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HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL
Gazetteer of Massachusetts,
WITH SKETCHES OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS FROM ITS SETTLE-
SEVERAL CITIES AND TOWNS,
WITH A NEW MAP OF THE STATE.
BY JEREMIAH SPOFFORD, M. D.
SECOND EDITION-REVISED, CORRECTED, AND A LARGE PART RE-WRITTEN.
E. G. FROTHINGHAM.
THE NEW YORK
ASTOR, LENOX AND
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860,
BY EDWARD G. FROTHINGHAM, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the District of Massa
After the long interval of thirty-two years, the author now presents to the public a new edition of his Gazetteer of Massachusetts. It was his intention to have done this many years ago, but the appearance of several works of similar use, had induced an abandonment of the design, but the favorable opinion expressed of the plan and historical interest of the work by several literary gentlemen, as occupying a space not filled by any other Gazetteer, has induced another experiment upon the public favor.
The historical parts of the work are mostly retained, with such corrections as time and a patient revision have shown to be necessary, while the great change of the business and modes of travel have made an almost entire change in the State, of every thing but its natural scenery. Nearly or quite one-half of the matter has been re-written, and is entirely new.
It has been the object of the writer, in a small compass and at a moderate expense, to compile a work which shall give to young people and the industrial classes a better knowledge of the past history, prominent actors, important events, and present standing of our State, than can be found elsewhere in the same compass, or without an acquaintance with many volumes. A period of greater change has not, and probably never will occur in the State, than that elapsed since the publication of our former edition.
Instead of 2 cities and 300 towns, we have now 14 cities and 320 towns! In place of canal and turnpike, we now talk of railroads and telegraphs. Then a population of 357,000, now of 1,131,000, and instead of a valuation of about $150,000,000, we now present a valuation of $598,000,000.
The work, we trust, exhibits our deep interest in the past and present of our glorious old State. She is neither the Key Stone nor the Empire State of the Union; but she always has been the
balance wheel, and while, by her thousands of manufactories, her improved transportation, and her educational advantages, she continues to keep her children at home, or sends them forth well qualified to become active and influential citizens of other communities, she will continue to hold her place in the constellation of States.
The Constitution, as here printed, is intended to be all that is now in force, omitting all that has been superseded by the numerous amendments; and inserting all the articles now in force, in the words in which they were adopted. Our Constitution, as now published by authority, is that of 1780, with the numerous amendments, much of both of which have been superseded by later amendments. The codification of the Constitution by the Conven. tion of 1855, entirely failed, being rejected by the people. The author had therefore no choice but to select and arrange those provisions which are in force, or to reprint the whole mass, onehalf of which is obsolete. The latter course has been adopted, and cannot vary essentially from any future codification of the Constitution, without further essential alterations.
The author is far from feeling indifferent to the success which this revised edition of his work may meet with from the press and the public, but as his claims are humble, and this is probably his last attempt at authorship, he has much less at stake than a younger author of more ambitious pretensions.
The valuation in all cases is that of 1850, being the last made by law, revised and corrected by a State Valuation Committee, and affording a better basis of comparison with that of 1860 than any other, showing the increase or decrease in ten years. The census is that of 1855, made by State authority. Another will be taken the present year, and we would suggest to those who may possess this work the convenience of adding the new census with pen or pencil in the margin, which will show at a glance the change in each town for five years. The Map has been drawn expressly for the work, containing all the railroads and town lines, as far as space would permit, but the minute subdivisions of our cities and towns in the most populous parts of the State, have rendered these lines less distinct than was desirable.
With a deep interest, not only in the success and usefulness of this work, but a still deeper interest in the prosperity of the State, the work is now submitted to the public.