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hit in each capacity; was very round, very short, and than Mrs Copperas seemed to expand into a new exist
very much like a John Dory, and saw in the features • My husband, sir,' said she, apologetically, is and mind of the little Copperas the exact representative so odd ; but he's an excellent, sterling character; and of himself.
that, you know, Mr Linden, tells more in domestic life " • Adolphus, my love,' said Mrs Copperas, mind than all the shining qualities which captivate the fancy. what I told you, and sit upright. Mr Linden, will you I am sure, Mr Linden, that the moralist is right in ad. allow me to cut you a lectie piece of this roll ?'
monishing us to prefer the gold to the tinsel. I have Thank you,' said Clarence ; • I will trouble you now been married some years, and every year seems haprather for the whole of it.'
pier than the last; but then, Mr Linden, it is such plea. 6. Conceive Mrs Copperas's dismay! From that mo. sure to contemplate the growing graces of the sweet ment she saw herself eaten out of house and home ; be pledge of our mutual love.-Adolphus, my dear, keep sides, as she afterwards observed to her friend Miss Bar- your feet still, and take your hands out of your pockets.' bara York, the vulgarity of such an amazing appe- “ A short pause ensued. tite!'
6 • We see a great deal of company,' said Mrs Cop“ • Any commands in the City, Mr Linden ?' asked peras, pompously, and of the very best description. the husband. • A coach will pass by our door in a few Sometimes we are favoured by the society of the great minutes must be on 'Change in half an hour. Come, Mr Talbot, a gentleman of immense fortune, and quite my love, another cup of tea—inake haste-I have scarce- the courtier. He is, it is true, a little eccentric in his
ly' a moment to take my fare for the inside, before dress ; but then he was a celebrated beau in his young coachee cakes his for the outside. Ha! ha! ha! Mr days. He is our next neighbour-you can see his house Linden.'
out of the window, just across the garden there. We * • Lord, Mr Copperas !' said his helpmate, how have also sometimes our humble board graced by a very can you be so silly ? Serting such an example to your elegant friend of mine, Miss Barbara York, a lady of son. 100 Never mind him, Adolphus, my love. Fy, very high connexions-her first cousin was a Lord Mayor child, a'n't you ashamed of yourself ? Never put the --Adolphus, my dear, what are you about ?-Well, Mr spoon in the cup till you have done tea : I must really Linden, you will find your retreat quite undisturbed. I send you to school to learn manners. We have a very must go about the household affairs ; -not that I do any pretty little collection of books here, Mr Linden, if you thing more than superintend, you know, sir ; but I think would like to read an hour or two after breakfast.- no lady should be above consulting her husband's inteChild, take your hands out of your pockets. All the rests. That's what I call true old English conjugal af. best classics, I believe-Telemachus, and Young's fection. Conie, Adolphus, my dear.' Nighı T noughts, and Joseph Andrews, and the Specta- “ And Clarence was now alone. “I fear,' thought cor, and Pope's Iliad, and Creech's Lucretius ; but you he, that I shall get on very indifferently with these peowill look over them yourself. This is Liberty Hall, as ple. Taught by books, not experience, i fondly ima. well as Copperas Bower, Mr Linden!'
gined that there were very few to whom I could not suit 56 • Well, my love,' said the stock-jobber, ' I believe myself; but I have yet to learn, that there are certain I must be off. Here_Tom-Tom-(Mr de Warrens vulgarities which ask long familiarity with their cause had just entered the room with some more hot water, to and effect, rightly to understand and patiently to endure. weaken still farther the poor remains of what was once The outward coarseness of the lowest orders, the mental the tea)-Tom-just run out and stop the coach ; it grossièreté of the highest, I can readily suppose it easy will be by in five minutes.'
