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those learning their letters, have sand; the monitor
takes hold of the fore finger of the pupil, and guides it in
forming the letter. After a few lessons in this manner,
the pupil, by the aid of a machine which contains the
letters of the alphabet in large print, proceeds alone by
keeping his eye on the letter before him. When they
are perfect in the alphabet, they are removed to the
next desk, where they have words of two letters; these
are pasted on boards which hang before the pupil: when
he is perfect in this, he is removed to the next desk, and
so on. When they read or spell, they rise from their
desks and stand within a circle marked on the floor, each
class under its respective monitor, whose business it is
to correct them; the teacher and his assistants walking
through the lines during the time. The female children
of each school are under an assistant female teacher, in
a separate room; besides reading, writing, geography,
grammar, and arithmetic, the females are taught needle-

These schools are by far the most interesting objects to
a stranger in the city; to see such a vast number of chil-
dren, from four to eight hundred in one house, governed
by a word, a nod, or even a glance of their teacher, is
truly astonishing. The best disciplined army is not
more regular or obedient; at a signal they are hushed
as death; at another they proceed in their lessons, with
that instantaneous order and alacrity which wants a
name. Mechanics, and any who choose, have the lib.
erty of sending to these schools gratis! They are open
to all classes of citizens. The teachers are gentlemen
of talents, temper, and ability, whose system and labors
reflect the highest honor upon those by whom they were
appointed. I spent many hours daily in these schools,
which were the most pleasing to me of any I spent in the

I only visited three of the academies, viz: Union Hall, and La Fayette academy, and one kept by Miss Orem. They were likewise crowded with children, youths and young ladies; and in which every branch of literature is taught. The pupils in each are regularly classed under their respective tutors, who, with the principals,

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appear well qualified for the trust, as the progress and proficiency of the pupils in their various branches, preeminently prove and entitle them to the highest applause.

New-York High School.-The New-York High School is quite a recent institution, similar to the high school of Edinburgh; being designed for the education of gentlemen's sons, who pay for their tuition. It is formed upon the monitorial plan, under a president, vice president, and twenty-four trustees; these again, are under a society of the first gentlemen in the city, who have the supreme control. In this school, the classics, as well as the rudiments of education are taught. Lectures on chemistry, history, and natural philosophy, are delivered. The pupil is fitted for college in this school, or may complete his education here, at the option of the parent. The High School is divided into three classes in distinct departments, viz: Introductory, Junior, and Senior classes. The first pay $3, the second $5, and the third $7 per session. The capital stock for supporting the school is $30,000. Six hundred and fifty pupils were present when I visited the school; four hundred of these were very small, called the introductory class, all in one room; the handsomest children, as to beauty and stature, I ever beheld. Indeed, all the children of those schools are the very picture of health. To return, corporal punishment is strictly forbidden except in extreme cases. Another rule is, that "the exercise of each department commences with reading a chapter in the Bible; but no catechism, or instruction in the tenets of any religious denomination shall be introduced, or used in the school." This rule is rigidly enforced.

The Fire Department.-The Fire Company is at once, the most respectable and useful society in the city; but I can only afford a brief remark on this establishment. The Fire Department is "a Body Corporate and Politic," consisting of Fire Companies in every Ward, under the control of one chief Engineer.

Engineers and Fire Wardens.-The common council carry a wand, with a gilded flame at the top. The engineers wear a leathern cap, painted white, with a gilded frout, and a fire engine blazoned thereon, and carry a

speaking trumpet, painted black, with the words "engine, No. 1," (or as the case may be,) in white, painted on their caps. The fire wardens wear a hat, the brim black, and the crown white, with the city arms blazoned on the front, and carry speaking trumpets, painted white, with the word "warden," in black: the firemen also have badges. When a building takes fire in the night, the watchmen cry" Fire," the bells are set to ringing; the companies attend as above described, with all possible dispatch, with their engines, which are pulled by the firemen running at full speed; the constables and marshals of the city attend with their staves of office, and obey the corporation under the penalty of a heavy fine. Every man, even the mayor of the city are under the control of the fire corporation, during a fire. They use no buckets, or at least rarely, the rivers being so near, and their hose* extending from one engine to another, and finally to the river, it is conveyed through them to the fire. The engineers, chief engineers, and fire wardens only direct; they are constantly running to and fro, directing the firemen. The firemen when they are fixed each in his station, stand still and play the engine; their superiors speaking to them through the trumpets, calling to each engine, to " play away No. 2, No. 3," or whatever it may be; for the noise and crackling of the fire, and that of the multitude which gather, would effectually drown their voice. None but the fire companies join in extinguishing fires; the citizens which gather in crowds, are kept at a distance by the city offi cers. The engines are the most superb piece of mechanism in the city, most of them being richly gilded, and the fire companies consist wholly of reputable men. The membership is deemed one of honour, but it is one dearly bought; the smoke from the fires, as near as they are obliged to approach, would strangle any one else. Very little damage has accrued from fire, since the department has been organized upon its present plan.

