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tions to Bishop Lowth, Drs Campbell and Blair, Lord gination, it is scarcely to be denied that their producKaimes, and others; but the judgment he has exhibited tions are universally and chronologically tinctured by the in the arrangement of his materials, and the clearness momentous events and the passionate feelings of the pewith which he has adapted himself even to the most ju- riod during which they were penned. In the dramas of venile capacities, whilst he conveys instruction that will Alfieri, for instance, we find all that longing for indebe found profitable by those who are much farther ad- pendence, that detestation of servility, that contempt for vanced, entitle him to no mean approbation. The suc- corrupt control, and that scorn of tyranny, which actucess his work has already experienced, proves its excel. ated the national mind for freedom, and at length usher. lence. To the present edition, besides other improve- ed in the intoxicating prospect of Italy's redemption. ments, there is subjoined an interesting series of quota- In the bitter satire and moral pleadings of Parini's tions from distinguished authors, chronologically ar. lyre, we mark the democratic spirit of the succeeding ranged, and exhibiting the progressive changes and ad- period, when every patriotic heart bounded to beard its vances in English style.

tyrant sovereign and its effeminate and heartless aristocracy, and seemed determined to try the fancied panacea of a republic. In the strains of Monti, Pindemonte,

and Cesarotti, who, like Jealousy, FOREIGN LITERATURE.

“ Now courted love, now, raving, callid on hate," Lettere su Roma e Napoli. Milano.- Lettere su Fi.

we behold that dastardly tergiversation of opinion and renze e Venezia, 2 com. Milano.- Letters on Rome

of action which denote the time when universal discord and Naples. Milan.-Letters on Florence and Ve- held its sway, cursed as then the nation was with French nice, 2 vols. Milan.

and Austrian chicanery. In the glowing sentiments and

heart-breaking musings of Foscolo, t we discover the WHILE almost every nation of the world is at pre- rage and the despair which stung every patriot's heart, sent exhibiting the beneficial effects of that moral tem- when the avowed liberator of Italy recklessly partitioned pest, which, sweeping from one end of Europe to the and basely betrayed a people who trusted in the might other, regenerated in its progress enfeebled states and of his arms for union and independence. In the roman. corrupted dynasties ; Italy, the land, which, in infancy, tic Rime of Grossi, we trace the tears of a bleeding conquered countries by her liberty, and in manhood held country, who distractedly fled to bewail the sorrowful the world by her genius, displays, in age, the same ap- fate of Ildegonda, that they might weep for the approach. palling picture of disunion, and the same melancholy | ing destiny of Ausonia. 'In the writings of Manzoni marks of woe, as when Filicajia penned his patriotic and Bertolotti are mirrored much of that bitter disapsonnet. No nation, nevertheless, listened with greater pointment and distrust which followed the last dismem. breathlessness for the first indications of the approach-berment, or settlement as it was termed, of the garden ing tempest, than the one which had been prepared, by of Europe. Their pages show us that present realities the writings of Beccaria and Parini, to expect that are too agonizing to be thought of, far less to be dwelt that storm would bring a lightning in its gloom, which upon; and they follow the example of their brethren in would shiver the chains of a galling and a long-endured eschewing the transactions of the passing hour for the despotism. No people hailed the bursting of the thun-chronicles and the tombs of the past. And, in fine, from derbolt, which en kindled the fiercest passions of man the grave volumes of Botta f may be fairly deduced the from Domo d'Osola to Otranto, with greater joy, or sad conviction which he and his countrymen have been mingled in the turmoil with greater es gerness, than those at last brought to, of the almost utter hopelessness of who generally felt, as well they might,—that their only ever seeing Italy again great and independent. hope of beholding their land of glorious memories once We have been led to hazard these opinions after petmore great and independent, lay in the tempest destroy using the volumes which stand at the head of this notice, ing the political divisions which its oppressors had their author having presented us, in his pages, with the created. And yet, after all the terrible sacrifices and most striking proofs of our position. Throughout the the patriotic efforts which were offered at the shrine of greater portion of these Lettere we find the writer, as may liberty; after all the promises which were made to an be naturally in ferred from the present state of Italy, chiefly afflicted people by monarchs amid defeat as well as vic-occupied with the Antiquities of his father-land. Stored, tory; after all the miseries of a twenty years' warfare as his mind evidently is, with classical and historical were endured,-a warfare probably never surpassed for lore, he seizes every opportunity of turning these to acits desolating effects amid even the annals of the wild-count. Italy is an endless theme for the scholar to de est revolutions, Italy, the ancient mistress of the world scarit upon, and the scholar here pours a flood of eru. -the cradle of literature and the arts, the land where dition over every step of his journey. Signor Dandolo, every field is a page of history, and where every ruin who indites these epistles, appears to be a lineal descenda tells a tale of interest even now, can be only looked at ant of those noble Venetian sires whom Titian and Tin. with satisfaction through the mist of ages,-the monu- toretto took a pleasure in depicting, and, sorrowing for ment of past might, and of modern misrule, and doomed, the sunset of their city's glory, he feels a solace to bis it seems, ever to exhibit the mournful character given sadness in the picturings of memory, and the creations of to her by her own Fantoni

