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variably demonstrates that he adopts this course for the towards the loyalists are hardly paralleled by the atro-
purpose of strengthening his own arguments, by the cities of the French Revolution. They shot, stabbed,
completeness with which he refutes those of his antago. hanged, and spiked, men, women, and children; but
pist. The absorbing interest of his enquiries, on many their favourite mode of executing their sanguinary re-
occasions, excites that warmth and energy of thought venge, was by filling barns with their prisoners, and
which so eminently characterise the writings of Chal- then setting them on fire. The massacres at Sculla.
mers and Paley; and indeed we can scarcely suppose bogue, and at the bridge of Wexford, where their un.
any man so destitute of feeling, as to prosecute such in. offending victims were butchered in the most horrible
vestigations without catching, in some degree, the spirit manner, are eternal proofs of what may be expected
of his theme. In the supplements to the different sec- from an ignorant and barbarous peasantry, when they
tions of his book, Mr Sheppard has introduced occa. have the ascendency, led by unprincipled demagogues
sional reflections, which, though forming no part of the and fanatical priests.
direct topic, frequently exhibit it in a more convincing In a literairy view, Mr Taylor's narrative is homely
light. His notes also display considerable historical re- enough in style ; but we have every reason to believe
search. On the whole, Mr Sheppard's present publication it an honest and correct account of the Wexford Rebel.
fully supports his former reputation as an author ; and, lion.
relying on the evidences as to the divine origin of Christ
which are brought forward, he may confidently ask,
Quæ tandem mens avida eternitatis, vitæque pre- The Last Hours of Eminent Christians, compiled from
sentis brevitate permota, contra hujus divinæ auctori. the best authorities, and chronologically arranged.
tatis lumen cultumquc contendat ?"

By the Reverend Henry Clissold, M.A., Minister of
Stockwell Chapel, Lambeth. London. 8vo. Ri.

vingtons. 1829. A History of the Rise, Progress, and Suppression of

This is a work which ought to find its way into the Rebellion in the County of Wexford, in the year every family circle. The examples which are given in 1798. To which is added, the Author's Account of the last hours ” of some of the greatest and most illushis Captivity and Merciful Deliverance. By Geo. trious men, who, we may safely say, were the glory and Taylor. A new edition, corrected. Dublin. Curry the renown of their several ages, must have a most and Co. 1829. 12mo, pp. 194

powerful effect on the minds of the young and the igno. MR Taylor, the author of the work before us, was rant, in directing their attention towards those elevating a personal sufferer in the Irish rebellion of 1798, and truths of Christianity, which were the consolation and narrowly escaped being murdered by the rebels.' Ilis the hope of those departed worthies, whose faith we are work, so far as we have had an opportunity of judging, commanded to follow, considering the end of all things. is completely corroborated by the best authorities; and The volume before us may be safely set down as a it has this additional advantage, that it supplies the happy model of enforcing Christianity by example, in. reader with various interesting particulars, which Mr asmuch as it contains no abstract reasoning, but lays Taylor received from his own personal friends, who were

betore the reader matters of fact. eyewitnesses of many of the scenes he has recorded, Mr Clissold, in his preface, which is somewhat too and, like himself, sufferers for their loyalty.

