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ing completed in an expensive style; and another, within fifty yards of it, is being constructed for the use of the convent of Augustin nuns. Another large church, newly erected at the west end of the city, was opened and dedicated to St Teresa on the 29th of May. The rest of the temples devoted to religion, and the nature of their endowments, have been already mentioned in the personal narrative.
"As I was taking up my reins to continue my route, I saw a fawn sporting on a rising ground within ten yards of me. It stamped its foot, advanced, stopped short, frisked, then stopped short again, and stared at I had mechanically drawn one of my pistols from the holsters, and had cocked it, whilst I was witnessing these manœuvres. The little animal still stood staring "Viewed at a distance, few cities present a more beauat me, with its large black eyes, innocent and unsus-tiful aspect than this, and internally, though not stripecting, and its little black glossy nose and chin perked kingly pleasing, there is nothing in it save a degree of out in impudent defiance. It stamped its foot again, dulness that can excite absolute dislike. Its height above as offering wager of battle, gave another frisk, and the level of the sea is about 1800 feet. The variation darted off. What a fool I was, thought I, why didn't of temperature between the nights and days, so peculiar I pull the trigger? I dashed my spurs into the sides to the high table lands, is not found here; the mean of my little horse, who never wanted that encourage- heat, from the 1st of January to the 1st of July, is 75 ment, and was up with my companions in a twinkling." deg.,-at night, 63 deg.: in the summer months, the. This magnanimity on the part of the late Secretary average may be taken at 10 degrees higher ;-a modeto his Britannic Majesty's Mexican commission, is only rate temperature for a city situated such as this is, in rivalled by his amiable deportment on the following oc- 14 deg. 28 min. north latitude, and 92 deg. 40 min, west casion: longitude."-Pp. 465–8.
"In passing down the town of Antigua, I saw two or three children as they were squatting on the high window seats, amusing themselves with their playthings; they poked their little faces through the iron bars of the lattice, and I stopped to regard them; their beauty and innocence had attracted me; but, after gazing at them an instant, I passed on."
Mr Thompson's bump of Philoprogenitiveness is probably very large. But as a more favourable specimen of his "Narrative," we extract his account of
SANTIAGO, THE CAPITAL OF GUATEMALA.
Santiago de Guatemala, the capital, stands in the midst of a large handsome plain, surrounded on all sides by sierras of a moderate height, and at the distance of from three to seven leagues. These mountains, which give to the view the whole valley of Mexico in miniature, are not so far off but that the eye may discover, through the rectilinear streets, in every direction, the verdure of the trees with which the surrounding heights are clad, and which, with the sloping meadow lands of different hues, affords a refreshing object, forming, as it were, a screen to the little city which lies in the midst, glaring with its white walls, and domes, and steeples of yessa-cement, in the rays of a tropical sun.
"The houses are all built in tropical squares of about 120 to 160 feet; and sometimes the front of one house occupies a whole quadra; but none of them exceed eighteen or twenty feet in height; of course they are only of one story-a precaution not so much suggested by fear of earthquakes, as enjoined by the old Spanish
"The streets are neatly paved, either with common stones, or more generally with a grey-streaked marble, which makes them very slippery, and riding or driving very dangerous. They slope from each side towards the centre, along which runs almost perpetually a streamlet of clear water, the edges of which being covered with verdure, give to the city a picturesque, though deserted appearance. In some few of the streets there are trottoirs, particularly in the Plaza, or chief square, where they are covered with a colonnade, extending all round the square, excepting on the side occupied by the cathedral; opposite to this is the palace, with the government offices; and, on the two other sides, are retail shops of all descriptions of dry goods; whilst the area is used as a market, where the Indians come daily to sell their poultry, fruit, and other provisions. In the centre is a fountain of excellent water, issuing from a crocodile's head of indifferent workmanship.