imagination. A time-hallowed church or a deserted “ Or druda or serva di stranieri genti !"

temple—a tottering column or a crumbling aqueduct

a ruined palace or a lonely tomb, are to him the themes It may easily be believed that the literature of a na- of eloquent contemplation. Chronicles give him facts, tion so circumstanced could not fail to partake of the and Fancy gives him figures. Beings of past ages flit wild, the melancholy, and the desponding feelings which before his eye, as History draws them; and long-stiiled such struggles, such sacrifices, and such a consummation as we have alluded to, would successively engender. The poetry and the prose of modern Italy, in fact, pre- t We principally allude 'to the “ Ultime Lettere di Jacopo sent the sad record of the bright and the blasted hopes Ortis," and

... Sepolchrinn, of that national regeneration which her children have in author of the Storia d'Italia," when he says, “ Cosi l' Italia,

# Mark the despair which lurks in these simple words of the dulged in and bewailed. For, whether the subjects dopo una sanguinosa e varia catastrofe di vent'anni, della quale which have elicited the genius of Italian writers for half dieci terremoti e non so quanti volcani sarebbero stati per lei mia century, may have been those of fact or those of ima- iv. p. 500.

gliori, si ricoinponeva a un di presso dello stato antico."-Vol.

See " Il Giorno."

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voices speak as Imagination dreams they would have cravats and saltatory science, and blushes for the barbar. done ; in short, Dandolo indulges at every step of his isin of ancestors to whom ihe inestimable blessings of tour, and would wish lis readers to join him, in that “Weippert's quadrilles" were denied, and to whom the

beautiful nomenclature of “ La Belle Assemblée" was Worship of the great of old, The dead, but sceptr’d sovereigns, who still rule

no more intelligible than the Jewish Cabala or Doctor Our spirits from their urns.

Spurzheim's theories.

For my own part, I join but feebly either in the comAlthough antiquities, however, are the leading charac- plaints or the felicitations. In such an affair, I am little teristics of the volumes before us, the author occasion. better than Byron's flirt, ally risks himself upon modern ground. And when we find him there, as is more frequently the case in his let

“ Who smiles with all, and weeps with none." ters on Florence and Venice, we feel regret that he has not the fortitude to risk himself there oftener. Heaven forbid that I, or any one else, could feel or We are tired with the oft-repeated opinions of stran- affect indifference when female honour was likely to be gers upon Italy, and sigh for something new from a na.

endangered by the abolition of what Pope calls its tive. Here, to a certain extent, we have had our wish

“seven-fold fence !” The satirist, indeed, declares that gratified. The happy picture which Dandolo draws of he has known it “oft to fail ;” but as I have always think, in full accordance with our own opinions arising tion of the “ Hoop,"_had I not seen an adequate subthe present condition of Tuscany is, we are happy to considered this a base and malicious slander, I, for one,

could never, in conscience, have consented to the abrogafrom personal observation; and though rich in colouring, is, nevertheless, destitute of flattery. Under the mild stitute adopted in straw and velvet bonnets, that, Cer. government of Leopold, Tuscany has become an excep- berus-like, debar the approach of mortal within ques. tion and an example to the rest of Italy. Unlike its tionable limits. Then, however one may weep over suffering and weeping neighbours, it has bettered its the decay of high-heeled shoes, which set our greatcondition, and is happy.

