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Bridewell and the Jail.-Bridewell and the jail are in the park, near the city hall; and two black, dismal looking edifices they are; one stands at one end of the hall, and the other at the other end: they are both built of stone, and painted black. Bridewell is a small building; in it are confined all those who are committed for trial, also those under sentence of death; likewise the higher class of convicts: besides these, are a number of poor, constantly in bridewell, who are picked up daily by the watch and constables in the streets, and put in here until they can be sent to the alms-house; I saw about 15 of these, whom the keeper told me were brought in that morning! It appears to be the pride of New-York, to have no poor seen in the streets. It contains a hospital, which is regularly attended by a physician, who also attends the jail. Although the sessions are held monthly, they cannot empty bridewell: 170 prisoners are arraigned on an average, and often 200 tried. I found about 200 in this abode of wretchedness, white and black, male and female, about one half of whom were females. The males presented nothing in their appearance different from their equals in the streets; indeed, I was struck with the innocence and modesty of their looks and behaviour: pointing to one of them, I asked the keeper" if it were possible that one of his interesting appearance, could be guilty of a crime?" his reply was, that he was charged with forgery. But the tender sex, I am sorry for them; in all matters where they and misfortune are concerned, nothing affects our nature so forcibly. To see a friendless female in a gloomy prison, locked in with massy iron doors and grated windows, the mind that can think, and the heart that can feel, must be shocked at the sight, however just it may be, and however necessary for the good of society. But never did 1, till now, feel that degree of compassion for the sex, which the sight of those females called up. Here was a lamentable proof of depravity, of which I thought human nature incapable! There were about forty females in bridewell, for crimes, no doubt, and in the whole of them there is not more prudence, virtue, or modesty, than one ought to possess. They were the
most abandoned, vicious, impudent; they were audacity itself, without one particle of aught besides. Alas! once more for human nature-alas! for frail woman. Lost to the blush. of shame, no compunction, not one trace of contrition ventures to oppose that double headed monster, vice. They laughed, they romped, they gigled, and saluted me with the familiarity of an old ac quaintance! asked " if I came to keep them company I would have suffered the guillotine first. And is this woman? I asked, mentally; can lovely, generous, heav en-inspiring woman, become such a callous, I was going to say brute, but I will not insult the brute creation by the comparison. And this is the effect of great cities! But what a poor piece of the creation is woman! man, when he comes finally to take leave of virtue, he pauses, he hesitates, he proceeds by degrees; but woman makes one plunge, and is gone forever. Here is an instance before me; some of these females are quite young, no! more than fourteen or fifteen years of age. But what most astonishes me is, that vice should be able so com. pletely to erase the loves and the graces from the female countenance, and change them into perfect demons. while the same vices have not the same effect on man. Here are men who are said to be guilty of the blackest crimes, even murder, and yet they have some traces of grace left.
The Jail.-None but debtors are confined in the jail, but it was at this time vacant!
Museum.-The collection in the museum of New York, is nearly similar to that of Philadelphia, so far as it goes; in some things it exceeds it, in others falls shor! of it. The birds I think are better preserved, and in at neater condition. They have a huge white Greenland bear; but I saw no portraits. I am told it belongs to a Mr. S, whom I had not the honour to see; but with deference to him, he is as far behind Mr. P. in his cata logue, as he is in his title to patronage. I called one day and paid my entrance, but not being sufficiently at leisure then, I returned next day to examine the collec tion at my leisure; when the fellow whom he employs to keep it, demanded another quarter; I paid it, howev
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er, without endeavouring to convince him that the visit would perhaps, be as much for his interest as mine. It is kept in the New-York Institution," a large building of brick, 260 feet by 44, three stories; it stands in the rear of the city hall, in the park, facing Chamber-street. they Besides the museum, it contains halls for the literary and philosophical society, historical society, the academy of fine arts, the lyceum of natural history, the asylum for the deaf and dumb, and a dispensary. The literary and philosophical society consists of gentlemen of the first learning and talents, under a president, 3 vice presidents, 12 counsellors, 2 recording secretaries, 2 corresponding secretaries, a treasurer, and curator: the funds are limited to $5,000 per annum. They are divided into four classes, viz.-1st. Belles-lettres, civil history, antiquities, moral and political science-2d. Medicine, chemistry, natural philosophy, and natural history-3. Mathematics, astronomy, navigation, and geography-4th. Husbandry, manufactures, and the useful arts. They meet monthly, when all communications are referred to Ha the fe the counsellors. Gentlemen of all countries are admit lemons, ted as members. The historical society is divided into on man. two branches, the civil branch, and the natural branch. lackest It consists of a society of literary gentlemen, under a maces of president, secretary, committee, and special committee. The object of the first, is to collect books, MSS., medals, maps, prints, paintings, pamphlets, gazettes, busts, coins, and every thing calculated to illustrate the civil history of the United States. The natural branch devote their talents to the study and investigation of zoology, gcology, botany, mineralogy, and vegetable physiology; procuring specimens and illustrations on these subjects, from every part of the world, the whole constituting a complete school of nature. It is richly endowed by the state, and the collection already acquired, amounts to $40,000.
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The Academy of Fine Arts was founded by chancellor Livingston. It contains a great number of rare specicollec mens in printing, statues, busts, bass-reliefs, and books, mploys which last consists of views, designs, and drawings, howev chiefly relating to antique subjects, amongst which, are
24 superb volumes, presented to the academy by Napeleon Bonaparte. The academicians and associates must be artists by profession; the former must be 24 years of age. and within one year after his election every academician must deposit a specimen of his talents in the academy, to become its property, otherwise he forfeits his election. Associates must be 21 years of age.
The Lyceum of Natural History is a society formed for the express purpose of cultivating natural history, their researches extending to the whole terraqueous globe; they have already made considerable advances in this laudable undertaking, having travelling committees out, who are men of enterprise and talents, in pursuit of the various productions of nature.
The Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb.-This institution resembles that of Philadelphia, the pupils mostly being instructed gratuitously as well as fed and clothed. They learn in the same way, but their number is small compar ed with that of Philadelphia, the funds not being sufficient to extend the design to any magnitude; the funds are limited by charter to $5,000 per annum. It is sup ported partly by the state and partly by private contri. bution; several of the pupils exhibited before me with surprising facility; their teacher making known to them my name, business, and place of residence, they, in an instant of time, wrote it in a fair hand, upon their slates, and even pointed out the state on the map. Mr. Loof. borrow, the principal, is a gentleman of education, and seems to possess an amiable disposition, of mild and conciliating manners, combining every requisite for his ar duous employment. He is assisted by Miss Stansbury, a lady from Philadelphia, who appears to possess all the sweetness and meek-eyed charity of her native city. Two of the deaf and dumb mutes are likewise assistants. The pupils are fond of their teachers, even to adoration. Mr. L. favored me with a number of their specimens in composition, of which, I have only room for the following :"When I was a little boy in ignorance, the world and all things that are created, were unknown to me. I observed the numerous beautiful stars, and thought they were placed in the heaven by a great man to adorn it,
and were like the candle. I believed the fire of the sun Nap moved around the plain earth, which was fixed. I supmust posed men might be inside of the sky, in which there ars of was a large circular iron wall and very thick door; I Cade thought many inhabitants were cruel who belonged to it. The the When I looked at the moon, I saw a resemblance of a rfeits man's face, and imagined that he was watching the world. Idid not wish him to see me; I was afraid of him, for I for expected to be caught suddenly through the moon to How foolish I was because of my imaginaion! but I have been taught in school, now I know the Lord this Lord God has created the earth and stars, which are tout, planets.
JOHN H. GAZLAY.”
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