long, tells us the reasons which induced him to under. The county of Wexford is notorious for the events take this work ; and with his observations we cordially which took place in it during the rebellion of 1798; it agree. History is, in reality, a great drama, in which was, indeed, the chief scene of those atrocities which the parties are brought before us for instruction and edi. stain the Irish history. Certain parties, styling them. fication ; and is interesting solely on account of the selves White-boys, Steel-boys, Oak-boys, Right-boys, names which adorn its annals. It is no small consolaand Defenders, had for a considerable time disturbed tion to the Christian, though at best it is but the conthe peace of the country, and eventually they all coa- scious homage of truth, that the most distinguished men lesced under the general title of United Irishmen. With in past ages were under its salutary influence. It is the contemporary example of the French Revolution be- impossible for us to give any thing like a condensed fore their eyes, and, as they were all Roman Catholics, view of Mr Clissolu's excellent work, as it is divided animated with the most relentless hatred towards the into short narratives, deliveating the closing scene of Protestants, their objects were as iniquitous as they these great men; but our readers will find in it " the were treasonable. A number of factious demagogues most illustrious examples of devotion, tranquillity, for. arose among them, men of desperate fortunes and un- titude, and prudence, together with the most striking principled characters, whose study it was to keep alive instances of the brevity and uncertainty of human life, the flame of discontentment, and excite the wreithed written with great interest, apart from any encourage. peasantry to the most dreadful excesses. On the 26th ment of enthusiasm or fanatical zeal. A list of the of May 1798, the rebellion began in Wexford, beaded names of some of those illustrious individuals whose last by a ferocious and fanatic priest named Murphy. Six hours form the subject of Mr Clissold's book, will enworthies of this name, all priests, rendered themselves able our readers to appreciate its contents much better conspicuous by their subsequent proceedings. On the than were we to lay before them any detached extract. 27th, two bodies of the rebels appeared at Oulard and Wc find, among others, St Ignatius ; St Cyprian ; St Kelthomas. At the latter place, they were defeated by Gregory Thaumaturgus; St Basil; Gregory Nazianzen ; 200 or 300 yeomen; but at Oulard, where they were St Augustine ; St Austin (first Archbishop of Cantercommanded by Murphy himself, they were victorious. bury); the Venerable Rede; Wickliffe ; John Huss; That incendiary soon after got possession of Enniscor. Jerome of Prague; Eneas Silvius, surnamed Pope thy, and set the houses of the loyal inhabitants in flames, Pius II. ; the Chevalier Bayard ; Occolampadius ; besidus committing many atrocities. At the head of Zuingle; Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ; Sir Thomas 15,000 men, he took the town of Wexford. The battles Nore; Tindal ; Luther; Cruciger; Lady Jane Gray; of Clough, Ross, Arklow, and Vinegar Hill, besides Bishop Hooper ; Bishops Latimer and Ridley; Me. other minor engagements, followed ; and it is not less lancthon; Archbishop Parker; Sir Philip Sidney ; shocking than true, that the priests, by whom the Tasso; Richard Hooker ; Ty Brahe ; Beza ; Scawretched and deluded populace were stimulated, scru. liger; Henry, Prince of Wales (son of James I.); Carpled not to celebrate the rites of their religion amidst dinal Robert Bellarmine ; Dr Launcelot Andrews ; murder and blood. The cruelties the rebels exercised Bishop of Winchester; Bishop Bedell; Archbishop

own.

Laud; Grotius ; Charles I.; Archbishop Usher ; Dr Higher and higher still my thoughts do rise
Henry Hammond ; Bishop Saunderson ; Pascal; the 'Bove yon pale planets that so purely burn:
Earl of Clarendon ; Dr Lightfoot ; Sir Matthew Hale; Higher and higher still beyond those skies,

Blue, boundless, beautiful! Creation's urn!
the Prince of Condé; Archbishop Sancroft; Richard
Baxter ; Mary, Queen of William III. ; Archbishop The Book of God lies open to my sight.

In earth or heaven,-Ah! wheresoe'er I turn, Tillotson; the famous preacher Bourdaloue ; Locke;

Read, study, ponder, meditate and learn, Bishop Bull; Bishop Burnett; William Penn; Ad- o thou, my soul ! these words divinely bright,-. dison ; Elizabeth Rowe; Boerhaave; Colonel Gardi- I lose myself in Him,-in Goodness, Lore, and Light. ner; Dr Isaac Watts ; Dr Doddridge ; Bishop Berkev ley; Lord Lyttleton ; Dr Johnson ; Lord Kaimes; Lo! o'er the welkin sails a white-fringed cloud, Gesner; John Howard ; Sir William Jones ; Dr Paley; That laves the fading forehead of the moon; the Princess Amelia ; the Princess Charlotte ; and our Now it is gathering in a darker shroud, late venerable sovereign, George Ill. There is ap