“ In this country, at the grandmothers three inches nearer heaven, we still have present hour,” as Dandolo well says, “ grievous and the consolation to see their offspring established on the infamous proscriptions no longer sully the pages of Flo- more solid basis of mud-boots. Let no man sigh that rentine story; while, in their stead, worth in every shape two-o'clock dinners are exploded, as long as, in his own is found. The rule of a father is seen in the Prince, the day and generation, Providence has consigned him a obedience of children is displayed in the people; there basin of turtle-soup at that hour, and the comfortable is public prosperity and individual industry. These assurance of a no less savoury and more substantial dis. are the enchanting features which Tuscany displays in pensation at six. In short, in every point except one, I these latter times.” What a melancholy contrast to this think the comparative advantages of the abolitions and picture is to be found in the author's account of Flo-innovations so nicely balanced, that the specific differrence, the city of his ancestors !

ence “ 'twixt tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee" may be To the sober-minded English reader, the style of these safely set down as the assignable value of any actual epistles may appear inflated and over-stretched; but it is change in the aggregate of human happiness, produced a style well suited to Italian taste and Italian feeling by the various revolutions in customs, clothing, dining, The inhabitants of the land, which for centuries has and drinking. A striking corroboration, by the way, of been

Paley's profound theory of Compensations.

There is, however, one notable point in which the “ Sempre il premio della vittoria,"

lapse of a century has produced a change, no less remark

able in itself, than deplorable in its consequences; name. can only be attracted, at the present moment, by the ex- ly, in the taste, talents, and inordinate affection of the pression of deep passion or patriotic melancholy. Under public, for every engine and opportunity of locomotion, such feelings, prose, in the dulcet tones of the Italian and the insatiable cacoethes for spawning quartos there. tongue, becomes poetry; and what perhaps appears little anent. The time was, when a journey to the neighbourshort of rodomontade and extravagance to us, is no- ing market town was regarded as an epoch in the life of thing else than the common food which is required to him who undertook it, and entitled him thereafter to the meet the cravings of morbid sensibilities. The style of veneration of his fellow villagers ; when geographical a nation is invariably influenced, more or less, by its po- knowled re was limited to a space like that over which a litical history; and what we might reprove as affectation fat pony, with a full-grown aiderman on its back, could in some, is, in the Italian, the natural expression of amble in the course of a summer day ;—when the na. brooding disappointment and deep-rooted melancholy.

tives of Glasgow left home in the heavy coach, being then in the prime of youth, and reached Edinburgh grey

haired, -every individual having first taken the precau. MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE.

tion to insure his life against the perils that awaited him ; and lastly, when the “ Leith Mail” changed

horses three times on the road to town,—thereby allow. THOUGHTS OX ANCIENT, AND HINTS TO MODERN, ing the passengers sufficient time to breakfast, dine, and

sup ;-night-caps being always provided in cases of

emergency. But, alas! these days are fied, and nothing It is a constant theme of regret to some, of joy to now remains to recall to mind the dignity and importance others, and of sage observation to all, that the national of travelling in our great-grandmothers' time, save some character has undergone a thorough metamorphosis du- mouldering remnant of a machine, that carried forty. ring the last hundred years. The advocates of antiquity four souls and bodies at a time, drivers excluded ;-or look with philanthropic grief on the extinction of the an occasional instance of traditionary lore, that records sublime principle that guided our progenitors, in mat- the death of some adventurous spirit,—the Mungo Park ters of cocked-hats, long waists, and immeasurable hoops, of his day, who purchased immortality in a fearless, -and make little scruple to avow their belief, that with though fatal, attempt to explore the fastnesses and bounthe tailorly and millinery virtue of former years, have daries of his native country. vanished the secondary, but still important, qualities of It is in vain to search modern annals for similar innational courage and sound morality. The - Laudator stances of noble daring. Long coaches and impassable temporis præsentis," on the other hand, points with roads have vanished from our land, and with them have proud satisfaction to the modern reformation in starched gone the poetry and romance of travelling. Who, in this