The Gas Company, Manhattan Company, and New. York Dying and Printing Establishment, are not only

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respectable, but important companies to the city.. The first supplies it with light, and the second with water; each are incorporated; the Gas Company with $100,000. and the Manhattan with a capital of $2,050,000. itc, The New-York Dying and Printing, with a capital of Iso $200,000. This grand establishment is in Williamht, street, where all kinds of dying and printing is done in a superior style. The printing on silks, cotton, and woollen is astonishing, particularly to back woods people ; the brilliancy of tint, and delicacy of shade, is not exseeded by any in Europe. Old faded silks and satins are restored to their original beauty. But I must stop. Markets. The Markets, taking the whole together, would, perhaps, exceed that of Philadelphia in abund ance and variety, but it is greatly behind it in neatness and order; there are no stalls for vegetables; these are found promiscuously scattered about near the market houses. The Fulton Market is said to equal any in the world for abundance, variety, and quality; no article formed by art, or produced by nature, but may be purchased in Fulton Market; and yet it would hardly make one square of Philadelphia market-house. Consequently it is over-crowded.













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Manners and Appearance.-It is difficult for a stranger to decide upon the manners and appearance of any city or town, for this reason, at least one half of the people he meets in the streets and public places, are strangers. These are from the country, from other towns, other states, or as it may happen; this is what makes a city. To build a number of houses and fill them with people and merchandize goes but half way towards forming a city. The system of cities, the motives to their existence, is to furnish the surrounding countries with such articles as they need, receiving their produce in exchance. The advantage which New-York has over almost any other city, attracts a vast number of strangers presenting a multifarious mixture, in which no likeness can be traced. The native citizens of New-York are about the middling size, more stout than those of Philadelphia, differing little in complexion, a slight shade darker; black hair and a full black eye are pé:

euliar characteristics; they lay no claims to taste or refinement; their attention to business, which pours in upon them like a flood, leaves them no time to cultivate the graces. They have, however, a sort of untaught nobility in their countenance, and all their movements. They are mild, courteous, and benevolent; and above all people they have the least pride. That curse of the human family, if it exists at all in New-York, is found amongst the lower order of her citizens; it is banished the houses of the great and the opulent: their manners are truly republican; no eclat, hauteur, or repelling stiffness; much of which exists in Philadelphia, and the boasted hospitality of the more southern towns. These are hospitable, it is true, but the poor man is made to feel the difference between him and his hospitable entertainer. Not so, New-York, as respects that sort of homage exacted from a fellow man; all are upon a level.

Owing no doubt, to the unparalleled increase of commerce, too little attention, indeed, too little time, has been left for improvement in literature. Yet this great peo ple, fertile in resources, decisive in action, liberal and unanimous, can do much in a short time; doubtless a people so renowned for devotion to the public good, will not neglect a matter of so much importance. I perceive there is a great want of grammar schools amongst them. But although New-York is censured for her neg lect of education, yet she is not destitute of genius. Slic can boast of her Clintons, her Livingstons, her Murrays, her Irvings, her Hamiltons, her Pauldings, her Mitchills, her Hosacks, her Coopers, her Sedgwicks, and a long string of poets.

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The ladies of New-York, like the gentlemen, are aflable, modest, and domestic; the better sort are easy in their manners, plain in their equippage and dress, and are seldom seen in the streets. Upon inquiry whether thone ladies who are daily on parade, in Broadway, were of the first distinction, I was told they were not, and that the first ladies, from motives of delicacy, were never seen in the streets on foot, that they always took a carriage Lindley Murray was born on Long Island; so also was Dr. S. E. Mitchell.

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