to forgive; for the former does not offend one's feeling , ** • Have not I prayed and besought you many and nor the latter one's habits ; but this base, pretending, many a time, Mr Copperas,' said the lady, rebukingly, noisy, scarlet vulgarity of the middle ranks, --which has
not to call Þe Warrens by his Christian name? Don't all the rudeness of its inf-riors, with all the arrogance you know that all people in genteel life, who only keep and heartlessness of its betters,—this pounds and pence one servant, invariably call him by his surname, as if patch-work of the worst and most tawdry shreds and be were the butler, you know ?'
rags of manners, is alike sickening to one's love of hu. 4 • Now, that is too good, my love,' said Copperas. man nature, and one's refinement of taste. But it will "I will call poor Tom by any surname you please, but not do for me to be misanthropical ; and (as Dr Latin. I really can't pass him off for a butler! Ha! ha! ha! | as was wont t) say) the great merit of philosophy, when you must excuse me there, my love.'
it cannot commund circumstances, is to reconcile us to * • And pray, why not, Mr Copperas ? I have known them.” P. 171_79. many a butler bungle more at a cork than he does; and
There is one thing to be said in favour of " The Dis. pray, tell me, who did you ever see wait better at din.
owned.” The reader is inclined to go on with it after ner?' " ' He wait at dinner, my love! It is not he who he has once commenced, always expecting something
better than he ever really meets with; and he clos's the waits.' "• Who then, Mr Copperas ?'
fourth volume with the conviction, that, had there been
a fifth, the author's abilities would have been made more Why, we, my love ; it's we who wait at dinner ; conspicuous in it. The fact is, that his abilities have but that's the cook's fault, not his.' * * Pshaw! Mr Capperas. --Adolphus, my love, sit been misdirected ; and time and experience will proba.
bly show hiin his error. upright, darling.'
* Here De Warrens cried from the bottom of the stairs – Measter, the coach be coming up.' " There won't be room for it to turn, then,' said the Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots ; and of
* facetious Mr Copperas, looking round the apartment, as Strathclyde, Cumberland, Galloway, and Murray. if he took the words literally. What coach is it, boy ? By Joseph Ritson, Esq. 2 vols. Edinburgh; W.
.:-* Now that was not the age in which coaches scoured and D. Laing. 1828.
This is another posthumous work of the late indefa. *** I be the Swallow coach, sir.'
tigable antiquarian, Joseph Ritson. It possesses several "Oh, very well ;—then, since I have swallowed in features of inuch interesi ; and we are glad that it has the roll, I will now roll in the Swallow ha! ha! ha! been given to th: public. Lord Hailes, in his valuable Good bye, Mr Linden.'
" Annals," has stated his conviction, that, previous to “ No sooner had the witty stock-jobber left the room, the accession of Malcolm III., (which was in the year
1057,) the history of Scotland is involved in obscurity " if not absolutely manifest, it is, at least, highly proand fable. Ritson appears to have been far from satis- bable, that the whole island of Britain was originally fied with this sweeping conclusion ; and with his accus- peopled by the Celts or Gauls,” whom, Tacitus says, tomed spirit of laborious research, he undertook to remove the Britons universally resembled in their religion, 1 n. some of that obscurity, and to convert into historical guage, and manners ; although, it must be confessed, truth much, which to others had appeared little better the historian himself rather favours the opinion of our than romance. Accordingly, in the prese work, he German descent. Be this as it may, it is certain that has extended the limits of authentic history for many the Caledonians were a distinct people at the time of centuries, and his labours only end where those of Lord Agricola's invasion of this country, and from their in. Hailes begin.