TRAVELLERS.

9

degenerate age, has ever experienced the mysterious and and self-persecution. It is impossible to witness such undetinable emotions that agitated the bosom of him, persevering attempts to extract enjoyment by a precise who, of yore, committed himself to the body or basket of formula and determinate process, without thinking of the a long coach--unable to foresce the time and place at patient labours of a worthy and phlegmatic German, who which dinner should be served ; all the future, so far as spent half a century in performing somersets over tables regarded a comfortable cup of tea,—a barren waste ;- and chairs ; and who, on being asked the reason for such unconscious of the season when “tired nature's kind re- singular and severe exertions, replied, with conscious storer, balmy sleep,” should revisit him en a shake-down pride glistening in his eye, “ Je me fais vif, monsieur." on three chairs, in a village inn ; and looking forward This indefatigable man rose early, eat seldom, and sat to the overturning of the vehicle every hundred yards, up late, in order to pursue his favourite task, and, as or its final arrestment in a deep rut, where he and his may easily be supposed, fell a martyr to his vivacious companions, ignorant of the path, and unable to extri. determinations. In like manner, I have no doubt, do cate the old lumber-box, would be found, after many a full moiety of our population become victims to their days, fleshless skeletons, with not a vestige of their for- erratic propensities. During the summer months, we mer framies, but the night-caps in which they died ! can scarcely take up a newspaper that does not narrate When people had one common prospect of peril and the premature exit of a young gentleman with drab gaisuffering before their eyes, it could not fail to excite ters, who sought relief to his cares by stepping from a the social sympathies and sentiments of all. Every lady stage coach into his own garters. The bills of mortality would look forward to the time, when the first overturn are greatly increased, likewise, by the crowds of interestshould afford a convenient opportunity of falling, faint, ing females, who, in their fruitless search after the plealanguid, and speechless, into the arms of an admiring sant and picturesque, precipitate themselves into the swain, with a Welsh wig, who was her vis-à-vis. The nearest lake, for the mere purpose of dissipating ennui. gentlemen would gaze with chivalrous idolatry upon the And so far (many will think) there is nothing else than fair forms, which, the next moment, they might be call. the wise provision of nature, to rid society of blue-stocked upon to rescue from a muddy grave, and restore to ings, sentimentalists, and sonneteers, in the present re. animation by the skilful application of a scent bottle ; dundant state of these pestiferous tribes. But, untor. and all ranks and sexes would be knit together in that tunately, the evil does not rest with them; and it is friendly and paternal affection, which long and continu. impossible to say how far it may proceed, if steam ed intercourse could not fail to beget.

