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who attended the looms, said they wove (that is, each loom) twenty yards per day.


Providence. Providence is a very romantic town, lying partly on two hills and partly on a narrow plain, about wide enough for two streets. It is divided by Providence River, (over which there is a bridge,) on 'both sides of which, on the margin, are the principal houses of business. On one side of the river the ascent is sudden, on the other, it is gradual. It contains 14 houses for public worship, a college, a jail, a theatre, a market-house, 8 banks, an alms-house, part of which is an hospital, and 12,800 inhabitants. The churches are very splendid, and the jail is tolerable; but the poorhouse does not deserve the name, and the hospital is a wretched abode, disgraceful to the town. I found about half a dozen prisoners in the jail, in all, some of whom were confined for debt. These, however, bore the marks of humane treatment. The poor-house is an old building, in the most unwholesome part of the town. There were about twenty paupers in it, the dirtiest set of beings ever saw. I found five maniacs in the hos pital, lying on straw upon the floor, which looked as though it had not been swept or washed for years. The citizens, however, are engaged in measures to render those establishments more comfortable. Providence is mostly built of wood, though there are many fine brick edifices in it. The Presbyterian church is ornamented with a handsome dome and collonade, and is one of the finest buildings in the United States. The streets are wide and regular, and most of them paved, with handsome side-walks, planted with trees. It is a very flour. ishing beautiful town, and carries on an extensive trade with the East Indies. They have, besides this, a num ber of coasting vessel employed in the cotton business. The town of Providence alone owns 6 cotton factories, 2 woollen factories, 12 jeweller's shops, where jewelry is manufactured for exportation. It has also, many iron founderies, where those iron looms for the cotton facto ries are made; likewise a bleaching establishment, where 12,000 yards are finished per day. It employs 60

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hands and has a capital of $40,000. Rhode-Island is
the greatest manufacturing state in the Union, having, at
least, 150 cotton factories, and the whole business of
these is done by Providence. Besides those articles,
Providence manufactures various others. The citizens
are mostly men of extensive capital. The firm of
Brown & Ives is among the greatest in New-England.
I made several attempts to visit Brown University, but
was finally disappointed. I called several times at the
house of the President, but never found him in. The
buildings stand on the highest part of the town, in a
beautiful situation, but they are not extraordinary, either
for size or architecture. I saw but two old brick build-
ings, with much of the glass broken out of the windows,
and every appearance of neglect and decay; and, worse
than all that, I saw a specimen of the politeness of the
students, which reflects no grea honour upon the Insti-
tution. I am told it is well endowed, has a president
and 10 professors, and averages 150 students. By a
rule, the president and majority of the trustees must be of
the Baptist religion. This sect is the prevailing reli-
gion of Providence.

Manners and Appearance.-The citizens of Providence are mild, unassuming, artless, and the very milk of human kindness. They are genteel, but not so refined as the people of Boston. Most of them are deeply and closely engaged in business, and they have not that leisure to improve by reading, which the Bostonians have; nor do they travel so much as the citizens of Salem. They are an industrious, enterprising people, and have all the hospitality and frankness of the New-Englanders. They are stout, fine looking men; the ladies, particularly, are handsome, and many of them highly accomplished. Both sexes are remarkable for plainness, and have a very independent carriage.

History. Every one knows the story of Roger Wil. liams: he was not only the founder of Providence, but of Rhode Island. Roger Williams was a clergyman, who came from England to Massachusetts in 1631; and being charged with holding a variety of errors, was forced to fly from the state suddenly, leaving his house,

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wife and children, in Salem, and in the midst of winter took up his abode at Seekhonk, without the limits of Massachusetts. But Seekhonk being in the bounds of Plymouth colony, Governor Winslow advised him, in a friendly manner, to go on the other side of the river, which was uncovered by any patent. Accordingly, he and four others crossed Seekhonk river, in 1636, and was hospitably received by the Indians; and laid the foundation of the town, which, in gratitude to his Maker, he called Providence, after purchasing the soil from the natives. Here he was soon joined by others, who, like himself, fled from persecution. Among these gentlemen were Messrs. Coddingham and Fenner. From the mild. ness of their government and the free toleration in respect to religious opinions, Providence soon became the asylum for persecuted sects of every description; and is, at this day, the most mild and tolerant republic in New England. It is the only state in New England whose citizens are not compelled by law to support religion. All the other states oblige every citizen to pay so much annually, to support some clergyman, leaving the choice of the sect to the citizen; but at all events, he must support some minister, (as they call him.) To return: Williams and his friends suffered greatly from cold, fatigue, and want; having no friends among the human species but the Indians, who were ill supplied them. selves. They, however, enjoyed liberty of conscience, which has, from that day to this, been inviolably maintained thoughout the state. So little has the civil authority to do with religion, in Rhode-Island, that no contract is binding between a clergyman and any society. Neither are the people compelled by law to support schools, and yet the dialect is less corrupt than in any part of New England, which I have seen: I mean that of the common people; all people of education speak alike, in every state. Rhode-Island leaves the human mind perfectly unshackled, the effect of which is visible in the independent deportment of the citizens. It has