habiting the extreme northern districts of the island, be. It must not, however, be supposed, that either Rit- tween the Murray Frith and Cape Wrath, it would seem son, or any one else, from the scanty materials re- not improbable that they were, as Pinkerton supposes, maining from which to glean information, could fur. a horde of Cimbri or Cimmerii who had not come, like nish a full and complete narrative of the aboriginal in the other Celts, through Gaul, but had crossed from habitants of this country. All that can reasonably be Jutland. Spreading southwards, the Caledonians rapidexpected, is some glimpses of additional light, a few ly gained ground ; and the celebrated battle fought on distinct notions regarding those remote ancestors from the confines of their dominions between Galgacus and whom we have sprung, -and some notices of the state Agricola, “ ad montem Grampium,” seems to have of society existing among them. Of the Caledonians, taken place in Aberdeenshire, and, probably, in that part who were of a race perfectly distinct from her the of it Buchan. The great walls afterwards built by Scots or the Picts, and who were certainly the most an. the Emperors Hadrian, Antoninus, and Severus, appear cient, if not the indigenous, inhabitants of this coun- to have been intended to prevent the Caledonians from try, the only genuine account is to be found in the wri- making incursions into that part of the island which the tings or remains of Tacitus, Dio Cassius, and one or two Romans had conquered; for the Caledonians themselves others of less note, who were also Roman citizens, and, they were never able to subdue. In the reign of the Em. of course, wrote in Latin ; and to these may be added, peror Maximilian, the Romans, harassed and weakened the Chronicles of Richard of Cirencester, a monk of with civil dissensions, could pay little attention to so Westminster, in the fifteenth century, “ into whose hands distant a conquest as Britain, and the consequence was, had fallen certain collections of a Roman general, and that a general revolt took place throughout the whole whose compilation, including a curious ancient map of island; and, as the old historian Procopius informs us, Britain, was originally printed at Copenhagen, in 1757.” “ the Romans were never able to recover Britain, but The information to be obtained concerning the Picts and from that time it was in the rule of tyrants.” In other Scots is still more meagre and doubtful, and the two words, the island was divided into a number of petty kingauthors, in particular, who enter most into details, doms and tribes, who waged perpetual war against each John de Fordun, who wrote the Scoti.chronicon, and An- other, in the hope of increasing their respective power, drew of Wyntown, who wrote the “ Oryginale Chrony- and only occasionally, like the states of Greece, entered kil of Scotland,”- _are well known to be both gross forgers into a general confederacy when threatened by any fo. and falsificators, so that little or no reliance can be placed reign invasion from the Danes or others. on their statements. The plan, however, which Mr Rit- In Scotland there seem, about this time, to have been son has adopted in these “Annals,” is simple and good. three nations, who divided the country among themHe treats successively of distinct tribes and districts, and, selves, and were each independent. These were the after a few introductory remarks on each, he proceeds to Caledonians, the Pucts, and the Scots. Of the Caledocollect, from various sources, and arrange chronologically, nians we have already spoken. The earliest mention such extracts and passages from ancient writers, as tend made of the Picts is by a Latin author of inferior note, to elucidate the history of the times, always subjoining in the year 296. It seems quite certain that the Picts translations. It is impossible to attempt any thing like an were not known in Britain till the third century. Whence analysis of all the materials he has thus collected, which, they came is matter of complete dubiety, though it is indeed, in many instances, abound much more in anti- probable that they were of a more southern origin than quarian lore, than in facts calculated to instruct and please the Caledonians. Ritson does not think that they de. the general reader ; but a few of the leading results of his rived the name of Picts from the circumstance of their researches are important, and ought to be communicated being picti, or painted. The practice of painting the body to our readers, who may not choose to peruse the whole prevailed almost universally among the barbarous nawork with that care which we have bestowed upon it. tions of antiquity, and no distinguishing appellation