"Many of the churches are large, and of fine architecture. They are kept much cleaner and neater than they are at Mexico. A new one, called the Pantheon, with spacious vaults for a cemetery under it, is just be
DEAR to all our tenderest and purest associations is the pastoral poetry of Scotland. We love it the more that our native land possesses no Arcadian climate, or any of the supernumerary luxuries of nature. We love it the more because summer-the season in which pastoral poetry is born-bonnily and blithely as it blinks upon our heathery hills and stream-enlivened glens, is with us, nevertheless, a fleeting and a wayward guest, balmy and beautiful in its hour of glee, but coy in its approach, and often sudden and hurried in its departure. The pastoral poetry of Greece and Italy is full of the voluptuous serenity of their unchanging skies; whilst ours is of a more chequered and April character,"smiles and showers together." Is it, therefore, the less valuable? Nay, is it not, therefore, a thousand times more valuable? Is it not clouds that impart to sunshine more than half its glory? Is it not the gentle under-tone of sadness that gives to joy its most refining influence? The Scottish peasantry are no fabulous and ideal race; and it is among themselves that they have found poets to chronicle, in words fervent with the feeling and the strength of truth, the simple joys and griefs that fling their sun-blinks or their shadows across the circumscribed sphere in which they move. Human nature, in whatever guise, is full of interest;-it is a great problem which all are anxious to solve, and the very highest will stoop to the very lowest in search of an explanation. From the sun blazing in the empyrean, to the small flower concealed among the grass, the distance, at first sight, hardly seems greater than from the mighty denizen of the high places of the earth, to the lowly cottar far away in his secluded shieling. But there is a connecting link; for, in the great scheme of creation, what is a sun more than a flower, and why may not the solitary peasant be called into existence for nobler purposes than even the proudest monarch? Cincinnatus was a peasant, but did he not save the Republic? Tell was a peasant, but did he not give freedom to his country? Burns was a peasant, but did the class to which he belonged cast a stigma on his genius; or was it not rather by elevating that class to his own level, that he gained the greenest laurel-leaf in his wreath of fame ?
The peasantry of a country seem always more identi
fied with the country itself than any other portion of its inhabitants. This is peculiarly the case with Scotland; for both our national poetry and music (the best food upon which patriotism can luxuriate) have almost entirely a pastoral origin. We must be understood, how. ever, as using the word pastoral in its most extended sense, and not in its limited application to the affairs solely of sheep and cows, and an amiable but very imaginary set of personages y cleped shepherds and shep. herdesses. Our poetry and music speak to us of a more varied range of rural scenes and objects, and of a people who can do more than listen to the bleating of their lambs, and babble softly to the running streams; they speak to us
Of hearts resolved and hands prepared
they speak to us of those external appearances of nature to which we have been accustomed from our childhood; -they assist in forming, and humour when they have been formed, all the peculiarities of national and individual character ;-they become, in short, a part of ourselves, they are entwined round the finest chords of our heart, and they vibrate with its every pulse. "Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled!""Ye banks and braes o' bonny Doon!""Should auld acquaintance be forgot?""O the broom, the bonny, bonny broom !"Will ye go to the ewe-bughts, Marion ?"-" The flowers o' the forest are a' wede away!"-"O waly, waly, love is bonny !"—" Lochaber!"these are words and airs that will outlive the Grampians,-they will perish only when Scotland is no more.
The author of the tasteful and interesting volume before us seems to be deeply imbued with the spirit we have been attempting to point out. His plan of illus. trating, in a series of Dramatic Sketches, the pastoral virtues of the Scottish peasantry, we think a happy one, especially as he very judiciously founds each sketch upon some little incident in one or other of our popular songs. We are thus as it were brought into more immediate contact with persons to whom we had been previously introduced, old friends start up before us, and the past almost becomes the present. The author, speaking of himself in his preface, says, "To the country he owes his birth; there he spent all the bright years of infancy, boyhood, and early youth; among rural scenes and rural manners, the capacities of his heart were first called into action; and in the country it was, that while listening to the words of experience, virtue, and religion, from the lips of many a sage and manly peasant, his mind acquired what must continue to he its own peculiar modifica. tion of character." That modification seems well adapted for the task which Mr Hetherington has undertaken. An unobtrusive pensiveness, an ardent patriotism, and a sincere attachment to all the works of nature, characterize his "Sketches," in which there is not a thought that could offend the most fastidious. They are full of gentle feelings, lively pastoral de|scriptions, and agreeable and animated pictures of Scottish character. They bear the following titles, all of which will engage the sympathies of his readers:-I. Bessy Bell and Mary Gray.-II. The Lowland Lass and the Highland Lad.-III. Cowdenknows.-IV. The Ewe Bughts.-V. The Tochered Maiden of the Glen. -VI. The Harvest Field.-VII. The Bush aboon Traquair. VIII. The Old Maid.-IX. Logan Braes. X. The Choice-XI. The Rocking. And, XII. The Snow Storm. Of these the first is our chief favourite, and from it we shall principally make our extracts. opens thus:
BESSY BELL. MARY GRAY.