And now 'tis o'er the pinnacle of noon : pended a well-written sketch of his late

Royal Highness of circling light, Diana holds her way

The stars are dimm'd; while, in a pale festoon the Duke of York; and the volume concludes with a number of notes on various other distinguished indi- of liquid pearls, – the breezes freely play,

It rains; the dusky woods receive their boon viduals. Mr Clissold is a clergyman of the Church of Eng. And soft the trickling shower falls on each blossomed

spray. land, but he has rendered willing homage to the piety of other communions,—Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, The hush is over.-Hark! from every bower Dissenters; and a spirit of pure and genuine Christi. The song of birds,-the murmuring of the streams, anity pervades his work.

The droning beetle, and the weeping flowers,

The lizard nestling 'midst the orange gleams,

The cricket chirping where the bamboo teems,Vallery; or the Citadel of the Lake ; A Poem. By The dancing rain,--the living wind,

the sea Charles Doyne Sillery. Two vols. Edinburgh. The insect hum,-the whispers on the lea,

Rousing her billows from their coral dreamsOliver & Boyd. 1829.

There wants Aurora but to raise the jubilee. We have already spoken of this interesting work at She comes,—in glory walking from the east ! some length. We return to it, because there are one or

Health on her cheek, and roses on her brows; two other extracts of much beauty which we wish to With robes of purple o'er her azure breast, lay before our readers. What we especially like in And golden hair, that round her fair form flows, Mr Sillery is, that his style is formed after no particu. Breathing perfume which vanquishes the rose, lar model ; it is fresh and luxuriant, and altogether his And gathering up her diamonds from the woods,

We detest that cant of criticism which affects to To meet them 'midst the vapours that repose discover little bits of imitation scattered through a work In fairy isles above the liquid foods, of two volumes ; and which prides itself, not upon point. And now she wakes the hymns of all her solitudes ! ing out the intrinsic merits or defects of poetry, but on taking together, from all quarters, passages which may, of a young poet's delight in nature, which must be read in one or two of their thoughts, resemble other passager: with pleasure: Upon this principle, every body who ever wrote might Even from my childhood has my soul been fill'd be shown to be a copyist'; but this is not a principle With love for what it look'd on, and become by which any one who understands poetry will for å moment be guided. The following reflections, suggest. Objects inanimate,-a tree,-a flower,

A part of that around it-insects,-birds ;ed by the calm of a summer's night, together with the A wood-crowned mountain or a placid lake, description which follows, of a shower at daybreak, and Have been its idols; but the gems of life, the coming of morning, are exceedingly beautiful : The fly,-the bee, the butterfly,--the worm,Ah! there are moments when the mind is calm,

Its wonder,—sunshine,rapture, and delight! Placid and tranquil as an inland lake

To me they are the characters of Heaven, O'er which the zephyrs scarcely breathe their balm,

The writing of Jehovah on the book

Of Nature ; and I've learn'd more from them,
Stretching serenely pure from brake to brake-
Ah! there are moments when the thoughts do take

Than I could do in pondering o'er the tomes,

The thrice ten thousand volumes of mankind.
Their flights above the skies, and worlds that roll
Below the Heaven of Heavens, and thus can make

I've learn'd to meditate thereon, and turn
Mortals their mockery, spurning earth's control-

Thence to the contemplation of my God,The soul's not in the world, but the world in the soul !