coaches are once tolerated, and the unlimited use of Such were once the perils, the excitements, and the * pen and ink" not speedily interdicted. As matters pleasures, of travelling in a long coach. Alas! that it stand, no bagman posts without printing ; nor, for many should ever have been superseded ;—for to its decay years, has a milliner with a green veil been seen three must be attributed the decline of that ardent friendship miles out of town, without making her debut in hotfor their own, and that devoted admiration of the other pressed tomes six months thereafter. In short, whensex, which constituted the glory and character of the ever a travelling bag or band-box is seen, there, be as. men of other ages. Nay, I have not a doubt, that were sured, are materials for another volume, calculated to the records of the mail-coach office at Madrid rigidly in- spread the baneful itch for being happy by force, through spected, it would turn out, 'twas not “ Cervantes smiled all ranks and conditions of men. It is thus that re. Spain's chivalry away,” but merely the extinction of the spectable tailors are annually seduced from their shoprace of heavy coaches that annihilated the gallantry and boards and thimbles-that promising haberdashers are courage of his countrymen. This is melancholy enough; led into the pernicious snares of sensibility and cigar. but in our own vaunted land, matters are still worse. smoking—that young gentlemen of genius in the groCan there be a more deplorable object in this world, cery line have been entrapped into fur caps and bro. than a father of a family setting out on a journey, cal ken English—and the great bulk of our people been culating to the twentieth of a second when he will arrive driven into the unseemly practice of once-a-year leaving at the Bolton Tun, or the Swan with the Two Necks ; a home, which nature, in its mercy, ever intended they and letting his wife know, in course of post, the precise should quit. instant at which to have the eggs boiling for breakfast

Manitold as these evils are, still it would be unjust on his return ? The excitement and delight of an oyster to ascribe them wholly to the mere exercise, or despicable are infinitely greater than those of the individual who modes of travelling now in use. Every pursuit, in order is hurled along a road smooth as a billiard-table, and to be successful, requires, as is well known, an especial monotonous as a doctrinal discourse, and who can nei- taste and original faculty for itself. Not to mention the ther be enlivened by accident, nor retarded by circum- instances of poets, painters, fiddlers, &c. there is my stances, every thing being previously arranged and pre-worthy friend, Mortuus, who is so completely au fait in destined by the fiat of a mail contractor.

What inte. all that relates to funerals, mortcloths, graves, and unrest can such a being have in travelling, or what plea- dertaking in general,-he would never have attained his sure can he enjoy in reaching the end of a hundred miles, present reputation, had he not been gifted with an journey, before he has had time to button his great.coat, original passion for wearing crape, and intense relish for much less to ascertain whether his fellow-passengers are sable garments, that neither time nor education have human beings or not ? Even if he is blessed with an been able to eradicate. Even so is it with travelling. intuitive perception of the sex and beauty of the sweet Let no piece of mechanism, whether male or female, little item of flesh and blood that sits opposite, what attempt the same; no man of arithmetical principles and avails it ? There are no robbers 'on the way–no ruts syllogistic aspect ; nor any virgin, afflicted with pride, in Macadamized roads—no possibility of murder when prudery, or phlegm. But whenever you find one who, moving at the rate of eleven and a half miles per hour in time and place convenient, can look upon the world nothing on which a rational man could found a discourse and all its concerns as means and materials for mirth -and nothing that could ever elicit for reply from any and merriment—who can, for a season, discard the grawell-bred Miss, more than an insipid Yes,” or a vity and restraint of decorons dulness, and yield himself drawling “ No.”

to laugh at every thing, including himself-one, in short, Every body, in fact, allows the nothingness of modern who in punning is abstemious, in joking indefatigable, travelling, and inveighs against the silence and mono- and in " deevilry" assiduous,--there, be assured, is one syllables of the unhappy creatures he meets with in the who may take a tour without taking the blue devils, and mail; but still, every one scems impelled by a mania with whom you may safely ramble for a twelvemonth, he can neither resist nor explain, to swell the number if he does not kill you with enjoyment in the first fortof those who annually indulge in this species of penance night.

THE AYRSHIRE SCULPTOR.

FINE ARTS.

far the attempt was likely to prove successful, Mr Thom not being then known in Ayr. These doubts seemed to be confirmed, on the latter returning with a

very imperfect sketch, taken by placing transparent pa(We have been favoured with the following article from the per on the picture. These occurrences happened on the pen of a gentleman whose taste and habits enable him to invest Wednesday, consequently nothing could be done till the subject with a much more than common degrec of interest.] Thursday, when materials were to be procured, and