It appears, then, that the earliest mention to be found could be derived from a custom so very common. any where of the British Islands is in the ancient treatise Roman poets are continually speaking of tribes which “Of the World,” usually ascribed to Aristotle. By him they describe as picti, virides, cærulei, and all these they are classed under the general name of Allion ; but epithets, in addition to those of infecti and flavi, may that this appellation was suggested by some early mari. be found applied to the Britons generally. Pinkerton is ner, who happened to sail near some of the high chalky of opinion that Pict is a corruption of Peht or Pet, and cliffs which here and there line the coast, is improbable, that Fct is equivalent to Vet, and that therefore this as asures, and not albus, is the Greek word signifying people must have come from Vetland, which he mainwhite. Tacitus introduces us to the name Britain, and tains is the same as Jutland in Norway. This is a to. he is the first writer who attempts any description of the lerably ingenious specimen of the power of etymology; northern part of the island, which he calls Caledonia. but if this species of reasoning were admitted, the Picts Whether this designation has any connexion with Caly- might be made to have come from any corner of the don, an ancient and famous city of Ætolia, in Greece, is globe. Wherever they came from, they were a bold and not known. A very fierce dispute rages among antiquari- hardy race, and had probably made more progress in the ans as to the manner in which not only Caledonia, but all art of war than the Caledonians, whom they speedily sup. Britain, was originally peopled. It is, on all hands, allow- planted in their ancient possessions, and reduced almost ed to be unphilosophical (though we confess we do not ex- to the condition of a conquered nation. It was on the actly see why) to talk of indigenous inhabitants even Orkney Islands that the Picts first landed, and from on a continent, and much more so on an island. One thence they speedily found their way over to the mainparty is clear that the Caledonians came originally from land. To add to ihe animosity with which their wars Germany, and the other is no less certain that they came were carried on with the Caledonians and Scots, their from Gaul, and are of Celtic origin. Ritson thinks that religious feelings were as directly opposed as their inte
rests. The Britons had very generally embraced Christ. The Annals of Strathclyde, of Cumberland, of Gal. ianity, so early as the year 150; whereas the Picts were loway, and of Murray, which occupy the latter half of obstinate Pagans. To what precise mode of superstition the second volume, are of less general interest, though they were attached, cannot now be ascertained; though in many respects curious and well deserving of attenit is pretty evident that it was not heathenism, but a tion. On the whole, we cannot but consider this work much darker creed, and gloomier mythology. Their an important addition to our national and antiquarian Scottish captives they treated as slaves, and in all things literature. -language, religion, dress, and manners,-kept themselves totally distinct. What their language was cannot be proved, although some have asserted it to have been Gothic;—there is now no vestige of it remaining. They Letters addressed to a Young Person in India, calculuwere always considered as interlopers, and hated as such ted to afford instruction for his conduct in general, by the other inhabitants of Scotland ; and, at length, af. and more especially in his intercourse with the Nater their dynasty had existed for upwards of four hun. tives. By Lieut.-Colonel John Briggs, late Residred years, from the fifth to the ninth century, and the dent at Satara. London, John Murray, 1828. Pp. terror of their name had spread over more than one-half 211. of the island, Kenneth MacAlpin, king of Scots, a man of great military prowess, waged war against them so suc- With the exception of their own, there is perhaps no cessfully, that the whole nation was finally and for ever country in which the British take so strong an interest rooted out, either slaughtered in battle, or forced to fly as India. By far the most extensive and lucrative of the country.
all our colonial possessions, it has been the means of The Scots, a Celtic tribe, in he opinion of Ritson, raising thousands to wealth and rank, who, had they originally made their appearance in Ireland, some time remained at home, would never have been able to step during the third century. They were a very rude and out of that limited sphere to which their birth had savage people, and are accused by St Jerome of being consigned them. Nor has a reciprocity of benefits cannibals. It was to a portion of Ireland that they first been wanting; for if we have extracted wealth from Ingave the name of Scotia, which they afterwards trans- dia, India is indebted to us for rapid advances in civili. ferred to the southern districts of the more ancient Ca- zation, and all the arts of good government and social ledonia. Ritson is by no means inclined to