Clasp'd in your arms, the heaving of my bosom
And loved each other now so long, so well,
None, Mary, none;
Drummond, the friend and lover of the two maidens, enters soon afterwards, to inform them how desolating the ravages of the plague have become. He describes, first, its progress in London, which elicits the following
reflections from one of his fair listeners:
But the plague has already found its way to Scotland, and in the following spirited passage Drummond discloses the melancholy truth:
Drum. Forgive the unwilling messenger of evil; And listen to me calmly. We have heard With grief and pity of the fate of London,Yet, deeming us by distance, and the free And 'twas a moving tale of awe and wonder; Fresh breezes of our northern mountains, safe, We felt, at most, that sympathetic fear, Which mortals must feel when they talk of death; But now the Pest its banner has unfurl'd, And, like a thunder-cloud, comes lowering on, Stemming the gale, and scattering wide around, Even on our shores, horror, despair, and death. High hearts, that had but leap'd with stern delight, To meet assailing enemies, wax weak with shuddering dread: Man's brow, that lofty brow, Is pale and haggard, red and wild her eyes. Which burns in war, is blacken'd; woman's cheek In populous cities, where the mingled tide Of human life its fullest billow rolls, There hugest Ruin stalks, there reigns Dismay With all her frenzied train. Dunedin fair Trembles upon her rocky throne; Dundee Mourns her lost thousands; ancient Perth groans deep, As frequent funerals blacken o'er her streets: Green youth, strong manhood, drooping age, alike Betake them to the mountain solitudes And distant glens, in headlong fearful flight, There hoping to escape the blue destruction. And now, charged with this tale of woe, I come To warn you, and to speed you hence, away To some remote retirement, where the gale, Forever freshen'd by the breezy speed
Of some clear rushing stream, may yet repel
And prejudices, from my mental sight
That even in thee some faint resemblance claims
To what hereafter it shall be in Heaven,
By their lover's advice, Bessy Bell and Mary Gray To what it was erewhile in Paradise,consent that "Bower" shall be built for them in a secluded and romantic situation; and, having retired to it, they beguile the time in innocent recreations and friendly converse. Speaking to Drummond of patriotism, Mary Gray says,
M. Gray. But, tell me, Drummond, how would you
That strange attachment to particular scenes
Drum. It scarcely needs defence. It is a bond
The scenes that gave them birth, or saw their deeds:
Breathes there a man
Whose soul can harbour villainous intents
We must pass over the scene in which the coming on of the plague, and the death of the two sister friends, is very affectingly told, and can only give an extract from Drummond's final soliloquy, (the whole of which is good,) after he has buried them in a grave of his own making:
Drum. My task is done! and what is now to me
A record of what might have been, but was not!
Stricken and blasted to the core!-cease, cease,
Even Love, alas! full oft misleads the heart.—
I knew not whence or wherefore, till my soul
Do ye behold me from your bower of bliss?
The plot of all the Sketches is of an equally simple and inartificial kind, but on this very account they are more true to human life. A great number of songs are introduced, in the style of the "Gentle Shepherd," and many of them are very sweet lyrical compositions. We have only room for one:
'Tis sweet wi' blithesome heart to stray
Is an hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee!-
For an hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee!
And her veil o'er the silent earth is thrown.
For an hour i' the mild moonlight wi' thee.