Is the history of the Arts, we know not that there oc- other arrangements made, before the work was absolutecurs a more striking instance of natural genius-mean- ly begun. The surprise, then, may be conceived, on ing, by this use of the terin, a certain bias of the mind, the artist returning on the Monday following with the as it were, irresistibly impelling to some particular ex- finished bust. In this work, though somewhat defecercise-than in the sculptures from the Poems of Burns, tive as a likeness, the execution, the mechanical details, now exhibiting in Edinburgh. James Thom, the sculp- and the general effect, were wonderful, especially when tor of these (every thing considered) wonderful figures, viewed in connexion with the shortness of the time, and is a native of Ayrshire, and of very respectable parent- the disadvantage of being finished almost from memory age near Tarbolton. Although, like those of his country--the very imperfect outline, already mentioned, being man and inspirer, his rela ives were all engaged in agri- the only external guide. It was this general excellence cultural pursuits, (his brothers, we understand, possess that encouraged the proposal of a full length figure-a large farms,)—the young man himself preferred the oc- proposal to which the artist gave his ready assent, stating cupation of a mason, and was, accordingly, apprenticed that he had wished to undertake something of the kind, to a craftsman in Kilmarnock. This profession was but did not consider it prudent, without any prospect of probably selected as offering the nearest approach to the remuneration, to hazard the expense both of the block undefined workings and predilections of his own inex- of stone and the loss of time. On this Mr Auld offered perienced mind, since he was not, as in the instance of to procure any stone from the neighbouring quarries several sculptors of eminence, thrown first into the trade which the artist might judge fit for his purpose. Several of a stone-mason by the force of circumstances. This days elapsed in this search ; in the meantime, the matwould appear from his showing little attachment to the ter was rather laughed at than encouraged ; and some drudgery of the art : accordingly, his first master is un- apprehensions of failure, and exposure to consequent derstood to have pronounced him rather a dull appren- comments, being expressed, “ Perhaps," said the artist, tice. From the beginning he seems to have looked for- endeavouring to re-assure his friends, “ I had just betward to the ornamental part of his calling, and in a ter try my hand at a head, as a specimen o' Tam.” This country town where there was little or no opportunity of being agreed to, he returned to Crosby churchyard, employment in that line, to those more immediately where he was then employed upon a grave stone. The concerned, he might appear less useful than a less as- day following happened to be one of continued rain, and piring workman. The evidences of young Thom's di- finding that the water filled up his lines, probably, too, ligence and talent at this time, however, still remain in thinking more on “ glorious Tam," than on the menumerous specimens of carving in stone, which he him- mento mori he was attempting to engrave, our artist reself still considers, we are told, as superior to any thing solved to take time by the forelock, and to set about the he has yet done. The seeming errors which even the “ specimen head" directly. Accordingly, pulling from greatest men have made in the estimate of their own the ruins of the “ auld kirk” of Crosby a rabat of the powers, have been commented upon as proverbial truc door-way, as a proper material for his purpose, he sat isms. The causes of these apparent miscalculations have, himself down among the long rank grass covering the however, not been taken into account. The artist or the graves, and in that situation actually finished the head author alone fully knows the difficulties encountered in before rising. Nay, more, although the day has been the execution of any design,--the triumphs he achieved described to us “ as a doun-right pour,” so total was his over his own mind and means,--the obstacles both ex. absorption in the work-so complete his insensibility to ternal and intellectual which he had to remove.

every thing else, that he declares himself to have been His term of apprenticeship being expired, Mr Thom unconscious of the “rattling showers,” from the morepaired to Glasgow in pursuit of better employment-ment he commenced. Such is the power of genuine and Here his merits were immediately perceived, and so well natural enthusiasm in a favourite pursuit. This head, rewarded, that his wages were considerably higher than which contained, perhaps, more expression than that the ordinary rate. We feel it proper tó advert here even of the present figure, decided the matter. Next pointedly to these circumstances, as honourable alike to day, the uninformed mass which now sits in St An. Mr Thom and his friends; and as presenting his claims drew's Square, the every thing but living representative to public patronage in a just light, as the claims of a of “ Heroic l'am,” was brought into Ayr, a load for young man, who, by his talents, had rendered himself four stout horses, and placed in a proper workshop, with.