go into the life. In this arrangement, one may almost trace the opinion, that the word Scotia has any connexion with hand of retributive justice. At a much earlier period Scythia, which he calls the “officina gentium, or manu- of the world's history, it was from and not to the East factory of nations.” Pinkerton and others, on the con- that civilization flowed. As if the sun had possessed trary, are clear that the Scots and Scythians are the an influence over the mind of man similar to that it same, the name being derived thus,-Scythia, Scytia, maintains over the vegetable kingdom, the arts and Sciticus, Scoticus, Scotiu. There certainly have been sciences first sprang to maturity in those climes where etymologies much farther fetched; but Ritson will not its warmth is most felt. With knowledge came power, allow it any weight, remarking that it only serves to re- and conquest strode on towards the west. As not unmind him of the ludicrous etymology of Golden Pippin : frequently happens, however, the pupil soon became
-“ Hooper, cooper, diaper, napkin, pipkin, king Pe- greater than the master ; the infirmities of age fell upon pin, golden Pippin.” He appeals to their language as the latter, whilst the former walked forth rejoicing in his still to be found in fragments, or entire works, written new strength. The people of the East came to be nefrom the fifth to the tenth centuries, to prove that the glected amongst the more engrossing concerns that agiScots are clearly a Celtic race ; and it is very probable tated the occidental portions of the old world; and even that he is right; nor would it be of very vast moment so early as the times of Alexander the Great, the Indus were he wrong. Argyleshire was the first territory which was an almost unknown river, and the mighty monarchs these Scots possessed in this country, and the district who came forth to meet the ambitious Macedonian with was then known by the name of Dalriada. They gra- their embattled host of elephants, and with a splendour dually extended themselves over the Hebrides, and along that dazzled and astonished his poorer troops, were prethe northern shores of the Clyde. It was not, however, till posterously treated by them as barbarians. Centuries the eleventh century, that the name of Scotia, or Scotland, passed on, and the East was almost forgotten. The gowas given to the country now so called. Their primi-vernments of Greece and Rome rose and fell; Constantive dialect, which differed little from the Irish Gaelic, tinople lorded it over the land of the Cæsars ; the north continued in use, with both prince and people, till the shook off its lethargy, and arose in rude strength, first reign of Malcolm III., surnamed Canmore, in 1057. to overwhelm, and finally to re-invigorate the effeminate From that time, the Saxon or English, from a variety of south; the claims of any one country to universal do. causes, gradually usurped its place, till it became at minion were overturned for ever ; France had her Charlength confined to the Hebrides, and those more remote lemagne-Germany her Otho_Spain her Caliphatdistricts of the west and north Highlands, which the and England her Alfred. At first all was contusion, Scots took possession of on their evacuation by the Picts. war, bloodshed, and darkness; but the elements of what The Scots seem originally to have been held in great is good are never thrown in a moment into exact har. contempt by the English, who, there can be no doubt, mony, either in the moral or physical world. Indepen. advanced much more rapidly towards civilization than dence, however, rapidly suggested new and nobler mo. they did. It was in the year 496 that Fergus, the first tives for exertion; the fragments of that ancient beauty king of the Scots, after their emigration from Ireland, and refinement, which, in the stir of stronger passions, ascended the petty throne of Argyleshire the king of had been trampled under foot, were again carefully colScots, but certainly not of Scotland; and between that pe- lected, and a new structure, less liable to decay, was riod, and the accession of Malcolm III., by which time erected on their ruins. Enterprise succeeded ; comthe Picts had been expelled, the Scots and Caledonians merce began to flourish ; peace was understood to be the been amalgamated, and the whole formed into one, com- natural and the healthy condition of society, and the utparatively powerful, nation, Ritson furnishes us with a termost corners of the earth again communicated amicalist, and some historical Annals of forty-six intermediate bly with each other. Kings, whose characters and exploits are, of course, still
The circumstances which in a particular manner di. involved in very great obscurity, though we believe he rected the attention of the British to India, the measures has thrown upon them all the light that can possibly be they took to acquire a footing there, and the gradual obtained.
