the two that precede they would at once discover, that their system is no more it. He here considers the general question whether it than the baseless fabric of a vision, and as false as be possible to distinguish the crania of murderers from any other superstition that has ever been imposed on the other crania by the phrenological indications attributed ignorance and credulity of mankind. The publie is to them? These indications are, -Ist, A large endow. aware of the fair pretensions which the phrenologists ment of the organ of Destructiveness. 2d, A deficiency have invariably held forth ; yet, what has been the line in the development of the alleged organs of the moral of policy they have adopted ? They have pretended to sentiment; and, 3d, A deficiency in the anterior cerebral establish a system of philosophy founded exclusively on development, or quantity of brain before the ear, facts, and yet have never had recourse to any fair or whilst the posterior cerebral development, or quantity candid experimentum crucis by which the truth or of brain behind the ear, bears an undue proportion to falsehood of their primary propositions might be deterthe size of the head. To ascertain whether these india mined ;-they have adduced only ex parte evidence; cations actually exist or not, Mr Stone has carefully ex- and this, on their own showing, is of the most unsatisamined the crania of eighteen notorious murderers, factory kind, inasmuch as they have never establisbed whose skulls are preserved in the Edinburgh Anatomic any standard by which the proportions of the alleged cal Museum, the Museum of the Royal Physical So- organs can be determined ;—they have termed their ciety, and the Anatomical Museum in the University of organs, moderate,' 'full,' large,'' rather large,' Glasgow. He has contrasted their measurements with &c., and these terms, to the present day, have been used those contained in his Tables of respectable living Eng. without any rule or definite principle, by which the ap. lishmen, Scotchmen, and Irishmen, and also with those plication of them can be regulated ;-they, with an inof the cranium of the late celebrated Dr David Gregory, consistency, and yet a gravity, worthy of Hudibras in who was Professor of Mathematics in this University. his metaphysical disquisitions, persist in seriously mainThe result of the whole induction (and Mr Stone pro- taining a science of proportions, without a scale of mea. ceeds to work in the most philosophical manner) is com- surement;- they wander over the country preaching pletely subversive of Phrenology. So far from noto- their doctrines ex cathedra, as though they had really rious murderers being found to possess the anticipated a foundation in truth; whilst it is a notorious fact, of pbrenological indications, the truth of the following di- which they themselves must be aware, that there is not rectly opposite conclusions is put beyond a doubt :- a man of eminent science in Europe who has become a First, The most atrocious murderers not only fail to convert to them ;- they profess to maintain, at all times, possess a large endowment of the alleged organ of De- the principles of free and manly discussion ; and, for structiveness, but have it very frequently, both abso- this purpose, have founded a society in this city, for the lutely and relatively, below the average size. Second, admission of believers, and do not allow any stranger, The most cruel and horrid murderers frequently possess who may visit it, to express an opinion ; they profess a high development of the pretended organs of the mo- that their doctrines are as well established, and as palral sentiments, particularly those of Bonevolence and pable to every enquirer, as the most demonstrable truths Conscientiousness. THIRD, Murderers do not possess in nature, yet do not agree among themselves on the a less development of the supposed intellectual organs, most preliminary points ;-Dr Gall ridiculed the bumps nor a greater development of those to which the animal of Dr Spurzheim, Dr Spurzheim rejects with disdain propensities are referred, than individuals of high intel- the callipers of Mr Combe, and Mr Combe has been lectual and moral character. We cannot follow Mr lately engaged in an open phrenological warfare with Stone through all the laborious calculations by which one of the most intelligent of his contemporaries on the he establishes these propositions, but we can assure our subject of what is even the necessary result or tendency readers, that by referring to his pamphlet, they will find of their faith ;'--they give an organ one function to-day, that there is not a single weak link in his anti-phreno. another to-morrow ; – they maintain that a large organ logical chain.

of veneration is at one time the characteristic configura. As if to make assurance doubly sure, Mr Stone con- tion of the head of a saint-mat another, equally essential cludes with a fourth head, under which, by a similar to that of the most notorious and professed infidel! + close induction of facts, and a reference to another table, Lastly, come the interminable combinations of their which, like the rest, it must have cost him no small imaginary organs; and thus, the phrenologists shift pains to prepare, he makes it clear, that so far from no. torious thieves possessing the organ of Acquisitiveness

* See the controversy between Messrs Combe and Scott. larger, or that of Conscientiousness smaller, than indivi- Journal, vol. ill. p. 571.

† See the report of the development of Vollaire, Phrenological

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