Th' All-wise, Almighty Author of the whole,

To love,-to fear,-to worship,-to adore ! The world is in the soul. Hast thou ne'er seen Roll on, dark days of trouble and distress, The volumed vapour, freed from narrow cell,

Come, glorious dawning ! come, celestial light! Ascend on high, and, when it was between

Oh! may I see the day when all my mind, The clouds and thee, roll out with billowy swell,

Self-lit, shall burn with rapture, that I may Expanded and expanding o'er the dell,

Pour forth my soul in poetry to Him Blazoned with gold and purple sunbeams bright,

Who sits sublime amid the cherubim ! Till melted into ether 2-Canst thou tell,

We call on Mr Sillery to go on steadily and boldlySince such a vapour fills yon heavenly height, Horr must the soul, once freed, expand in bliss and light?

successo acrior ipso" _and we have the most sanguine

expectations of the result. Even in its fetters of corrupting clay,

There's something so immortal and sublime, Something so awful and unearthly,-yea,

Pinnock's Improved Edition of Dr Goldsmith's Unknown to earth, with all its founts of crime, Abridgement of the History of England, with a

Mocking mortality,—the grave, Death,— Time, Continuation to the Reign of George the Fourth. In the immortal soul ; that ocean,-earth,

The 21 st Edition. London. Whittaker & Co. Rivers, mounts, vales, it grasps ! ---each zone,-each 1829.

clime, From the cold poles to the equator's girth,

THE improvement made by Mr Pinnock on Dr The soul's a world of worlds, --increasing from its birth, Goldsmith's History of England, consists in dividing

We have room for only ône other passage, expressive

the work into sections, and appending Questions for ex. water, we shall wait in vain for any distinct manifesta amination to each, logether with explanations of the tion, at the top, of the subjacent fire. In fact, the lowmost difficult words which may occur. This plan has est layer will become compacted by the heat into a schist been found of great utility in schools ; and accordingly, impervious to liquids, so that the incumbent water will under his care, as editor, Goldsmith's History has now never arrive at the calorific source, and, severed by bad come to the twenty-first edition. To each of these, ad conducting matters, can never grow appreciably warm. ditions and improvements have been made, and the con- In the great boilers of steam.engines, many results to sequence is, that the last edition is always better than this effect daily occur, which form sources of very se. the one which precedes it.

rious annoyance

Wherever the waters of supply are calcareous, more especially selenitic, they let fall a crust

of gypsum on the bottom, which progressively thickens, The Child's First Meaning-Book, on a Plan entirca so as to intercept a large portion of the subjacent heat;

ly New. By the Author of the Writer's and Stu- and by separating the iron from the water, allows the dent's Assistant. London. Whittaker & Co. 1829. metal to become ignited, and to burn away. Such a de

posit has been known to grow several inches thick, with This is a book of Monosyllables, to instruct young a stony hardness; and, till laboriously chiselled off, it children in spelling and reading, and at the same time has rendered the vessel quite inoperative for raising a to make them conversant with the meaning of words. due supply of steam." The fault of most spelling-books, for children begin. Well, indeed, may Dr Ure remark, with perhaps ning to learn, is, that monosyllables are too often ex. too self-denying brevity,—"The first age of the world, plained by pollysyllables ; as-“ Air, the element which then, extending probably through several centuries, fully we breathe, "-" Fast, an abstinence from food,"- realized the universal and unfading spring of the poets. " Pain, sensation of uneasiness," &c. It is evident Under such fostering powers of vegetation, the coalthat this is no explanation at all. The author of the use- measure plants were matured, in countless myriads, with ful little work before us has contrived to explain 1800 a rapidity to which modern experience can furnish do words of one syllable, by words of one syllable, and parallel.” 1200 monosyllables more, by words not exceeding two From such facts, the four following propositions seem syllables. The plan is excellent, and the execution not to be fully established :-). That a great portion of the inferior.

present dry lands, more particularly the secondary strata, -which are replete with sca shells of the most delicate

texture, distributed entire in regular beds-have lain A Guide to Purchasers of Horses; with a Postscript for a long period at the bottom of the primeval ocean.

on Equestrian Equipment. Glasgow. Robertson & 2. That within the schistose crust of the globe, exploAtkinson. 1829.

sive materials exist, which have given evidence of their A ÇAPITAL waistcoat-pocket companion for all who convulsive and disruptive powers in all its terraqueous speculate in horse-flesh, or entrust their persons on the regions, and in every age of the world, from the protruback of the animal.

sion of the primordial dry land till the present day.
3. That the ocean, at whose bottom many of our pre.

sent earthy strata were deposited, has not been lessened SCIENCE.

by dissipation of its waters into celestial space, or by their absorption into the bowels of the earth ;-and 4.