extension of their conquests, it is not necessary at pre
sent to advert to. We found, however, that we had to a civil situation of responsibility, removed from the predo not with a raw and upstart nation, ignorant and pre- sidencies, who is ignorant of the language of the district suming ; but with one which, though it had, no doubt, in which he resides. This acquisition, therefore, is by retrograded considerably from its pristine splendour, was no means a matter of choice; it is essential to your pro. proud of its antiquity, jealous of its hard-won honours, gress in the service ; and it is probable, if afur two or constant to its institutions, and more than sacramented in three years a young man should be found obstinate in its religious rites and superstitions. We had to do with a refusing to apply himself to that point, the government people, who, although their learning had little in com- would recommend his being altogether removed from a mon with that to which we laid claim, were, nevertheless, profession, the duty of which he persisted in renaining learned after a fashion of their own, and that fashion they incompetent to fulfil. I am sure you have too much believed the best. It was not a ho'de of slaves whom we pride and good sense to require to be urged on this subject; had to rule over ; it was a powerful and enlightened and, indeed, I know of very, very few instances of young nation whose good-will we were called on to conciliate. men, so absurd as to neglect it, though, of course, all Of the Hindoos, or original inhabitants of India, little, it are not equally diligent, or equally capable of learning. is true, is known, previous to the invasion of the country I conceive six months of close application, in a country in the eleventh century by the Mahommedans; but the where the language is spoken, sufficient to acquire a to. Hindoo Empire had endured for ages before, and it was lerably competent acquaintance with the colloquial part; only then that it began to decline. Our own connexion and any young man, of ordinary capacity, ought to pass with India cannot be said to have existed for longer at a crediiable examination, in a year from the time he be. the most than a hundred years; and for an account of gins; after which, the current business of his office, and the progress we have made during that time, unparallel. the intercourse he maintains with the people, will render ed as it is in the history of the world, we can now refer him, in another year, qualified to translate any docu. to Orme's Transactions of the English in India, toge- ment with ease to himself, and to transact business with ther with the historical and valuable works of Colonel facility." P. 9, 10. Wilks, Captain Grant Duff, Sir John Malcolm, Sir Stamford Raffles, Crawford, and Prinsep.
In “ Letter VI." we find the following excellent ad. The work whose title we have given above, is of a
vice to the young British Officer about to enter the Indifferent kind from those just named, is written in a
dian army, and, in all probability, as profoundly igno. more familiar style, and aims not so much at being his
rant of the men with whom he is to associate, as he is
of those whom he is to cominand :torical, as at supplying useful information to those who are about to commence a career in India, regarding the “Young men who enter the Indian army as cadets are manners and customs, the prejudices and opinions, peculiarly situated. They at once join regiments comof the people with whom they are to associate. We posed of foreigners, to whose language and habits they are disposed to speak both of the author and his pro. are entire strangers ; who form class of men remark. duction in very favourable terms. Colonel Briggs is able for superstitious attention to habils, and bigoted alevidently not only a soldier, but a scholar and a gentle- tachment to the manners and religious ceremonies of
He takes enlarged and philosophical views of their ancestors. Among these people the European the state of society in India ; and we heartily recom- officer is probably destined to pass the greater part of his mend a perusal of these “ Letters" to all young men life ; and one of the first objects of his duty, as regards who are desirous of divesting themselves of the false and himself individually, as well as the men to be placed distorted notions (unfortunately so prevalent) of the state under his command, must be to acquire their language, of native society and manners, before attempting to and to become familiar with their customs. achieve their fortune in that country. Our author “ Indian cadets are usually like yourself. youths from seems to be well acquainted both with the civil and mi- sixteen to eighteen years of age, who have seen very litary departments of service in India ; and we are sa- little of the world, and know nothing beyond what they tisfied, from the calm and judicious manner in which he have acquired at the schools in which they have been states them, and the great stock of sound reasoning and educated. It is not surprising, therefore, to find, that accurate information which he brings to their support, on their first arrival they are struck with astonishment that his opinions are, in both cases, equally deserving at all they see, nor that they should at first dislike, and of attention. A few interesting and instructive extracts, become even disgusted, with the habits of nations so eswhich we purpose making, will enable our readers to sentially different from their own.
