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of moral and intellectual elevation ; yet still retaining, like clouds after sunset, a reflection of glories gone by

saved from utter degradation, by the last dying in. Corpus Scriptorum Historie Byzantine. Editio fuences of arts and sciences which they could no longer

emendatior et copiosior, consilio B. G. Niebuhrii, C.F. comprehend or appreciate. It shows us not unfrequentinstituta, opera ejusdem Niebuhrii, Imm. Bekkeri, ly the interesting spectacle of an individual superior to L. Schopeni, G. Dindorfi Aliorumque Philologorum, his fellows, burning with the old Roman spirit, though parata. Pars IIL. Agathias. Bonnæ impensis Ed. weakened by the enervating moral atmosphere that Weberi. 1828.

breathed around him, and hurried away despite his Idem. Pars XI. Leo Diaconus. Varii libelli qui struggles, by the torrent that was sweeping the devoted

Nicephori Phocæ et Joannis Zimiscis Historiam il- empire to anarchy and overchrow. Il paints to us the lustrant. Bonnæ, &c. 1828.

repository in which the arts and sciences of Greece were Idem. Pars XIX. Nicephorus Gregoras. Volumen I. treasured up till the time should come when a few homeBonnæ, &c. 1829.

less fugitives should carry them to the west, there in a Idem. Pars XX. Cantacuzenus. Volumen I. Bonnæ, fresh and virgin soil to strike deeper roots, and spread &c. 1829.

out wider and richer branches, than even in that old and

godlike land which was their native home. THESE are all the numbers that have yet appeared of a Our limits do not allow us to enter upon this subject new edition of the Byzantine historians, undertaken by as we could wish : and we hasten to notice briefly in de. Niebuhr, the learned, ingenious, and indefatigable histo- tail those numbers of the work which have already aprian of Rome, with the co-operation of the most distin. peared. We intend, however, to revert to it occasion. guished philologists of Germany. With regard to the edi. ally as the succeeding volumes are published, and an tor of this work, it may not be unnecessary to inform our opportunity may thus be sometimes offered of extractreaders, that Niebuhr is a man who has served his sove- ing from their pages what may at once be interesting reign with distinction in the most difficult diplomatic em- and new to our readers. As we have, however, some ployments-who, even amid the distractions of public little lee-way to make up, seeing that the philologists business, was ever the patron and promoter of science, and of Bonn have already got four volumes a-head of us, we was mainly instrumental in the recovery of the most dare scarcely promise the general reader much of mi. important of those ancient works which have had such nuter detail in to-day's paper. an influence upon the views of the civilians of Europe AGATHIAS.The narrative of this historian's five -who has concentrated his naturally acute and com- books extends over the space intervening between A. D. prehensive mind, stored with erudition, and formed in 552 and 558. It comprehends a part of the reign of active life, to the production of a work which has cast Justinian, and is principally occupied with the wars of new lights on the history of Rome and the whole pro- Narses in Italy against the Goths, Franks, and Ale. gress of society who had the honour of suggesting to manni; with those of other Roman generals against Savigny those investigations which he has so successfully the Huns and Persians; and with the history of the pursued—who has shown himself possessed, in addition last briglit service of Belisarius to an ungrateful em. to the talents thus evinced, of the most unbending in- peror. It contains little that throws light on public dependence, united to the most polished and courtly business, or the constitution of the empire ; but it emmanners. Of the importance of that publication on braces several interesting notices of the manners of the which we are about to submit a few remarks to our Huns, the religion of the Alemanni, the learning of the readers, we need only say, that its object is to give to Persians, the state of science among the Romans, and the public, in a comparatively cheap and accessible their popular superstitions. Agathias was a man of form, that valuable body of historians upon whose works good family, well trained in the polite learning of his our Gibbon has reared that stupendous structure of time-such as it was and afterwards a lawyer. His genius and research_his History of the Decline and style is far from purity, and even grammatical correct. Fall of the Roman Empire.

