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rance, and all in vain. But hear what they say of themselves: "The people of Boston be the first people in the world, no city like Boston; they be all fools in N. Y. they had'nt ought to be compared with the people of Boston." If this be the case in the very emporium of literary taste, all attempts to improve the common people are really disheartening.
History. Boston was settled by Isaac Johnston, Esq. who married the lady Arabella, sister to the earl of Lincoln, from whom the present governor Lincoln is descended. But we must go back to the history of EngJand, in order to have a satisfactory detail of the history of Boston; a city which on every account deserves the praise of mankind. When freedom as hunted out of the world it took up its abode in Boston, from which no power has been able to dislodge it. When Queen Eliz. abeth returned to the government of England, all those who had taken refuge from persecution, returned also. But some of these being more strenuous than others, were, by their brethren, styled puritans; these last refused to conform to the ceremonies of the church estab lished by Elizabeth, for which, they were rigidly punjshed. Puritanism, however, spread, and gained ground by persecution. These proceedings called up a ques tion among those learned divines, respecting the estab lished church;" is she any longer a true church of Christ, and are her ministers true ministers." The result was, that they withdrew themselves, and formed a state church, and elected their own pastors. These are the same with Congregationalists, who have preserved this mode of electing their ministers ever since. In this res pect they differed from the Presbyterians of Scotland, whose ministers are appointed by a presbytery. One Robert Brown, of an honorable family, and related to the lord-treasurer, a fiery zealot, travelled through the country, held forth against bishops, ecclesiastics, courts, and ordaining ministers, and gathered a separate congregation. These refused to join in worship either with the regular church or with the puritans, and were called Brownites. Most of the puritans were for keeping within the pale of the regular church, though they disapprov
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èd of its ceremonies, and wrote against Brownism. The government, however, imprisoned, fined, and put to death, all non-conformists, without distinction; amongst these the Brownites were the greatest sufferers. About this time they amounted to 20,000. At length a number of religious people, upon the borders of Nottingham, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire, joined the Brownites. There were now so many of them, and lived at such a distance asunder, that they formed themselves into two distinct societies. The one with which is our concern, had for its pastor the famous John Robinson. The church still being harassed by government, removed to Holland one year, after Robinson was elected. After remaining some time in Holland, which did not suit their religious principles, they turned their eyes towards America. With great difficulty they obtained a patent for settling in America, and part of them returning to London, the rest set sail, and entered the harbor of Cape Cod on the 10th of November, 1620: Robinson was not of the party, he returned to England. Before they landed they formed themselves into a civil body politic, under the crown of England, and to the amount of 101 landed at Plymouth, a name which they gave the place in honor of the city of that name in England. These, however, nearly all died before another ship came over and added to the number. It was years before the plantation amounted to more than 300.
When Mr. Robinson and his church separated from England, they were rigid Brownites. But after removing to Holland, and conversing with men of learning, and being a gentleman of a liberal mind and good dispositior he became more moderate, as did his people; so that the Brownites would not unite with them in worship. Mr. Robinson wrote against Brownism, and was the means of ruining the sect. He is the father of the Congregationalist form of worship, which is at this day used in New-England: Brownism is discarded. Meantime, Mr. John Carver, the first governor of Plymouth, dying,
They landed the 11th, and the last of the month (November) the wife of Wm. White was delivered of a son, the first child born in NewEngland. They called it Peregrine.