Observations on the Phrenological Development of
THIS is one of the most efficient knock-down blows which phrenology has yet received. Nobody can read
this pamphlet and believe in Phrenology; we question whether Mr Combe himself can. We should not be surprised to hear of his abruptly terminating his lectures in Dublin, and going into retirement for the rest of his life. "Assail our facts, and we are undone; phrenology admits of no exceptions," has been his continual exclamation. "Eh bien !" says Mr Stone, "we'll take a look at your facts, and see how they answer." Mr Stone's former pamphlet on the same subject was a learned and able one, but this is a thousand times more convincing, because there is no theorizing in it,nothing but plain statements and incontrovertible deductions. He has "assailed their facts" with a vengeance, and has succeeded in making it perfectly clear, that there is no such thing as a well-established fact in the whole science. We do not speak rashly, nor do we speak partially. We have never been either phrenologists or anti-phrenologists. We have paid some attention to the subject, because all systems which pretend to explain the phenomena of mind must possess interest; but we never committed ourselves so as to have our vanity embarked upon either the one side or the other, and our eyes, consequently, shut against the truth, unless it coincided with the opinions we had undertaken to defend. If phrenology was true, and could be proved to be so, we should have been glad to have seen Mr Jeffrey, Sir William Hamilton, and Mr Stone, blown into the air, or scattered abroad on the four winds of heaven;-if it were false, we were equally prepared to see Mr Combe buried for ever under his own skulls, or reduced to ashes on a funeral pyre of his own "Journal." The paper war toɔ amused us for a time. Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe, are clever and ingenious men, very tough customers, and able to bear a great deal without breaking. Jeffrey rode a tilt against them, but they were not unhorsed; nay, they gained ground by the rencontre, for Jeffrey did not "assail their facts," but undertook to prove, on metaphysical principles, what no man on such principles can either prove or disprove, that the mind does not act by means of separate faculties, but as a whole. Sir William Hamilton was the first who thought seriously of investigating the facts of phrenology, and he has certainly done a good deal towards bringing them into discredit, and will probably do yet more; but the present brochure of Mr Stone, who has followed in the same track, appears to us so complete a settler, that we do not think Sir William need give himself much more trouble with the matter.
The recent atrocities perpetrated by Burke and Hare naturally led all those who were interested in the truth or falsehood of Phrenology, to enquire whether the cranial development of these notorious persons corresponded with their acknowledged character. Mr Stone, having turned his attention to this enquiry, was led to make a very extensive induction of facts, and the result of his labours he now communicates to the public. He treats first of Burke's head. Burke was a professional murderer, and altogether one of the most unprincipled villains that ever breathed ;-if, therefore, phrenology be worth a farthing, his Destructiveness ought to have been enormous, and his Conscientiousness and Benevolence very small. Whether this was the case or not, was what Mr Stone wished to find out. A difficulty met him at the outset, for though phrenology be a science of proportions, it is most unaccountably destitute of a scale of measurement. What phrenologists therefore mean by large and small, or by what laws they determine that an organ is either the one or the other, it is not very easy to say. But Mr Stone fell upon a plan which, whether it be the best that can be discovered or not, is at all events perfectly fair, and gives phrenology quite as good a chance as it does its adversaries. He compared Burke's cranium, 1st, with 50 crania collected by Sir William Hamilton; and 2d, with 50 crania collected by Dr Spurzheim, which are at present in the Edinburgh
Museum. To ascertain the size of each cranium, he took, 1st, its lineal dimensions, including its length, breadth, and height; and 2d, he discovered its capacity, by filling the skull with sand, weighing the quantity each contained, and reducing the specific gravity of the sand to the specific gravity of the brain. He then measured carefully both the absolute size of the several organs, and the relative size, or proportion which each bears to the contents of the skull, or weight of the encephalon. Upon these principles, (in the propriety of which we can see no flaw,) he proceeds to give the size of Burke's cranium, the weight of the encephalon, and the measurements of his Destructiveness, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, and Amativeness. He then shows, 1st, that of Sir W. Hamilton's 50 crania, 37 have the organ of Destructiveness, in its absolute size, larger than Burke, and consequently, that Burke's Destructiveness is, in its absolute size, below the average of these 50 crania; and 2d, that the relative size of the same organ, or its proportions to the lineal dimensions of the cranium, is in Burke also below the average. The 50 crania collected by Dr Spurzheim furnish Mr Stone with nearly the same conclusions. He makes out also an equally convincing case in reference to the other three organs we have mentioned; and the general result is, that he most satisfactorily establishes these two counter-phrenological propositions,-FIRST, The organ of Destructiveness in Burke was absolutely and relatively BELOW the average size, whilst Benevolence and Conscientiousness were absolutely and relatively ABOVE the average size; and, SECOND, The cerebellum, (by which the organ of Amativeness is principally supposed to be influenced,) was also BELOW the average size.