truly respectable in his occupation, but who, with laud- in Cromwell's fort. able ambition, is desirous of rising to a higher profes- It may be interesting to mention a few particulars of sion. In this attempt he can already plead more than the manner in which these figures have been composed one example, and, we are disposed to think, no ordi- and finished. “ Tam” was selected by the artist as a nary qualifications for becoming from a stone-mason—a subject for his chisel. The figure now is understood to sculptor.

bear a strong traditional resemblance to the well-known In this latter profession, Mr Thom's career may be Thomas Reid, some furty years ago a renowned specidated from the commencement of last winter. Being men of a Carric farmer, and who, residing at Shanter, employed at this time in the immediate neighbourhood, furnished to Burns the prototype of his hero. Mr Auld be applied to Mr Auld of Ayr, who has since proved so stipulated a given price, which has since most liberally steady and judicious a friend, for permission to take a been doubled, and proposed the subject. sketch from a portrait of Burns, with the intention of

“ Souter Johnnie, executing a bust of the poet. This is a good copy of the original picture by Nr Nasmyth, and is suspended

His ancient, trusty, drouthy cronie,”. in the very elegant and classical monument, from a de- is said to be a striking likeness of a living wight_a sign by Mr Hamilton, erected to the memory of the cobbler near Maybole ; not thatthis individual sat for bard on the banks of the Doon, near “ Allowa's auld his portraiture, but that the artist appears to have wrought haunted kirk." The permission was kindly granted ; from the reminiscences of two interviews with which he doubts, however, being at the same time expressed, how was favoured, after twice travelling “ some lang Scotch

ture.

miles,” in order to persuade the said “souter" to trans- necessary and grateful to genius. They have shown that fer his body, by means of his pair of soles, from his own they properly esteem his works they have given him to the artist's studio. The bribe of two guineas a-week, commissions, but they have left him to follow his purexclusive of " half-mutchkins but the score," proved, suits—they have not attempted to withdraw his atten. however, unavailing, and the cobbler remained firm to tion from that very profession, by improvement in which the last. By this refusal, “ the birkie” has only be- he alone can realize the prospects ever open to talent, come poorer by the said couple of guineas, and certain sobriety, and industry. “ half-mutchkins drouthier," for so true has the eye of the sculptor proved, that every one is said instantly to recognise the cobbler's phiz and person. A strange

THE DRAMA. perverseness, indeed, or fatality, or what you will, seems to have seized upon all the favoured few selected as fitting archetypes for these admirable figures. For, It was the building of the New Town that led to Tam's “ nether man" occasioning some anxiety in the the building of the present Theatre Royal, which was perfection of its sturdy symmetry, a carter, we believe, not completed under an outlay of 1.6900. This ex. was laid hold of, and the gamashins being pulled on pense seems to have been more than Mr Ross, the first for half-an-hour, Tam's right leg was finished in rival. patentee, was prepared to bear; and his resources being ship of the said gentleman's supporter. It appears to cramped, he opened with a very indifferent company, have been agreed upon that he should return at a fitting and in consequence found it impossible to make his opportunity, having thus left Tam" hirpling;” but in establishment pay. An accident, too, happened at the the interval, the story of the sitting unfortunately ta. time, which, while it affected the public generally, king air, and the soubriquet of “ Tam o' Shanter” bore against the Theatre in particular. We allude to threatening to attach to the lawful and Christian appella- the falling of the North Bridge ;—when nearly finishtions of the man of carts, no inducement could again ed it gave way above the vaults at the south end, and bring him within the unhallowed precincts of our sculp- buried five persons in the ruins. This happened in Autor's atelier.