ness, and rendered not unfrequently ludicrous by an adThese writers form a body of history, - varying in mixture of fine, high-sounding words, picked up in the value according to the native talents of the individual course of his poetical reading. He was also himself a author, and to the state of literature at the time in which parcel poet, and most of his epigrams are still preserved, be lived, but always valuable as the production of the con- some of which are by no means unhappy. He is suptemporaries, and as being thus at the least a monument posed to have been a Christian. of the time in which they were composed, -of the Eastern LEO DIACONUS.This author seems to have form. empire, from the translation of the seat of government ed his style on that of Agathias, and to have carried from Rome to Byzantium, down to the final capture of some of its most glaring vices to excess. He is fond that city by the Turks. The period is one of deep in- of describing battles ; but, ignorant of tactics, he conterest to the student of human nature. It presents the veys no accurate notion of them. He is fond of putting instructive picture of a people the descendants of a fine harangues into the mouths of his generals, and highly cultivated nation--gradually sinking in the scale seems to have placed the height of eloquence in affected

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recherché phrases. He contains, however, some inte- and uncertain ; and it is probably on this account, pridresting particulars of the earlier struggles of the empire cipally, that men of distinguished learning and research with the Saracens in Crete and Asia ; as also of its con- have shrunk from the task; while others, from whose tests with the Russians. In his character of priest, the reputation and name we were entitled to look for better domestic affairs seem to have fallen more under his ob- things, have studied and delivered to the world their servation than that of Agathias. If he does not give Histories of Scotland very imperfectly. It is needless to much insight into the weightier matters of the state, he refer to our old historians and chroniclers, such as Forat least gives us lively pictures of court intrigue, and dun or his continuator Bowar, Boece, Mair, Bishop the popular tumults of Constantinople. The statesmen Elphinstone of Aberdeen, and others, whose names we of his age are dwarfs in comparison with those of Jas- have not space to enumerate. Bishop Leslie, who betinian's, and they change and succeed each other with gan his History where the Bishop of Aberdeen terminaproportionable celerity. His history extends from A. D. ted his, has given us only a general outline of the his961 to 975. Several minor, but interesting, fragments tory of a certain period; and he has more reputation as of history are appended to his work, to make up the the learned and indefatigable defender of Mary's honour volume.

and innocence, than as a Scottish historian. With NICEPHORUS GREGORAS. As yet only eleven books Buchanan's History-the “unchronological Bachanan," of this historian have been published. They extend as Pinkerton calls him-every one is familiar; and from A. D. 1204 to 1341. It will appear from this, whatever may be thought of his work in plain English, that the author has undertaken a more laborious task-for it is peculiarly elegant as respects its Latin, he than the two already noticed, and has not, like them, must not be denied the honour of having been the first confined himself to the history of his own times. He to reduce the history of Scotland to something like a was a native of Asia, and seems to have been born about digested form, even although his attachment to the fabled the year 1295. He was well versed in the learning of kings of the Gadeliac race, his narrative of the exploits the times that is, its lighter literature and dialectics, of the pretended successors of Fergus I., his credulity, and some knowledge of astronomy, which was devoted proneness to fable, and his too frequent distortion of facts to elucidating the important question of the proper time to set forth his anti-monarchical principles, are palpably of celebrating Easter. He is described by his contem- notorious. It is needless to mention, also, the ponder. poraries as rude, austere, and obstinate ; alike offensive ous folio bistories, complete or partial, of Scotland, such to princes and private individuals, by the petulance of as Scott's, Duff's, Maitland's, or Abercromby's Martial his remarks. At the same time, his public conduct | Achievements—the most of these works of no great meevinces independence, and a freedom from selfishness. rit—which are now to be found almost exclusively in He is a keen partisan ; but his history is minute in its libraries. Bishop Keith's History is superior to any of details, and exact in its chronology.