Mr Stone treats, in the second place, of Hare's development; and, if it be possible, this turns out still more powerfully against the phrenologists than even that of Burke. To give variety and additional strength to his argument, he does not compare Hare's head with the two set of crania already described, but with those of 28 Englishmen, 25 Scotchmen, and 27 Irishmen, taken at random; the measurements of whose heads, made by Mr Stone himself, with infinite industry and perseverance, are set down in separate tables. The accuracy of these measurements is attested, both by Mr Deseret, who is a professed phrenologist, and Mr Holroyd, a president of the Medical Society. The counterphrenological proportions deduced, in an unanswerable manner, from the case of Hare, are, that his Destructiveness is not above the average size; and that many individuals of exemplary character, while they possess a larger Destructiveness than Hare, exhibit a greater deficiency in the alleged organs of Benevolence and Conscientiousness. Though not bearing immediately on the point in question, Mr Stone mentions a peculiarity in the formation of the head of this miserable murderer, which serves to place phrenology in a truly ludicrous point of view. We quote the passage:
"The most remarkable and best-developed phrenological organ in the head of Hare is his Ideality. At the time we took the measurement, one of the most highly-gifted and popular of our poets was present, whose genius is peculiarly characterized by the vividness and power of his idealism. On applying the callipers to the organ of ideality in Hare, each leg of the callipers resting on the origin of the temporal muscle, and transferring them to corresponding points on the head of the poet, we found that Hare possessed a larger organ of ideality than the poet. When applied to the former, the callipers rested on the origin of the muscle; when we attempted to apply them to the latter, they came down far over the belly of the muscle. periment was several times repeated; and from whatever point of the organ the measurement was taken, the result proved to be the same. Hare's organ of ideality,
also, is larger than the same organ in Sheridan, Sterne, Canning, Voltaire, and Edmund Burke, the distinguished and eloquent author of the Letters on the French Revolution. Notwithstanding his superior development of the organ of ideality, it would be difficult to conceive a more stupid and miserable wretch than Hare. When we visited him, he was not inclined to answer any questions, until repeatedly assured by the Governor, that we were not sent by the Sheriff to make any investigation into the particulars of his case. To the enquiry, why in Court he had said it was indifferent which way he was sworn, and to the observation, that we had understood he was a Roman Catholic, he retorted, with a contemptuous sneer, he did not rightly mind what he was. To the question, whether his conscience ever troubled him, he answered, with a laugh, ‘No, with the help of God.' His whole demeanour was that of a man evidently devoid of every moral reflection; and he seemed, with his head adorned, as if in mockery of Phrenology, with large organs of Ideality, Causality, and Wit, to be only a few degrees removed from the very lowest of the brute creation."-Pp. 25-7.
The third division of Mr Stone's treatise is fully as interesting and curious as either of the two that precede it. He here considers the general question whether it be possible to distinguish the crania of murderers from other crania by the phrenological indications attributed to them? These indications are,-Ist, A large endowment of the organ of Destructiveness. 2d, A deficiency in the development of the alleged organs of the moral sentiment; and, 3d, A deficiency in the anterior cerebral development, or quantity of brain before the ear, whilst the posterior cerebral development, or quantity of brain behind the ear, bears an undue proportion to the size of the head. To ascertain whether these indications actually exist or not, Mr Stone has carefully examined the crania of eighteen notorious murderers, whose skulls are preserved in the Edinburgh Anatomical Museum, the Museum of the Royal Physical Society, and the Anatomical Museum in the University of Glasgow. He has contrasted their measurements with those contained in his Tables of respectable living Englishmen, Scotchmen, and Irishmen, and also with those of the cranium of the late celebrated Dr David Gregory, who was Professor of Mathematics in this University. The result of the whole induction (and Mr Stone proceeds to work in the most philosophical manner) is completely subversive of Phrenology. So far from notorious murderers being found to possess the anticipated phrenological indications, the truth of the following directly opposite conclusions is put beyond a doubt: FIRST, The most atrocious murderers not only fail to possess a large endowment of the alleged organ of Destructiveness, but have it very frequently, both absolutely and relatively, below the average size. SECOND, The most cruel and horrid murderers frequently possess a high development of the pretended organs of the moral sentiments, particularly those of Benevolence and Conscientiousness. THIRD, Murderers do not possess a less development of the supposed intellectual organs, nor a greater development of those to which the animal propensities are referred, than individuals of high intellectual and moral character. We cannot follow Mr Stone through all the laborious calculations by which he establishes these propositions, but we can assure our readers, that by referring to his pamphlet, they will find that there is not a single weak link in his anti-phrenological chain.
