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I say farther chaste, in opposition to those bold and impudent geniusfes whoare not ashamed of saying many things, which produce unclean ideas in the


the son, nor father or fon be- to dignify these extravagant fore the holy Ghost, but only individuals with the titles of in order, and relation to one jeraphical doctors, angelical another, &c. Beveridge on doctors, irrefragable doctors, the Trinity.

&c. for inventing and main(5) Much of the ancient taining such ftuff. school-divinity was of this It may not be improper to filthy kind. The angelical add an example or two. A doctor St. Thomas Aquinas, certain friar, preaching at the Albertus Magnus, and others, church of Notre-Dame, in have handled the following Paris, againit the antipope, irreverend and scandalous Peter De-Luna, in the year questions: Utriem sent excre- 1408, among many other inmenta in paradiso ? Utrum decent exprellions, protested, Janeti refurgent cum inteftinis ? quod ANUM fordidiffime OmaQuare Christus non fuerit her. zariæ OSCULARI mallet

quam maphroditus ? Utrum fi Deia os Petri De-Luna. Velly' hif. para fuisset vir, potuisset efle de France, tom. xiii. p. 42. naturalis parens Christi? U- That farcical droll Dr. frum verbum potuit hypoftaticæ South, whose low jokes obuniri naturæ irrationali, puta tained the name of wit in, equi, afini, &c. Bayle, Aqui- complaisance to the political nas, rem. E.

cause, for which he spouted, I omit others more scandal- abounds with ludicrous and ous still, and these are related offensive puns. In speaking for the sake of justifying the of “the delights of a soul reformation, and its true clarified by grace, he says, no ground, liberty of conscience. man, at the years and vigour Since the reformation, people of thirty, is either fond of Juhave enjoyed the right of pri- gar-plumbs or rattles.A fage vate judgment, and, in this remark indeed! but the next country, the liberty of pro- is fupremely nasty : pagating their privateopinions man would preserve the irch. by public preaching ; yet no on himself only for the pleaone fect has ever pretended to sure of firarching.I was suaintain theses equal in ab- going to inakc a reflection on furdity to these. Individuals this dirty doctor, but on casting in all parties have run into my eye on the top of the page, extravagances : but it be- I see the doctor has very witlongs to the infallible party ily provided for transferring

" No

mind.(5) A preacher cannot be called chaste, whe, speaking of the conception of Jesus Christ in the virgin's womb by the power of the holy Ghost without the intervention of man, is not careful of saying any thing, that may shock the modesty of fome, and give occasion of discourse to the profanity of others. There are I know not how many subjeets of this kind; as when the eternal generation of Jesus Christ the son of God is spoken of; when the term regeneration is explained, which fcripture useth to express our conversion; or when we treat of that seed of God, of which, according to St. John, we are born; or when we enforce the duties of husbands to wives, or of wives to husbands; or when we speak of the love of Jesus Christ to his church; under the notion of a conjugel relation ; or when eternal felicity is spoken of under the image of a banquet, or of a marriage-feaft. On all such subjects, chastity should weigh the expressions,


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it to the king A sermon whom he names Merdardus, preached at court! South's and who corpore vatto, buccis fermons. f. i. Prov. iii. 17. rubentibus, ventre promi

How superior to these is the nente, lateribus gladiatoriis, pagan rhetorician's example: præter effrontem improbitaEgo Romani pudoris more con- tein et linguam eftrænam ni. tentus, ut jam respondi tali- hil habebat.--- Non eft chrifbus, verecundiam filentio vin- tinæ mentis cuiquam impredicabo. Quint.inft. lib. viii. cari male ; illud potius opcap. 3•

tandum, ut clementiilimus Et quidem jam non etiam reum formator et reformator obscena verba pro obscenis (qui ex Nabuchodonosor hofunt, batuit, inquit, impu- mine fecit bovem, et rursus ex denter, depfit, multo impu- 'bove fecit hominem, qui alidentius, atqui neutrum est næ Balaami dedit hominis linobscenum. Stultorum plena guam) omnes Merdardi fimiles sunt omnia. Cic. ad famil. vertat in melius, detque illis lib. ix. epift. 22.

et mentem et linguam viris I only add what Erasmus evangelicis dignam. Erajm. fays of a preaching friar, colleg. Concio, five Merdardus. and make a judicious choice, in order to keep the hearers minds at the greatest distance from all forts of carnal and terrestrial ideas. The likeliest way of succeeding in these cases is to beware of pressing metaphorical terms too far ; to keep in general considerations, and if possible to explain the metaphorical terms in few words, and afterwards cleave entirely to the thing itself. (6)

4. A

(6) For what regards me he) is necessary, because there taphorical language see the is no one author without exother note in this chapter, No. ception, whose opinions may (6); at present let us exem- not be mistaken, if his complify this rule from Mr. Sau- parisons be stretched beyond rin. The subject is regenera- due bounds: and this, which tion, the text John iii. first is true of all authors, is infive verses. He obferves, that conteftibly true of the orienthe term is a trope, and must tal writers; for as their imaIst be restrained, because, says ginations were naturally more he, it is impossible to under- lively, their metaphors were Itand a metaphor if we do not more bold, and the bolder divest it of every thing foreign the metaphors, the more need from the subject in question. of restriction.'