Mr. Bradford was elected in his stead. In 1621, 'Gov. ernor Bradford sent a shallop, with ten men and three Indians, to make discoveries in the bay afterwards called Massachusetts bay. These men landed under a cliff supposed to be Copp's Hill, in Boston; had an interview with the chief, and formed a friendly intercourse with the natives. In 1629, King Charles incorporated the governor of Massachusetts bay, in New-England, which comprised all the land lying between three miles north of the Merrimack, and three miles south of Charles river. Thus was laid the foundation of Boston. The patent right was purchased by Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas Dudley, John Winthrop, and others; Winthrop was made governor, and Dudley deputy-governor. They embarked the following spring, in fourteen vessels, ac companied by several gentlemen of wealth and eminence, to the amount of fifteen hundred; amongst whom was Isaac Johnston, and arrived in Massachusetts bay. Be fore they landed, they held a court on board the ship Arabella,* (named so in honor of Johnston's wife,) the principal object of which was to provide for the support of their ministers; after which, they landed where Charlestown now stands, and repaired to a large spread. ing tree, under which Messrs. Phillips and Wilson preached their first sermon; the people sheltering their heads with booths and tents. Shortly after this, they spread themselves over the territory of Johnston, and others settled Boston, (called by the natives Shawmut.) Sir Richard Saltonstall settled Watertown, which is in sight of Boston, between Cambridge and Roxbury; Quin. cy settled Quincy; Ludlow Dorchester; Pynchon, who has already been mentioned, settled Roxbury. Winthrop, as governor of the colony, settled finally in Bos ton. I saw his chair, which is still preserved in the museum. I was upon the hill where the tree stood, under which those intrepid people heard their first sermon, though no vestige of the tree remains! I was on the famous Bunker Hill, where they risked their lives in defence of that liberty for which they forsook their native land! I was on the spot where the brave Gen. Warren
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fell!! I saw the remains of the old monument, erected on the spot where he breathed his last. It was a rude structure of brick, which some unknown person has almost demolished, as disgraceful to the country. In a few days hence the corner stone of a monument more worthy the occasion, is to be laid!-I am now standing on the remains of the entrenchment thrown up by the Americans on the evening before the battle; it is scarcely perceivable, being overgrown with grass, and nearly level with the ground. I see the point by which the British approached up the hill, down which they were twice drove by the American fire. The British approached the third time; their ships and field pieces double their fire; the powder of the Americans fail; they receive the British on their bayonets; resistance is made to the last, even with the buts of their guns, which for want of powder they were unable to load-This was "liberty or death," truly! During the dreadful conflict, Charlestown was fired by a bomb from Copp's hill by the British; but the fearless sons of liberty, regardless of the devouring flames, continue the contest to the last. The British carried the redoubt with the loss of one thousand and fifty-four, out of three thousand; amongst whom was Major Pitcairn and Col. Abercrombie: the Americans lost one hundred and thirty-nine. Since I have strolled over the bridge which separates Charlestown from Boston, I will be excused for dropping a remark upon this town. Nothing can be handsomer than Charlestown, on every account: the buildings are splendid, the streets are large and regular, its site elevated and commanding; it rises up from the water's edge to Bunker's hill, part of which is built on, and overlooks Boston, Cambridge, and Massachusetts bay. For health, wealth and beauty, it surpasses any town of its size in the Union. The state prison and lunatic hospital, which I have just visited, are mentioned in their proper place: besides these, Charlestown has 6 churches, an alms-house, 26,598 inhabitants.
Navy-Yard.-The United States navy-yard is like. wise located at Charlestown. A few marines are stationed here; the most trifling, abandoned-looking men, from their appearance, to be found. I applied to the
commandant, Major W. for liberty to inspect the interior of the yard, but this haughty bashaw sent word " he was engaged, and that I must report my business to the lieutenant;" (rather a reproach to Uncle Sam.) As in duty bound, I obeyed his highness, and called on the lieutenant, whom I found unqualified to give the information I wished to obtain, and after undergoing sundry indignities from those mighty men of war, I had to give up the design. Through the politeness of Major Binny of Boston, I obtained the following particulars. The navyyard contains 50 42 pound cannon, 170 32 pound do. 100 42 pound carronades, 70 32 pound do., besides a large number of smaller guns; together with 150,000 round, grape, and shot of various sizes, from 42 to 6 pounds canister.
They are now building two ships of the line, which are nearly completed, or so far as is suitable to their safe preservation. One complete frame for a frigate of the first class, the keel of which will be laid this autumn, is now on hand, and will be used in the succeeding spring. A sloop of war to mount 20 32 pound carronades, will be launched in the course of the summer; two other sloops are to be built next season. It is contemplated to build a dry dock at this yard; the site for which is equal if not superior to any other. The navy-yard contains 60 acres of ground.
The line of battle ships are built under ship-houses, which completely defend them from the weather. Another is to be erected over the place of the frigate. This yard contains ground adapted for the location of a ropewalk, and every thing necessary to fit out any number of ships; and there could be built at one time twenty ships of war, of various classes. I walked through one of the battle ships of 110 guns, and five decks; one of the most awful, dread-inspiring machines in the universe!
But to return: Amongst the early settlers of this cradle of American liberty, were the Ludlows, Quincys, Walcots, Adamses, Lowells, Thatchers, and the great Otis family; all of whom were distinguished for talents and literature: to these qualities, they united courage, firmness, and a love of liberty that feared no odds.
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