That, therefore, its channel must have been changed by TAE FORMATION AND HISTORY OF THE EARTH. transference, of a great portion at least, of its waters, A New System of Geology, in which the Great Revo- from their ancient to their present basin; an effect re

lutions of the Earth and Animated Nature, are re- ferable to volcanic agency, which has operated by sink. conciled ai once to Modern Science and Sacred | ing the old lands, and uphearing the new. History. By Andrew Ure, M.D. F.R.S. Professor The objection to these, suggested by a reference to of Physics and Lecturer on Chemistry in the Ander- the change in the globular figure of the earth, is obvi. sonian University. London. Longinan & Co. 1829. ated, by reference to a simple experiment. Pp. 621.

“ If we hold a powerful magnet, a little way above a (Concluding Notice )

surface of iron filings, strewed upon a table, no change

will ensue, because the friction between the solid plane, The next department of Dr Ure's work treats of the and the particles, is equivalent to a cohesive force, and constitution of the primeval world, and the revolutions prevents them from obeying the magnetical attraction. which it underwent, deduced from geological phenomena, But if we momentarily suspend the counteracting force on physical principles.

4 of friction, by causing the table to vibrate with success. The first of these phenomena is the interior heat of ive blows, then the magnetical attraction will become the earth. From the experiments of Fourier, Arago, effective, and the iron filings will arrange themselves in and Berges, here luminously detailed, we are led to the beautiful curves, accordant with the known laws of magconclusion, that there is an increase in the heat of the netism. In like manner, the partial disruptions and earth as we descend, of ncarly one degree of Fahrenheit tremors of the terrestrial strata, during its transition difor every sixty-five feet; although this internal heat has, luvial state, would permit a corresponding portion of its in all probability, been decreasing since the flood. That shattered surface to arrange itself, conformably to the this increase in the ratio of descent is occasioned by the centripetal and centrifugal powers under which it reexistence of a great central interior fire, seems the only volves, and cause a partial approximation, in its figure, rational way of explaining it; and it appears to be proved to the oblate spheroid of rotation.” by the experiment, à priori, in respect to it, if we may From the view taken of the antediluvian climates, so speak, that also explains the cause of the gradual we are naturally led to expect that the upper strata declension of interior temperature, as well as that which which resulted from the sudden overturn here infer. has taken place on the surface since the flood ; which is red, would exhibit specimens of the flora of the an. thus simply and familiarly put :

