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"South Second-street," and "North Second-street" the jumbling of so many sounds, and streets, and names confounded me. Why, I thought, have so many "second streets ;" and should I ever visit Philadelphia, I should never be able to find my way through the eternity of streets. I asked those who had often been in the city, but received no satisfactory explanation. But the whole mystery vanishes after coming to see the city in reality, and that which I looked upon as the most intricate and puzzling, proved quite the reverse, and instead of retarding one's progress, is the means of quickening our speed. In the first place, Market-street is the index of Philadelphia: take Market-street away, and total anarchy would ensue-it runs from east to west, quite through the city, that is, from Delaware river to the Schuylkill, precisely two miles; this is called the width of Philadelphia. It is equidistant from the northern and southern extremities of the town, and cuts it into two equal parts, so that Market-street holds the balance of Philadelphia, on this as well as some other accounts.— Beside Market-street, a number of others, running par allel with it, at equal distances on each side of it, constitute the length of Philadelphia, and make it upwards of three miles. All these streets, with Market-street, (we must not forget that,) run as was said, from the Delaware on the east, to the Schuylkill on the west. These streets are crossed by others, which run from north to south, precisely at right angles, which lays the city out into exact squares, eight squares to a mile. These last streets run parallel with both rivers. Beginning at the Delaware, we have first Front-street, then second, third, fourth, and so on to what is called the centre square. The streets then commence at the Schuylkill in the same manner, first, second, third, and so on to the centre square. That part of Second street therefore, which lies north of Market-street, is called north second, and that part which lies south, is called south second, or third, or whatever it be, though it is nothing but a continuation of the same street. These distinctions, with those living east and west of the centre square, are all that are used. Those streets running parallel with Market-street, are

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called after the names of the trees which grew there
when the city was laid out, such as Chesnut-street, Pine,
Walnut, Spruce, &c. Of all these streets, Market-street is
the most interesting to a stranger, as in it is the greatest
market in the United States. The market-house, which
is nothing more than a roof supported by pillars and
quite open on each side, begins on the bank of the Dela-
ware, and runs one mile, that is, eight squares in length !
It must be understood, however, that the market house
stops at the edge of every square, (so as not to interfere
with the cross streets,) and begins on the next square,
and so on, leaving an interval for every street but on
market days, of which there two in the week, a strong
chain is drawn quite across the street, at each end of the
market-house, and no horse or carriage is permitted to
pass these intervals, as well as the whole market, are
then occupied by both buyers and sellers, to a degree
beyond belief. No one, who has not seen it, can form
an idea either of the variety, abundance, or neatness, of
the Philadelphia market. That of Baltimore was plen-
tiful indeed, so far as it went, but yields greatly to Phila-
delphia, both in neatness and abundance. Nothing can
exceed the whiteness of the benches and stalls; the.
meat, which consists of every sort, is exquisitely neat,
cut with the greatest care, smooth, and disposed upon ta-
bles, on cloths as white as the whitest cambric. The
butchers wear a white linen frock, which might vie with
a lady's wedding dress. The vegetables excel in neat-
ness and perfection, and consist of the whole vegetable
kingdom; fruit of all sorts, and fish of every kind, be-
sides a variety of game, butter, cheese and milk. Here,
for the first time, I saw milk brought to market in churns.
These churns differ in size, but are as white as a curd-
they are uniformly bound with copper hoops, as bright as
sand and hands can make them. Every one who comes
to sell, has one particular place assigned him or her in
the market, from which they never move. The butcher
stands at his table, the woman sits in her stall; no mov-

e centre bich lies and that third, or uation of

se living ing except that of the citizens, who are coming and goare used. ing continually, from early in the morning till nine o'clock reet, are at night. The whole of this mighty scene is conducted




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with perfect order; no contention, no strife or noise
presenting one of the most interesting sights perhaps in
the world. Imagine a double row of the finest looking
vegetables, a mile in length, viz. on both sides of the
market-house, with every thing else that can be named
for the table; and then the butchers' meat, filling the
whole length of space between; the multitude passing
to and fro; and you may form some idea of the market
of Philadelphia. Although there are but two days in
the week which are styled market-days, yet there is mar
ket every day except Sunday; but this is trifling, com-
pared with the set days-indeed there is a market on
Sunday morning, for milk only. Market-street is so wide
as to afford a passage for carriages on each side, inde-
pendent of the footway. Besides this market, there is
one called New-market, in the south part of the town,
which is very considerable, and every thing, I should
say, is cheap. Towards the close of the day, you may
buy good veal for four cents per lb. and often cheaper.