them, and perhaps the best of all ; but, being written JOANNES CANTACUZENUS_One of the royal au- | in an old-fashioned style, and the extent of his informathors of Byzantium. As yet only two books of his his- tion being more remarkable than his talents for arrangetory have been published, narrating the events of the ment, it is impossible that his work can ever be popu. period intervening between A. D. 1320 and 1341. As lar. To be brief, and to come to more recent times, a contemporary of Nicephorus Gregoras, his history is an Principal Robertson acquired all his literary reputation admirable check upon the statements of that author, both from his History—and elegant and polished it undoubtin regard to their having been of different parties, and edly is; but how defective ! Nothing at all does it coninclined (the one as a schoolman, the other as a states. tain of the reigns of the five Jameses deserving of the man,) to view things in different lights. Gibbon thus name; and the learned Principal's work might have describes him :-" The name and situation of the em- been termed, with greater propriety, a History of the peror, John Cantacuzenus, might inspire the most lively Reign of Mary and of James VI., till the accession to curiosity. His memorials of forty years extend from the English crown, with a brief introduction; and that, the revolt of the younger Andronicus to his own abdica- too, not written with sufficient attention to do justice to tion of the empire ; and it is observed that, like Moses the subject. Mr Laing's work is simply a continuation of and Cæsar, he was the principal actor in the scenes the Principal's, from the accession till the union of the which he describes. But in this eloquent work, we kingdoms. Mr Pinkerton's is merely a history of the should vainly seek the sincerity of a hero or a peni. kingdom from the accession of James I. to the death of tent. Retired in a cloister, from the vices and passions James V.; and is, therefore, detached, and leaves off of the world, he presents not a confession, but an apo. where the Principal's work in reality begins. His other logy, of the life of an ambitious statesman. Instead of History, however, published in 8vo, deserves very great unfolding the true counsels and characters of men, he praise." The History of Scotland was therefore to be displays the smooth and specious surface of events, written ; and we are glad to find it in the hands of Mr highly varnished with his own praises and those of his Tytler, a writer well known in the literary world, who, friends. Their motives are always pure ; their ends in addition to his own reputation, may be said to inhe always legitimate : they conspire and rebel without any rit also that of his father, the late excellent Lord Woodviews of interest ; and the violence which they inflict or houselee, whose life has been so ably delineated by Mr suffer, is celebrated as the spontaneous effect of reason Alison. and virtue." It would have been fair to have added The great difficulty, of course, in Scottish history, is that he was a man of commanding talent, extensive re. the want of public and authentic documents. Our sources, and great political dexterity.

readers are aware that Edward I. of England, in his attempts to subdue Scotland, carried off all the public

records, vainly imagining that the want of these would History of Scotland. By Patrick Fraser Tytler, Esq. obliterate, in the Scots, the recollection of their inde

F.R.S. É. and F.A.S. Vol. i. 1828. Vol. ii. 1829. pendence, and stifle the spirit of patriotism which perEdinburgh. 8vo. William Tait.

vaded the heart of Wallace and his illustrious comps.

nions. But Scottish prowess and Scottish chivalry were It is singular, that the authors who have preceded not so easily conquered ; and Bruce, the great restorer Mr Tytler in this department of literature, should have of the monarchy, made the triumph of liberty complete given us so imperfect histories of this country. Well on the field of Bannockburn. It was there, as Mr are we aware of the almost insuperable, and, at all times, Tytler remarks in a similar train of thought, that he perplexing difficulties, which atiend the Scottish History. fought, not for himself or his throne only, but for posto The anpals of no country are more obscure, involved, rity ; it was not his wish that his triumph should be

evanescent, but that it should be inseparably engrafted an outline of this eventful reign, we refer the reader to into the very foundations of the monarchy. Its“ du- Mr Tytler. The volume concludes with an " Historical ration," as our author well observes in his excellent Enquiry into the Ancient State of Scotland," contain. narrative of that famous battle, “throughout succeeding ing various divisions on the general appearance of the centuries of Scottish history and Scottish liberty, down country, its forests, marshes, castles, villages, religious to the hour in which we now write, cannot be question houses, agriculture, farming; the distinct races in Scot. ed; and, without launching out into any inappropriate land, ancient Parliament of Scotland, early commerce and field of historical speculation, we have only to think of navigation, state of the early Scottish church, and sports the most obvious consequences which must have resulted and amusements of ancient Scotland. To both volumes from Scotland becoming a conquered province of Eng- are added numerous important notes and illustrations, land ; and if we wish for proof, to fix our eyes on the in which are pointed out, and ably refuted, the inacpresent condition of Ireland, in order to feel the present curacies of Lord Hailes, and the misrepresentations of reality of all that we owe to the victory at Bannockburn, Dr Lingard. and to the memory of such men as Bruce, Randolph, We hesitate not to say, that Mr Tytler's work is a and Douglas."-Vol. i. pp. 320, 321.