This 2. It must be justified, for the he instances in several things change spoken of under the fimilar to Mr. Claude's obemblem of a new birth, tho'servations, and closes this expressed in figurative lan- part by saying, “ if you do guage, is yet a real change. not make these restrictions, 3: The idea which a new birth you will push the metaphor gives of this change is fo per- too far, and consequently fect, that it might terrify ti- make indiscreet comparisons morous christians, it must between this new birth and a therefore be qualified. 4. The birth properly so called : you qualifications, of which the would form notions of it not subject is capable, are apt to only unworthy of being relull some into security, who, ceived, but even of being reunder pretence of infirmities futed in such a place as this.” inseparable from the best of Mr. Saurin then proceeds men, allow themselves in vices to guard against the opposite incompatible with a state of mistake, which many have grace; this expreffion there- fallen into, by observing that fore must be guarded. there is a real change actually 1. “ This reftriction (adds required in order to salvation,

a change

4. A preacher must be simple and

grave. Simple, speaking things full of good natural sense without metaphysical 1peculations ; for none are more impertinent than they, who deliver in the pulpit abItract speculations, definitions in form, and scholastic questions, which they pretend to derive from their texts;- as on the manner of the existence of angels, the means whereby they communicate their ideas to each other; the manner in which ideas eternally subsist in the divine understanding; with many more of the same class, all certainly opposite to fimplicity. To simple I add grave, because all sorts of mean thoughts and expressions, all sorts of vulgar and proverbial sayinys, ought to be avoided. The pulpit is the seat of good natural sense ; and the good sense of good men. On the one hand then you are not to philosophize too much, and refine your subject out of light; nor on the other to abase yourself to the language and thoughts of the dregs of the people. (7)

5. The

a change of ideas, a change being adorned and inriched, she of will, a change of taste; a arrived at las to the higheft change of hope ; a change, in dignity and pre-eminence. The hert, of all false schemes of title of the ninthis, The mass's felicity for the one true one, impeachment, and her answer, &c. Saur. fer. tom. 7. fer. with the proceedings against her. onzieme.

The tenth is intitled, God's (7) A preacher must be grave. fentence against the mass. This Bernard Ochin published 12 dramatick method of preachfermons on the Lord's-supper. ing is too much in the taste of The seventh sermonis intitled, the Italians. Bayle, art. OThe tragedy of the mass, and forft chin, rem. P. bow lhe was conceived, born, No doubt but to people of and baptized. The eighth is good education, Vida's is a entitled, How the mass was good rule, as app.icable to nurjed and educated, and how, preaching as to poetry :

Rejice degenerem turbam nil lucis habentem,
Indecoreique notas, ne fit non digna suppellex.
Vidæ ars poet. lib. iii. I. 183.


5: The understanding must be informed, but in

a manner, however, which affects the heart; cither to comfort the hearers, or to excite them to acts of


But yet in compaflion to ledge at the reformation. the dregs of the people, who, Tria faciunt theologum dixit, with all their ignorance, have meditatio, oratio, et tentatio; fouls, it ought to be remem - et tria verbi minittro facienda, bered, that their minds are evolvere biblia, prare seria, accesible anly by their own et femper discipulum manere. way of thinking and speak. Optimi ad vulgus hi sunt coning, and theirs is a different cionatores, qui pueriliter, polanguage and a different habit pulariter et fimpliffime docent. of thinking from others in In vifitatione Saxonica cum in more cultivated life. Hence pago rusticus fymboli verba Aristotle wisely says, - To ds hæc recitaret dialecto suo, Ich τρεπον εξει η λεξις, ανη παθητικη, glove in Gottden alanochteigen, τε και ηθική, και τους υποκειμενους credo in Deum patrein omniπραγμασιν αναλογα HEIKH potentem ; quæfivit ex eo quid de autn n 8% twv onu etwa derevs, almecbteigen omnipotens figniοτι ακολουθει η αρμοτίασα εκατω ficet : refpondente rustico - geyft xabitet. Aeyw dt, ytros uev, ignoro, imo inquit Lutherus, καθ ηλικιαν' οιονεί παις, η ανης, η et ego et omnes eruditi id igγερών και γενη, και ανης και noramus; tu id faltem crede, naxar, y Ostianos. , nad Deum elle tuum patrem, qui poas 0105 TIS. TO Biwi 8 yrę za test et vult ti, tuosque, servare, απασαν εξιν οι Βιοι σοιοι τινες. Rhythmis etiam delectatus ferΕαν ουν και τα ονοματα οικεία tur vernaculis, &c. Melch. λεγη τη εξει, ποιησει το ηθος ου Adam. vitæ Germ. Tbeol. in yog TAUTĄ, 0:9 wauws ArPOI- vita Lutheri. ΚΟΣ αν και ΠΕΤΠΑΙΔΕΥΜΕΝΟΣ Mr. Adams inferts some of

Ariflot. rhet. lib. iii. 7. these homely country rhymes, To the same purpose speaks for which beggarly ballads, Dyonisius of Halicarnaffus : perhaps Luther may receive a Ομολογομεν δη παρα πασιν οτι greater reward at the last day πρεπον και το τους υποκειμενους αρ- than he would for whole μόζον προσωποις τε και πραγμα- helves of Greek and Latin

Dion, Halic. de frutt. folios. Vanity will make a orat. f. 20.

man write learnedly ; but piLuther's biographer, hav- ety only can prevail on a good ing related a saving of his on fcholar to ruiticate his speech this subject, adds, by way of and manners for the sake of expofition, the practice of this the poor. Truly, for a man reformer in diffusing know-, who relishes polite literature,


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