gust 1769, and the Theatre opened in the Decenaber It will, doubtless, excite the admiration of every one following, just at the moment when the spirit of enter. in the slightest degree conversant with the Arts, that prise, which was so rapidly inducing the extension of these figures, so full of life, ease, and character, were the New Town, had received a check of so serious a na. thus actually executed without model, or drawing, or It was not till 1772 that the bridge was made palpable archetype whatsoever. The artist, indeed, passable, and the houses were not finished, nor the shops knows nothing of modelling, and so little of drawing, occupied, nor the street opened for carriages, till 1778. that we question if he would not find difficulty in ma- The wealth, however, which about this period existed in king even a tolerable sketch of his own work. The chisel Edinburgh, finally succeeded in carrying every thing beis his modelling-tool--his pencil—the only instrument of fore it. The mighty advantages which accrued to the his art in short, with which he is acquainted, but which he city from the accession of the New Town, in the short handles in a manner, we may say, almost unprecedented space of fifteen or twenty years, are hardly to be crein the history of sculpture. This, however, is yet the dited. In 1763 the revenue of the Post Office was only minor part; for we think, nay, are sure, we discover in about L.11,000 per annum; in 1783 it had risen to this dexterity of hand, in this unerring precision of eye, L 40,000. In 1763 there were only three stage-coaches in this strong, though still untutored, conception of form in all Scotland-two of these went between Edinburgh and character—the native elements of the highest art. and Leith, with three horses, a coachman, and outrider ; These primordial attributes of genius, by proper culture, and the other departed once a-month for London, and may do honour to the country and to their possessor. was about eighteen days upon the journey ; in 1783 At all events, instruction will retine and improve at there was not a place of any consequence in the countempts in the present walk of art, even should study be try to which there were not coaches regularly every day, unable to elevate attainment to a higher. Now, hown and fifteen left Edinburgh for London every week, and ever, it would be not only premature, but unjust, to reached the capital in four days. In 1763 people of the criticise these statues as regular labours of sculprure. first rank and quality lived in the old-fashioned houses They are to be regarded as wonderful, nay, almost mi- situated in the dark and confined closes of the Old Town; raculous, efforts of native, unaided, unlearned talent--as in 1783 these houses were possessed only by persons of an approach to truth almost in spite of nature and of the humblest grade, while not the nobility alone, but science ; but they do not hold with respect to legitimate even several of the ministers and professors kept their sculpture—the high-souled the noblest--the severest own carriages, and lived in the first style of splendour of all arts--the same rank as in painting, the works of and fashion. In 1763 the shore-dues at Leith amount. the Dutch masters do as compared with the lofty spirits ed to L.580; in 1783 they were not under L.4000. of the Roman. Precisely for this reason, that while si- These are only a few instances of the rapid growth of milar subjects are not only fit, but often felicitous, sub prosperity, in Edinburgh ; but they serve to mark the jects for the pencil they are altogether improper ob- general features of the times, and, of course, with this jects of sculptural representation. Mr Thom may be prosperity, theatrical entertainments gradually acquired assured we do not say this to discourage him—we are increasing interest and importance. his best friends in recommending diligence and deep Mr Ross, perceiving that he had not the talents exstudy of his profession. He has yet to commence from actly qualified to suit him for a manager, let the Theatre the very commencement.

on a lease of three years, for five hundred guineas a. Much will depend upon the patronage and judgment year, to the celebrated Foote, who, in 1770, brought of his countrymen. With the melancholy fate of Burns down an excellent company with him from his own before them, we trust both parties will avoid the errors Theatre of the Hay Market, and cleared one thousand which in each destroyed the happiness, and blasted even pounds in a single season. Finding it inconvenient, the talents, of that unhappy son of genius. Mr Thom, it however, to be so much absent from London, he subsec gives us the sincerest pleasure to state, has hitherto been the Theatre for the remaining two years of his lease to distinguished and respected for sober habits, and manly Messrs Digges and Bland, the former of whom, in parsteadiness of character ; nor ean we refrain from com- ticular, was then well known in Edinburgh as a clever mending, as a future example, the judicious manner in and favourite performer. They were so well pleased which his patrons in Ayrshire have acted. There the with their bargain, that they renewed the agreement with upper ranks have lent that countenance which is at once Mr Ross for five years more ; but it is not understood

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