national undertaking, and will, we doubt not, become a As to the pillage of the Scottish records by the Eng- standard work in our modern literature. Mr Tytler lish monarch, we greatly fear, even if we now possessed has shown, by the two volumes before us, that he is them, that the difficulties attending the Scottish history completely qualified for his task; and though there are would not be removed. In this opinion we are happy some of his inferences and conclusions which we feel to be supported by Mr Tytler, in his masterly, and, we strongly disposed to contest with him, yet these in no may say, profound disquisition, entitled an “ Histori- degree detract from the very great merits of this most cal Enquiry into the Ancient State and Manners of elaborate undertaking. The work is to be completed in Scotland,” 'prefixed to the second volume of his work six volumes ; and, when it is completed, it will be a now before us. Mr Tytler, after talking of the muni- work of which both author and publisher may be justly ficence of the endowments of the Scottish church, in the proud. matters of abbeys, priories, and monasteries, thus ob. It is hardly necessary to remind our readers, that Mr serves,—" In turning, however, from such rare exam. Tytler's work will yet be more interesting as it proples of talent in the church, to the literary attainments ceeds; and we anticipate great pleasure in the perusal of the nobility, or to the means of instruction possessed of his History of the reigns of the Princes of the House by the great body of the people, the prospect is little of Stuart, of Mary, of the stormy period of the Refor. else than a universal blank." During the long period mation, and of the succeeding century of strife and turfrom the accession of Alexander III, to the death of bulence. David II., it would be impossible, I believe, to produce a single instance of a Scottish baron who could sign his Sketches of Irish Character. By Mrs S. C. Halle 2 own name."-Vol. ii. pp. 332, 353. Such being the case, and learning, such as it was,

vols. London ; Westley and Davis. 1829. being exclusively confined to the clergy, we can easily It is seldom that modesty occasions the misnomer of account for the absurd traditions, fabulous legends, and a book ; it has done so, however, in the present case. monkish annals, which abound at these periods, and By far the greater number of the pieces in the two vothrough which the enquirer after truth must grope his lumes before us are not sketches ;-they have the finish way, ere he arrives at the object of his search. A fa. of cabinet pictures, and yet the freshness, and freedom, tality, indeed, seems to have attended our Scottish re. and force of less laboured detail. The work has taken cords; and under Cromwell the national archives were us by surprise, too. Mrs Hall's name we had before again pillaged of their scanty treasures, which, at the known, as that of a lady who wrote some pretty little Union, by the loss of the vessel which was commissioned pieces for her husband's excellent Annual-che' Amu. to Te-convey them to Scotland, were scattered on the let—and some rather pleasing, but perhaps laboriously mighty deep.

juvenile, essays for her own—The Forget-Me-Not for Mr Tytler commences his work with the reign of Young People. But to find that she is a fair native of Alexander III., because, as he observes in his Pre- the Emerald Isle, who, for vigorous yet delicate percepface, “ it is at this period that our national annals be- tion of character, liveliness of style, and skill in arran. conie particularly interesting to the general reader;" ging a plot_or rather, in concatenating a series of plots and because, “ during the reign of this monarch, Eng. is not unworthy of taking her place with her highly land first began to entertain serious thoughts of the re- talented country women, whose names are linked with duction of her sister country.” After narrating the in- its literature and its freedom, too is what we own we terestiag events of this reign, we have the short reign were not prepared for. (if it may be called 80) of Margaret, the maid of Nor- It is in the beautiful sea-side seclusion of Bannow, way, grand-daughter of Alexander, and grand-niece to in the county of Wexford, that the whole business of Edward 'I. Her death produced those fearful convul. the book takes place. The volumes contain above a sions, which preceded and prevailed during the inglo- dozen stories, the first of which is called the “ Lily of rious reign of John Baliol ; and Mr Tytler's patriotism Bannow,” from its heroine being Lilias, the niece of the glows when narrating the achievements of Wallace and most important old lady in the place-Mrs Cassidy, his bold companions. In the history of the Interreg- to wit. As it is the longest, as well as the first, of the num, which preceded the accession of Robert Bruce, tales, it serves to introduce us to many characters who the proceedings of Edward I. form prominent objects; figure in the others; while, in its own plot and denoue. and the splendid reign of the great restorer of the moment, it has a substantial and delightful interest, which, narchy, is one which cannot fail to excite every lover of though fully satisfied, yet leaves us to feel that “ Peggy his country. The first volume concludes with the reign the Fisher,” and others, are old acquaintances when we of Robert Bruce, by whom the English had been finally again meet with them. Thus, without the appearance expelled from Scotland, and whose name, as its deliverer, of elaboration_while every link of the dozen is a sepawill be forgotten only when Scotland ceases to exist rate ring—the whole makes a chain which embraces all The second volume contains the history of the reign of the loves, friendships, characters, and occurrences of David II., Bruce's son, grounded on the documents Bannow. This is at once an original and a charming printed in the splendid national work entitled “ Rotuli feature in the book. It so connects cach story with all the Scotiæ,” and in “Robertson's Parliamentary Records,” others, that the whole reads like a novel, while every &c. &c. Asit is impossible for us in these limits to give one of them separately forms a beautiful tale. We thus become denizens of the village, and feel a homebred Memoir of Mrs Ann H. Judson, including a History sympathy for every family in it from the rector's and of the American Baptist Mission in the Burman priest's, to the old and lonely dwellers in the ruined Empire. By James D. Knowles, Pastor of the Second halls of Coolhull.