In addition to these judge upon this point for themselves. Colonel Briggs circumstances, there is another feeling, which, in India, thus enforces the necessity of all young men intended tends to create a contempt towards the natives, and, for India, studying with diligence the Oriental lan- however absurd the notion, it is, nevertheless, true, that guages :
their dark complexi ns convey to the mind of a Euro.
pean a sensation of inferiority. It is a well-known fact, “ I shall be glad to hear what progress you made in that most of the barbarous nations in the universe, and your Oriental studies (of the languages, I mean,) at the savages found on the several islands discovered by Hertford ; and also, whether you followed my advice, modern navigators, are dark, and that the unhappy and by adopting the course of reading I recommended on debased slaves conveyed from the western coast of Africa board ship. With respect to the languages, you will are also black. From this circumstance, which renders soon find that nothing can be done without ihem ; in- them the objects of commiseration, probably arises the deed, this point is now so well established, that one of contempt we feel for men of that colour, and which leads the regulations of government expressly states, that no us to consider them as a degraded race, whose mi ds are civilian shall be deemed eligible to fill any appointment, incapable of energy, or of the nobler passions of man. till he has passed an examination in at least one Indian kind. This prejudice, so commonly prevalent among language. The veil that exists between us and the na- Europeans towards all dark men, makes us too apt to tives can only be removed by mutual and kind inter- identify fairness of complexion with intellectual powers
It has long been found inconvenient to trust to and civilization, and to associate with the term black dative interpreters for the transaction of business ; and, man,' the idea of barbarism and brutality, indeed, it was impossible, as long as that system pre- “ These notions are usually brought to India by every yailed, that we could obtain any real acquaintance with cadet, and they trequently receive confirmation by an the people and their character. The period to which I association with the officers of the ship, who see and allude has, fortunately, long passed away ; and I believe krow little of the natives of India in general. Their inbardly an instance now exists, of any European holding tercourse is confined to those interested and mercenary
individuals abounding at sea-ports in every part of the " What, then, must be the feelings of a person, landworld, and who, feeding on the necessities and ignorance ing fresh from London, without having witnessed any inof seafaring men, make unfavourable impressions on termediate state of society between the height of Euro. their minds of the whole nation. Yet it would not be pean civilization in the finest city in the universe, and more unfair in a foreigner to judge of the whole English that to which he is so suddenly brought ! people by the casual communication he maintains with “ All the severa shades of similarity which exist in the boatmen and others concerned in clearing ship, at European society, are lost in this hemisphere. Liverpool, Blackwall, or Portsmouth, than to draw un- “ The climate, as I have already observed, requires favourable conclusions of the Hindoo race from the sp - the natives to use very little clothing ; and the labouring cimens which an Englishman sees of the natives of Cal. classes, consequently, hardly use any. The middling cutta, Madras, or Bombay. There is, however, an ad. and upper classes, instead of being clad in close broad. ditional reason why a person arriving from on ship cloth garments, are habited in long flowing linen robes, board should, on his first landing in this country, be giving them, in our eyes, an air of effeminacy. The more shocked with every strange object he sees, than a men shave their heads, both for cleanliness and comfort, traveller would be in Europe. In the latter case, al. and use cotton turbans of various colours, instead of though he meets with great varieties of dress, of modes hats. These it is rude to take off on any pretence ; 80 of worship, and of manners, yet there is a general simi. that what we do out of courtesy, must to them appear larity to what he has always been accustomed. For in. ill. bred. The women have their heads uncovered, and stance, though the costumes in Europe vary, still there wear their hair after the fashion of the Greeks. The eye. is no absolute nakedness, such as strikes every person lids of the Mahommedans are tinged with antimony, to on arriving in India. This is observable at Madras in give the eyes brilliancy, the complexions of the Hinparticular, where, with the exception of a small stripe of doos are not unfrequently dyed yellow with saffron, and linen round his girdle, and a sharp. pointed skull-cap, the teeth of the Mahommedan females are stained black made of leaves, fitting the head, the men in the canoes as ebony after they marry. are absolutely naked. To a European the sight is hard- “ The dryness and the heat of the climate render it ly human, to