duals of exemplary character, Acquisitivenesc is often absolutely and relatively less, and Conscientiousness absolutely and relatively larger in the former than in the latter. Yet, Mr Combe, upon this very subject, has expressed himself in these words:" If two indi viduals were found to possess a larger development of Acquisitiveness; but if, in the one Conscientiousness was very large, and in the other very small, and we were told that the one was a thief, and the other an honest man, how complete would the refutation be, if the one possessing the larger Conscientiousness were found to be the rogue!" Now, this is exactly what Mr Stome has found, not in one or two instances, but in a dozen"Testatur utrumque caput; and how complete is the refutation !' We shall allow Mr Stone to draw his inferences in his own words. His pamphlet concludes thus:
"Formerly, it was maintained that the production of a single anti-phrenological fact would be sufficient to overturn the whole theory; but I am satisfied that, if phrenologists would only, as Dr Spurzheim terms it, 'go into nature;' if they would have recourse to an unselected series of measurements, or manipulations, they would at once discover, that their system is no more than the baseless fabric of a vision,' and as false as any other superstition that has ever been imposed on the ignorance and credulity of mankind. The public is aware of the fair pretensions which the phrenologists have invariably held forth; yet, what has been the line of policy they have adopted? They have pretended to establish a system of philosophy founded exclusively on facts, and yet have never had recourse to any fair or candid experimentum crucis by which the truth or falsehood of their primary propositions might be determined; they have adduced only ex parte evidence; and this, on their own showing, is of the most unsatisfactory kind, inasmuch as they have never established any standard by which the proportions of the alleged organs can be determined; they have termed their organs, moderate, full, large, rather large," &c., and these terms, to the present day, have been used without any rule or definite principle, by which the application of them can be regulated;-they, with an inconsistency, and yet a gravity, worthy of Hudibras in his metaphysical disquisitions, persist in seriously maintaining a science of proportions, without a scale of mea. surement; they wander over the country preaching their doctrines ex cathedra, as though they had really a foundation in truth; whilst it is a notorious fact, of which they themselves must be aware, that there is not a man of eminent science in Europe who has become a convert to them;-they profess to maintain, at all times, the principles of free and manly discussion; and, for this purpose, have founded a society in this city, for the admission of believers, and do not allow any stranger, who may visit it, to express an opinion;-they profess that their doctrines are as well established, and as palpable to every enquirer, as the most demonstrable truths in nature, yet do not agree among themselves on the most preliminary points ;-Dr Gall ridiculed the bumps of Dr Spurzheim, Dr Spurzheim rejects with disdain the callipers of Mr Combe, and Mr Combe has been lately engaged in an open phrenological warfare with one of the most intelligent of his contemporaries on the subject of what is even the necessary result or tendency of their faith ;"-they give an organ one function to-day, another to-morrow; they maintain that a large organ of veneration is at one time the characteristic configuration of the head of a saint-at another, equally essential to that of the most notorious and professed infidel! + Lastly, come the interminable combinations of their imaginary organs; and thus, the phrenologists shift
As if to make assurance doubly sure, Mr Stone concludes with a fourth head, under which, by a similar close induction of facts, and a reference to another table, which, like the rest, it must have cost him no small pains to prepare, he makes it clear, that so far from no. torious thieves possessing the organ of Acquisitiveness larger, or that of Conscientiousness smaller, than indivi-Journal, vol. iii. p. 571.
See the controversy between Messrs Combe and Scott. † See the report of the development of Voltaire, Phrenological