Having disposed of Market-street, I shall drop a few
remarks upon the city generally. The most business, as
well as most fashion and opulence, is found in Chesnut-
street, next to Market-street, south, and parallel with it.
The ware-houses are principally upon the Delaware riv
er. Very large vessels can come up to Philadelphia;
these ascend the Delaware--very few are able to
ascend the Schuylkill, it being much smaller than the
former. That part of the city adjacent to the Schuyl
kill is very thinly settled, and the streets near it are most-
ly unpaved: all the others are paved with stone, and the
side-walks are neatly paved with brick, are wide and
well lighted. The profusion of merchandize which lines
the streets and windows is incredible. Dry goods are
strewed along the side-walks, near the store doors; flan-
nels, cloths, muslins, silks and calicoes, are hung up over
the doors in whole pieces, hanging down on each side to
the pavement; others are placed in rolls, side by side,
on boxes standing each side of the door; barrels of su-
gar, coffee, raisins and fruit, stand out of doors. These
are intermingled with shoe-shops, book-stores, merchant
tailors, where clothes are ready made; add to these jew-


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eller's shops, china-shops, saddlery, tin, iron and copper ware, to say nothing of millineries, upholsteries and gro. ceries. The windows are low, large, and project into the streets some distance. These windows (or the most of them,) are from eight to eleven or twelve feet wide, and from four to six feet high. Some are filled with the most splendid plate, glass and china ware; some with caps, ruffs, bonnets and ribbons; others with liquid medicine, contained in vast glass bottles of every colour, and look exceedingly beautiful at night. The windows have different rows of shelves on the inside, from the bottom to the top, and upon these shelves the articles are disposed. But it is at night that the wealth and splendor of Philadelphia appears to the best advantage; the windows being lighted with numerous lamps and gas-lights, which, with the lamps in the streets, and the lustre of the glittering wares in the windows, present a scene of ase tonishing beauty.-The houses are principally of brick; large, well built, and many of them elegant.

Churches.-There are in Philadelphia 74 places for religious worship, viz.-8 for Baptists, 1 for Bible Christians, 1 for Covenanters, 10 for Episcopalians, 5 for Quakers, 1 for Free Quakers, 5 for German Lutherans, 2 for German Reformed, 2 for Jews, 4 for Catholics, 1 for Menonists, 1 Mariners Church, 13 for Methodists, 1 for Moravians, 1 for Mount Zion, 17 for Presbyterians, two for Reformed Dutch.-Besides the markets and churches already mentioned, there are, in Philadelphia, a university, 2 colleges, 4 academies, a city court-house, a county court-house, a carpenters' hall, a philosophical hall, a dispensary, an hospital and offices, an almshouse, an orphans' asylum, a museum, (formerly the state-house,) a masonic hall, 16 literary institutions, an institution for the deaf and dumb, 10 banks, a house of correction, a dramatic theatre, a medical theatre, a public observatory, a public prison, a fish market, a customhouse and offices, a post-office, 13 insurance offices, 15 breweries, 16 taverns, 74 boarding houses, and 4 public baths, 27 charitable institutions, 26 societies for the promotion of religion and morality. The Philadelphia library alone contains 24,000 volumes; the total number

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in all libraries is 65,000; 7 weekly papers, 11 daily papers, besides quarterly and monthly journals; 5000 looms, 30 cotton factories, 3000 females employed in the tailoring business. Besides these there are numerous articles manufactured in Philadelphia; in short, every thing that is either useful or ornamental. To describe them would fill a large volume. But the glory of the city is the water-works.


Fair Mount Water Works.-What is called the water works, are two reservoirs on the top of a hill, which supply the city with water. This scheme unites both beauty and utility, and is one that none but Philadelphians would have thought of. In 1819, the sum of $350,000 was voted, to carry the plan into effect, and was undertaken by A. Coley, Esq., who died when he had nearly completed the work. In the first place, a dam is thrown across the Schuylkill, in a diagonal line. By the power of this wa ter, several wheels are put in motion, which, by the aid of double force pumps, is conveyed upon the top of a vast hill, into two reservoirs, which communicate with each other. From these reservoirs, the water is convey. ed by leaden pipes under ground, to every part of the eity, by means of hydrants. The reservoir nearest the Schuylkill is 316 feet by 139, 12 feet deep, and contains 3,000,000 gallons. The other (divided only by a few feet,) is nearly as large. The city uses one million gal lons per day. These reservoirs, in shape, have the ap pearance of a square, so smooth, so limpid, so large, and, overlooking the whole of the city, the Delaware, the Schuylkill and the surrounding country, to which we may add two beautiful bridges over the Schuylkill, yields a most delightful prospect. The plan of supplying the city of Philadelphia with good water, has at different times engaged the talents of Drs. Franklin, Rush, and Muhlenberg. The present plan was suggested by Latrobe, though the necessity was perceived by Dr. Franklin. Previous to this, the city was watered by means of steam, also a contrivance of Latrobe's, but this mode proving ineffectual, was abandoned. I saw the old water-works; they were at the centre square of the city;

* Taken from the picture of Philadelphia published by Cary & Lea

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