cient world. Our examples of these form a rich fossil “ If we apply heat to the flat bottom of a deep ves herbarium, here opened up to our familiar view with sel (of iron, copper, &c.) which contains several alter- circumstances of peculiar interest. We wonder that Date layers of sand, clay, and stony slabs, condensed as bones and shells should have preserved their original in the supermedial straia of England, an.1 covered with and organic forms amid “ the wreck of matter and the crash of worlds,”-the pressure of rocks,--the insinua- atmospheric phenomena, at the outset, which cursory tions of moisture, and the ravages of flame; but that readers would think out of place, are made to tell with fragile leaves, and buds, and blossoms, should find an prodigious and condensed effect; as also in what follows: embalıning sepulture amidst convulsions that upheaved “Many persons hare ascribed to the descent of rain the solid earth, is almost beyond astonishment. Yet from some super-aerial ocean, a great part, if not the such is the fact, and so perfectly are they preserved, that whole, of the waters which then inundated the earth. trcatiscs on their botanical classification have appeared. The atmosphere, however, is merely the circulating me. The latest and best of these are by a very young, but dium through which aqueous particles are transferred already justly distinguished Frencliman, di. Adolphe from moist to dry places. Supposing it universally saBrongniart, son of the coadjutor of Cuvier, and worthy turated at a temperature of 800 Fahrenheit, round an of such a sire. His researches are at once curious and aqueous sphere, it could receive vapour merely equiva. profound, and the world and science are already his lent to its dew point, amounting at the utmost to a press. debtors, while he has scarcely numbered the years that ure of only one inch of mercury, or 13.6 inches of would entitle him to sit on the first form at Eton Cold water. This is all that could fall from it in its transi. lege. thunder' (volcanic explosion ?)' they hasted away. The It were easy to allay such lofty praise with hesitated mountains ascend, the valleys descend unto the place hints, and to assume sagacity in discovering faults ; but which thou hast founded for them. Thou hast set a where general and sustained eloquence abounds, we canbound that they may not pass over; that they turn not not condescend to dwell on a few inflated and sound. again to cover the earth. Thou hidest thy face, they' ing phrases. These are too trivial to be blemishes, (beasts both small and great) are troubled ; thou takest and will be unseen in the second and succeeding editions, away their breath, they die, and return to their dust. to which the book must hasten. A brief Glossary of Thou sendest forth thy Spirit, they are created ; and technical terms will be a proper addition to these. The thou renezeest the face of the earth.' The language of typography of the work is a credit to even the city of the last sentence must surely mean something more than the Foulises and Uries; and the liberal spirit of the the generation of animals, and the propagation of plants, publishers has cnriched the work with a series of illus. in the ordinary way. Can it be so applied without pro trations in copper and wood, numerous and costly, much fanation ?

tion from moisture to absolute dryness; a quantity inHaving endeavoured to solve one enigma of the pri- capable of producing a general deluge. The formation meval world the fervid temperature of even its circum- and desceni of rain constitute merely a process of distil. polar zones, the Doctor next offers some remarks illus- lation, when a direct circulation of vapour is established trative of another geological difficulty—the transfer of through the air above, and a retrograde circulation of the ocean from its ancient to its present bed. Perhaps water on the surface below. But this circulation can the most striking example diluvian ey's have ever wit- never raise the ordinary level of our seas in the slightest nessed, of the force of the uprearing power of the agi- degree.” tated inferior strata, in reversing sea and land, so often From the absence of rain, and consequently those referred to, was that narrated by Maria Graham, as occurrerits of air and wind occasioned by evaporation and curring in Chili in 1822. “On the morning of the 20th deposition, it is ingeniously inferred, that all animal November, it appeared that the whole line of coast, from and vegetable produets now found, must there have been north to south, to the distance of above 100 miles, had originally located—“ for they would find their sepulture been raised above its former level. The alteration of at home." level at Valparaiso was about three feet, and some rocks We before adverted to Mr Penn's idea, that the ratio were thus newly exposed, on wlrich the fishermen col- of land to water was inverted by the deluge; for he as. lected the scallop shell-fish, which was not known to sumes that our actual seas correspond in surface to the exist there before the earthquake.”

antediluvian lands, and our actual lands to the antedi. Incidentally, with respeci to the coral reefs which rise luvian seas. But the researches of Professor Buckland in the southern Indian ocean, it is remarked, that what on the Kirkland and Franconia caves, as well as those has formerly been published about the immense erec. of Baron Cuvier on the grotto of Oiselles, concur to tions which the saxigenous polypi are capable of execu-prove that these were dens inhabited by antediluvian ting, is erroneous, and greatly exaggerated.

quadrupeds, and therefore must have formed a portion We now approach a portion of the work of singular of its dry land. daring and power. It is boldly headed at the outset, With Mr Penn's proportion of land and water, our “ Tie I)ELIGE DESCRIBED,” and is necessarily more author conceives the terraqueous globe would not have speculative and hypothetical than any of the preceding been habitable by man, and his companion animals. It portions ; but it is s:ill much in the spirit of the fol would have possessed nearly three parts of earthy surlowing admirably condensed paragraphs :