Baptist Church in Boston. London ; Wightman and This is all very high praise, but we have yet nore Cramp. 1829. to give. The book is written in no party or exclusive MRS JUDSON was a highly accomplished and excelspirit, and with no political views. Yet its perusal will lent woman, and the wife of a very pious and intelligent do much service—so kindly and general is the spirit of man. We do not exactly approve of the manner in which charity with which it is embued, in its best and truest the present “ Memoir” is written, which is too exclusense, because not ostentatiously exhibited. The Eng. sively the style of a particular sect; but the volume lish and Scottish reader will find the nobler qualities of contains much interesting information regarding the human nature so sympathized with, that it cannot be habits and customs of the Burmese, besides affording supposed that political violence or delusion on either to all missionaries an example well worthy of imitation, side could extinguish them altogether ;-and he will in the honourable discharge of their duties, so patiendy sec_but without the formality of being shown—that and laboriously persevered in by Mr and Mrs Judson. even a Wexford rebel, and a suspected priest, in happier At the same time, having had some opportunities of incircumstances than those of actual civil war, may be vestigating the subject, we must candidly state, that we among the kindest and the best of human beings. What consider the conversion of the Burmese to Christianity a may not a people abounding in such examples become ? very hopeless speculation, for at least several centuries Without, too, the formality of instruction, as in Leadbet- to come. ter's Dialogues, and even in Miss Edgeworth's writings, the work is admirably calculated to be practical ; and more than the Irish peasant may profit by the rich pic- Syllabic Spelling; or, a Summary Method of Teaching

Children to Read, upon the principle originally ture of Irish “ Indipindince."

discovered by the Sieur Berthaud. Adapted to the As yet this book is unknown here; but we trust

English Language by Mrs Williams. Fourth edition. what we have now said in its favour will be the means

London ; Whittaker and Co. 1829. of bringing it into immediate notice, for few recent pub. lications are more deserving of attention.

This is one of the very best books of the kind with which we are acquainted, and had we three hundred

children, (which we probably never will have,) we should Orthoepy and Elocution ; or, the first part of a Fhi- put a copy into the hands of each of them.

losophical and Practical Grammar of the English
Language, for the use of Teachers, Academics, and
Public Speakers. By James Knowles. Glasgow ; Apician Morsels ; or, Tales of the Table, Kitchen,
R. Griffin and Co. 1829.

and Larder. By Dick Humelbergius Secundus.

London ; Whittaker and Co. 1829. Pp. 348. This is a work from the pen of the father of the celebrated dramatist, James Sheridan Knowles. It is

This is an amusing book, though it is the producevidently the production of a man of sense and expe- tion of only a half-bred man, of one who pretends to rience; and contains a very distinct developement of the

more learning and humour than he possesses. We ra. principles of elocution, from the first simple elements of ther suspect, too, that so many works have of late been speech, to their most extended combinations in words written about eating and drinking, that the subject is and sentences. It is scarcely to be expected that we can getting stale. There is, however, a good deal of Epi. enter here into the minutiæ of this subject ; but, from in the “ Apician Morsels," which will be read with

curean research, and many curious anecdotes and stories the attention we have paid to the work, we are inclined much pleasure, we presume, by the professional gour. to think that it will go a great way towards supplying mand." We might have said more, but the truth is, it what has been long felt to be a desideratum,-a correct is not half an hour since we dined, and we have thereand comprehensive school-book, for the general use of teachers and learners, uniting the principles of general fore no appetite for the theme. or philosophical to those of instituted grammar.