see a black animal kneeling on three unnecessary to use chairs or couches, as in Europe. The bits of wood, connected only with the fibres of the cocoa- floors of the rooms of the upper class:s are covered with nut, paddling away, alone, several miles from land. carpets, brocades, or fine linens. Upon these they sit, Yet, strange to say, these men, on their rude skiffs, pass eat, and lie down; hence the custom throughout the East through a tremendous surf on the coast, into which no of raking off the shoes before entering on them, which, English seaman or English boat dare venture. The na- soiled by the dirt of the streets, would not only injure the tives, however, fearlessly attend the country boats, filled furniture, but also pollute the linen garments in which frequendy with European passengers, in order to save they are clad. The custom of removing ihe shoes from their lives; and they encounter, night and day, not off the feet, on coming into houses and temples, and on only the risk of drowning, but the more serious chance approaching superiors, is very ancient; and a stronger of being carried away by sharks, to which animals many proof of the fact need not be adduced, than by consulto of them frequently fall victims. As rewards for their ing the third chapter of Exodus, when God commands services, however, we see these naked Indians adorned Moses to put off his shoes, for he stands on holy with wedals, presented by Government for their brave ground ;' and yet, till we become accustomed to this exertions in saving the lives of shipwrecked persons, of habit, it is extremely repugnant !o our feelings to see which they are justly as proud as any military and na
men walking about our houses with naked feet; and it val heroes who may have fought for their king and is the more extraordinary. that we know it is done purely country.
out of respect.” P. 23–9. “ Io Europe, the climate every where requires that the buman body should be clothed, which is by no means
In corroboration of the high feeling which so often necessary in India. Religion, too, though it assumes va- characterises the Hindoo, as described in the above exrivus forms among the numerous sects of Protestants, tract, we cannot do better than subjoin the following Roman Catholics, &c. and the disciples of the Greek anecdote :Church ; still none of these differences shock us by their extravagances. We have, in some degree, become fa- “ While on this subject, I will just relate a circummiliar with them by our education ; and in the course of stance which happened some years ago, connected with passing from one country to another, a traveller in Eu- the epithet black fellow,' which ought to make you rope becomes gradually introduced to the novelties which blush. You are aware that the art of ship-building has occur on his journey. With regard to customs, too, attained, under the conduct of natives alone, a degree of though in some respects different, yet there is a general perfection which enables it to bear a fair comparison similarity preserved throughout the European and Chris with the same art in England. The entire construction tian nations. The same habit every where prevails of sa. of vessels had been for many years conducted in Bomlating by uncovering the head; of sitting on chairs and bay under one Jemsejee, a native Parsee, who, from couches; of entering houses, and even palaces, with being a common ship-carpenter, rose to become master shoes; of eating all sorts of flesh, fish, and fowl, and of builder in the Company's dock-yard ; and in the year using knives, forks, and spoons at our meals. All these 1800, the first frigate built of wak for his Majesty's sercustoms are so common, and so universal with us, that vice was launched into her proper element. The vessel when we find the whole of them neglected, we are natu- had been built solely by natives, and was a proud spe. rally disposed to think such a people sunk into the low- cimen of the perfection they had attained in their art. est state of barbarism. Our surprise is not less than that During the preparations for the launch, to which the of an Indian chief, who one day asked me if we had governor and all the naval officers of his Majesty's Serabundant rice crops in England; but was surprised to vice were invited, it is said, Jemsejee having walked once hear that neither rice, nor any other of the Indian grains, or twice around the vessel, and, elated at her completion wheat excepted, grew in England. You will be equally in so good style, determined to commemorate the event, astonished, no doubt, to learn, that a great part of a po- which he did in the following manner.
Having gone pulation of a hundred millions of inhabitants, exists, for quietly below into the ship's hold, he caused these rethe most part, without eating wheaten bread, flesh, fish, markable words to be carved on the inside of her kelson : or fowl, or drinking fermented liquors of any sort. Both - This ship was built by a d-d black fellow, A. D. the Indian and the European would very naturally ask 1800.' The circumstance was unknown for some years of each other, Then what is it you do subsist on ?' afterwards, until the vessel was brought into dock, and