face to one of aqueous, whereas there is now fully three “ The period of the deluge is fixed, by the best chro- of aqueous surface to one of earthy. Or, since dry nologists, in the year 1656 from the creation, correspond- ground is the heating surface, and water is the cooling, ing to the year 23 48 of the Christian era. According ihe heating faculty of that ancient globe would have 10 Blair, · On the iOch day of he second morth, which been three times greater than the present, and its cool. was on Sunday, Nov. 30th, 2347, God cominanded ing faculty three times less ; making a ninefold differNoah to enter into the ark with his family; and the ence in calorific constitution between the t#0,—without next Sunday, Dec. 7th, it began to rain, and rained 40 taking into account the proper heat of the antediluvian days, and the deluge continued 150 days. On Wednes- seas. The proportion, however, of the former writer, day, May 6th, 2318, the ark rested on Mount Ararah. though inaccurate, is so far correct as showing that there The tops of the mountains became visible on Sunday, was more land than now; and thence our diminished tem. July 19th, and on Friday, Nov. 18th, Nouh came forili perature is clearly indicated. But if the primeval seas out of the ark, with all that were with him.'

were of less extent, they were decper, as we have said, “ When the barriers of the ocean began to give way and hence in greater proximity with the fixed and exbefore the explosiva furces, the waters would invade the plosive metals, and would, after the deluge, soak down shores, and spread over the sunken land, augmenting and cause, by consequent volcanic eruptions, those vast prodigiously the cvaporating surface, and thus bringing accumulations of lava which every part of the world exthe atmosphere to the dew point, a state of saturation to hibits. which, previously, it could seldom, and in few places, We now draw near the end of this masterly work, attain, on account of the area of the dry ground being which, before concluding, contemplates the Animal regreat relative to that of the sea. From this cause, as mains or Ruins of the Deluge, in reference merely to well as from the immense quantity of vapours which are their living characteristics, as contrasted with their types known to rise from craters into ihe higher and cooler in the present time, and the era of the emergence of the regions of the air at the period of eruptions, an immense present carth. It is from this survey, as eloquent as it formation of cloud and deposition of rain would ensue.' is novel, ingenious, comprehensive, and pro.ound, yet It will here be observed, how the bases laid down on simple and Scriptural, that we glean.

* The theologian may probably recognize, in the pic. • When in Paris, we visited the Institute of France, and in ture of the deluge so sublimely sketched in the 104th the hall of the Academy of Sciences, when the members had as- Psalm, allusions which favour the idea of the postdilusembici, we felt ourselves amid the most august and illustrious congregation in the world. A young gentleman-so young as to vian earth having been peopled with animals by a new appear yet boyish-showed us the most marked attention in creative fiat ; while through Noah, mankind are all the naming the most distinguished individuals among sixty, who are children of Adam. “The waters stood above the moun.

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We sat in a recess of the window together, and exchanged cards. His bore the name-Adolphe Brongniart. tains ; at thy rebuke they fied; at the voice of thy

all famous.

beyond the general rule of the trade.
That “ Arch which spans the radiant sky,
When clouds prepare to part,"

FINE ARTS.
Holy Writ assures us, was unseen by man before the
flood. That it was natural it should have been un.

PAINTING. known, is evidenced from the constitution of antedilu.

History of Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture. vian earth and atmosphere; and our author makes it By J. Š. Memes, LL.D. Constable's Miscellany. obvious, not only from the emphatic words in which the Vol. XXXIX. Edinburgh. 1829. meteoric ensign of Heaven's favour is announced, as well as from the holy purpose which it was ordained to serve, In a strict point of view, Painting owes little or nothing but from the change that had taken place in these in rela- to the Ancients. The only merit possessed by the Egypt. tion to each other, that it must have been equally strange, ian painters is a certain correctness of linear profile, which as it was glorious, in their sight ; for antediluvians, oc- may have been first acquired by the tracing of shadows. cupying possibly on their devoted lands, a portion of a | Many of their works still remain, with the colouring algreat continent now covered by the Pacific, might never most as fresh and vivid as when it was first laid on. have witnessed a sunshine shower. A canopy of clouds These have been principally found on the walls of indeed might often be stretched in the cooler upper re-temples, tombs, or hypogeums. Like their sculptures, gions of their skies, but the aqueous vesicles, in descend- they are allegorical, grotesque, and graceless,-though ing through the warmer aerial strata below, would re- not without interest, from consideracions unconnected turn again to invisible vapour.