The Bee Preserver ; or, Fractical Directions for the

Management and Preservation of Hives. TranslaThe Conduct of the Rev. Daniel Wilson, Vicar of Is. ted from the French of Jonas de Gelieu. Edinburgh;

lington, on the Continent, and as a Member of the John Anderson. 1829. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and o, the British and Foreign Bible Society, considered resting and delightful subject. From the clear practical

This is a very excellent little work, upon an inte. and exposed ; with Strictures on the Church of Eng, directions, and the valuable discoveries, it contains re. land Missionary Society, fc. By Robert Haldane, lative to the history and economy of bees, we think Esq. Edinburgh ; William Whyte and Co. 1829. it ought to be in the hands of every apiarian. Many

This is another of the numerous controversial works people are fond of bees, as the author remarks,-inwhich have sprung out of the Apocrypha question. deed have a passion for them ; but it is not enough Into the merits of that question, Heaven forbid that we to be fond of them--they must be skilfully taken care of, should ever enter! It appears, by the present book, according to certain rules, applicable in every case, but that the Rev. Daniel Wilson has given grievous offence more particularly in bad years. Mistaken care annoys to Mr Robert Haldane ; and the consequence is, that them--niggardliness ruins them. Instructions, there. Mr Haldane devotes 239 pages of letter-press to a very fore, from an experienced person, are absolutely necesvituperative chastisement of the said Daniel Wilson. sary; and we know of none on which we would be inLike other theological disputants, Mr Haldane writes clined to place more reliance than those of Jonas de very sternly and fearlessly ;-that he writes also in the Gelieu. He treats, among many other things, of the true and meek spirit of Christianity, we shall not take proper situation for an apiary of the proper time to upon ourselves to say. This, however, we will say, that transport a swarm to the situation designed for it-of we have of late been more than once inclined to think, the best sort of hives--of the quantity of honey necesthat there would be as little sin in a pair of pistols, as in sary to maintain a hive

of the use of capes or hoods the language fired off at each other by certain clerical of the manner of uniting swarms and of renewing old disputants.

hives of the enemies of bees, and means of overcoming

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them_of the diseases of bees_of the different varieties led men, about the beginning of the 16th century, to of bees, and their language--and of the preservation of lay aside by degrees their cumbrous defensive armour, hives in winter. The translation, which is very classi. and rely more upon the simpler defence afforded by a cally executed, is from the pen of a lady. It is dedicated proper use of their own weapon of offence. Like all into the Highland Society, to which it has been presented fant arts, the use of the sword was at first much more by Sir Walter Scott.

complicated than was requisite. Men could not at once reconcile themselves to such a simple and unos

tentatious mode of defence ; besides, it was necessarily A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of the Art of practised for a time quite empirically—the lapse of

Fencing. By George Roland, Fencing Master at ages was required, before the Lockes and Newtons of the Royal Academy, Edinburgh. Edinburgh. fencing arose to reduce it to its first principles. The Archibald Constable and Co. ; and sold by the Au. result of the operation of these combined causes was a thor at his Rooms, Royal Manege. Edinburgh. ridiculous and unnecessary complication of feints, 1823.

guards, and attacks-not to speak of a great many This is, without exception, the clearest and most monkey tricks and contemptible advantages taken, whose practical work on the subject that has come to our no.

memory is only preserved in the engravings which have

come down to us from these times. We allude to the tice. The whole of its contents, indeed, are strictly practice of parrying with the dagger, or receiving the and essentially practical ;- they are the results of a long attention to the art among the first fencers of the adversary's point in the cloak wrapped round the left day,- an experience which has cultivated to the highest dark-lanterns,—to the volte, and all such expedients.

arm, to the practice of fighting at night with rapiers and a naturally sound and clear head, joined to rare physi. Most of these inventions, it seems to us, may be traced cal qualifications. The information which he has thus acquired, Mr Roland conveys in that quiet, sensible, intrigue and chicane into the practice of arms, as well

to Italy, whose acute inhabitants appear to have carried unpretending manner, which characterizes his style of

as into arts and politics. This fact almost leads us to teaching. Prefixed to the work is a preface, containing some vated in Italy. Its introduction was probably simul,

suspect that the small sword was first sedulously cultinotices of the history of the small sword ; and it is

taneous in several countries ; for we have seen in old chiefly to this part of the work that we intend at pre- armouries a sword used previous to the discontinuance sent to confine ourselves as the most likely to be in- of defensive armour, larger and more cumbrous, but teresting to the general reader. Passing over Mr Ro. Otherwise of precisely the same construction as the mo. land's minute investigation into the origin of swords in dern small sword with the bayonet blade. Its superiority general the probable excellence of the Romans in the use of it, and other preliminary matter we come at sword, was sufficiently obvious.

over either the mere cutting sword, or the cut-and-thrust once to the history of the small sword. There is some

But if Italy seem thus to be the mother of the art, it thing peculiarly attractive about this weapon_ever

was in France undoubtedly that it was first reduced to bright as its wearer’s honour-graceful in its form, and elegant and scientific practice ;—it is from France that classical in its purposes ; it is at once an ornament to

every country, which can boast of a modern school of the owner, and a grateful and elegant means of death fencing, has had her first lessons. A fact is stated by to his satisfied antagonist. Then what a crowd of as. sociations hang like festoons of flowers around it like Mr Roland, which sufficiently accounts for the supe. the myrtle around the sword of Harmodius. Are there riority of that country :-" In France, until lately, not associated with it to all eternity the names of Ty- that no masters were allowed to teach in Paris, without

tencing was considered of so much national importance, balt, Mercutio, Hamlet, and, in later days, of those having served a sort of apprenticeship in some Salle gallant prize-fighters, whose fame lives in the pages of d'Armes, and afterwards proving their talents in two the Spectator ? Does there not rise to our mind's eye a varied crowd of interesting images, from the elder An- public exhibitions, in opposition to the last received mas

Such as had been thus received, enjoyed, besides gelo guarding the slightest leaf of his mistress's bouquet, other honours, the freedom of all places of public amusewhich he had placed upon his breast, from the points of ment for a year.” It was this incorporation of fencers the best swordsmen in France, down to that battered which sent forth all those professors in the art, who have image riding in ferocious and solitary grandeur into Hogarth's " Southwark Fair ?" The history of this duced it entirely to a contest of judgment and bodily

so simplified the weapon and its use, that they have re. noble art is, it must be confessed, somewhat involved in agility. At the same time, it is but just to remark, obscurity-names and dates are rather uncertain--but that France, as the country where the art has ever been the time may come when some Niebuhr (no industry in most repute, has, under the sanction of her pame, short of a German's is commensurate to the task) shall sent forth more quacks and unqualified pretenders to do for fencing what he has already done for Rome. this accomplishment than any country in Europe. Meanwhile, we lay before our readers what information

Germany had originally a national style of fencing, we have been able to pick up-taking for our grounds which differed materially from the French. To this lat. work Mr Roland's history, and interweaving occasionally such shreds and patches of information as have ter, however, it is every day giving place. The French (Heaven knows how or when !) been drawn to us by the positions and attitudes are in most respects the

style is nearly the same that is taught among ourselves the universal attraction of our brain. The origin of the rapier, or small sword, properly so of the adversary, and then trusting to promptness and

same the system of waiting for exposures on the part called—that is, of the sword calculated for the thrust quickness in the thrust, is the same. The German attialone_it is impossible to ascertain. Even the country tude is, the body inclined forwards ; tire right leg bent of its invention is unknown. It is, however, first found in general reception in the more southern nations of so as to form, from the ankle, an angle rather less than

a right-angle with the floor ; the left leg forming with Europe; and its appearance is nearly coeval with that the body a straight line from the head to the floor; the left simplification of means, always attendant upon and hand rested on the haunch ; the right arm depressed, and characteristic of the advance of a scientific spirit, which the point of the foil elevated. The fencer's business is not

to wait for openings, but to form them, by pressing aside • We have promised an occasional retrospective Review: and his adversary's blade. He never thrusts on a disengagethe work whose title we have copied above is upon a subject to

ment. Long controversies have been waged in Gerinany which we are desirous of directing the attention of our readers.

on the comparative merits of these two systems. Ap


Ed. Lal. Jour.

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