with taste. As to Greek paintings, we are acquainted with With a refutation of the absurd pretensions to an an- thein only by description ; although, were we implicitly tiquity inconsistent with Divine Writ, of the pretended to believe all that has been written concerning them, tables of Hiodoo astronomy, given to the world by they were no less entitled to rank as models, than the Bailly, as triumphant as the confutation of the Canon wonderful existing creations in the sister ari of sculpture. of Ricuperos' notion of the earth's age, deduced “ from But though we cannot fail fully to appreciate the judgcoats of Sicilian lava, which is furnished at the outset,- ment of authors, which is shown to such advantage a work of rare, vast, and varied lore, and destined to

in their minute accuracy of criticism when applied to become as popular as the Natural Theology of Paley, sculpture, yet, as Dr Niemes justiy observes, “ taste concludes itself a full, noble, and, we should think, being necessarily formed upon the very moriels on which well-nigh immortal, cominentary on the passage from it passes sentence, cannot be admitted as evidence beSchlegel quoted by us before.

yond its experience.” For this reason, and for others The result of equal proportions of genius, labour, and which he has stated, and in which we entirely coincide, skill, and bringing down information on all it treats of

we are disposed to think the alleged proficiency of the till the close of the last year, it will make Geology still ancients in this branch of art rather problematical. more a popular study, by showing it to be a delightful, The history of Greek painting, given us by Pliny and and rendering it an easy one ; and he who, even at his others, is too unnatural to be strictly true. If the fireside, has armed himself with a knowledge of the lead- | Greek's had arrived at such eminence as is pretend:d, ing principles of that science, like the student of Bo.

we should certainly find a greater number of names tany, need not dread the solitude of the dreariest wilder- enrolled as professors of the art; only fifteen are ness, nor the silence of the loneliest desert. Hence mentioned by Pausanias, whereas one hundred and forth, to such an one, a voice will speak from every bar. sixty-nine are recorded by the same author as devoted ren rock, and wisdom will unfold itself in every herb that to sculpture. The Greeks would certainly not have rears its stunted head. No spot in Nature's domain can been contented with cold, though divine, beauty, had be wearisome to him ; while even the most favoured of they been acquainted, to a great extent, with the magic the sites of earth will, in the terms of Paris Basin," force of which the pencil is capable. But, however “ O.xford Clay,&c. acquire an associated and eleva- the case may have bien, as next to no relies of Greek ted interest.

painting now exist, it can have had no influence in formTo aid in directing the attention of manhood and ing the Italian school, wonderful and unrivalled as it is, youth to such pure, ennobling pursuits, has been our and whose pre-eminence must ever be considered one of aim. To diffuse those consolatory conclusions, which the very few family traits which serve to prove that the science, rightly interrogated, brings to the bosom of inhabitants of modern Italy are the descendants of the the ingenuous, but perhaps nervously excited, lover of ancient Romans. So far, therefore, as mechanical exetruth--that are hcre, in the true spirit of Philosophy cution, design, colour, and all that relates to painting united to Religion, skilfully concatenated_has been as a practical art, is concerned, the moderns owe noour aim. If we shall, however humbly, have assisted thing to the ancients. It is only when we come to conthis work in doing either by making its merits early, sider the mighty influence their sculpture has always and, in so far as our voice extends, widely known-We had in the formation of taste, that we are forced to conshall not speak of our labour, for that has been one of cede to them the praise of having probably given the love, and of delight—but of our pride :-We are more first impulse to the minds of all great painters. than rewarded.

The gap which occurs in the history of painting from

the time that the Romans abandoned it as an art, only These descriptive words in Italics are the Hebrew text, as printed in the margin of our Bibles.

worthy of being practised by their Greek slaves, is tre

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