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* After such a lesson as this, it becomes us truly to send missionaries among the Indians.

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also been noted for its patriotism and courage, since it
has been a state, and has the honour of being the birth
place of the celebrated General Green.

The Hon. Judge Martin, of Providence, has been at
much pains to rescue from oblivion much of the biogra-
phy of Mr. Williams and his adventurous companions,
which he has committed to paper, and read a great part
of it to me. I saw the place where this sage built his
first rude cabin. I saw the hill upon which his remains
are interred; being pointed out to me by the Judge,
who is an enthusiastic admirer of the singular fortitude,
talents, piety, and philanthropy of the founder of Provi-
dence. He walked with me to the spring from which he
used to quench his thirst; where, weary and forlorn, an
outcast from a society calling themselves christian, he
could, at least, drink the waters of peace. It is the
• choicest spring I have seen east of the Alleghany. I
spent much of the short time I stopt at Providence in
the company of J. M. whose pleasant and winning man-
ners, but particularly those of his lady, almost persua-
ded me to prolong my visit. Ail our talk was of Roger
Williams. I saw an original letter, written by R. Wil-
liams to "Neighbour Whipple," dated the 8th of July,
1669. It was written in the old English style, and evin-
ced great boldness of genius and energy of intellect, and
disclosed the sentiments upon which he and his more
rigid brethren differed.

Providence is also the residence of his Excellency Governor Fenner, a descendant of the faithful Feuner, who, with his life in his hand, accompanied his friend R. Williams, and with him took refuge among savages, from the cruelty of pretended christians. G. F. lives in the edge of the town, upon the same lofty eminence with the University, commanding an extensive prospect of the town, the surrounding country, and Providence river, which spreads out to a great width before his door, its glassy bosom elevated, as it were, above the horizon, which, with the shrubbery, lawns, and flower gardens of the Governor, almost rivals the scenery of Boston. He has the handsomest flower garden I have seen in my trav els. G. F. is a middle aged man, of good size, and great

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benignity of countenance. His manners are distinguish ed by the same simplicity and native independence as his fellow citizens. He lives in ease and affluence, and appears, in every respect, worthy the place he holds.

The place where Providence stands was called by the natives Mooshausic. The state takes its name from an Jsland within it, which at first was called the Island of Rhodes, from its resemblance to the Island of that name; but in process of time, it became reversed to that of Rhode Island. Providence River is navigable to Providence for ships of 900 tons. The revenue of the custom house, and amount of shipping, will be found in the table at the end of the book. It is the smallest state in the Union, except Delaware.

Return to New-York.-Anxious to return to NewYork, from which I had been absent nearly five months, I hastened the time of my departure from Providence, and taking leave of my friends, took a passage in the steamboat accordingly. Stepping down into the cabin, I found but one passenger aboard, a lady whom I had often seen and conversed with, in Boston, but to this moment I never knew her name. To off the time, pass I took a book from the library, (usually kept on board those boats) and turning over the leaves, I found the following remark of Lord Byron on criticism: "Every thing now must pass the fiery ordeal of criticism, com pared with which, walking on red-hot plow-shares would be recreation. A critic, like the tiger, attacks all whom he can master, and kills for the dear delight of butchering." This made me quake for my sketches: if that be the case, there will scarcely be a mouthful for one of them. Whilst I was pondering upon their probable fate, my attention was attracted by the arrival of the passengers, who came down the steps of the cabin to the number of twenty or thirty, but this was a small part

I was highly gratified in Providence by meeting with a Mr. Southwick, brother to a friend of mine in Alabama, and nephew to Mr. S. of Albany. Nor must I overlook the singular marks of respect paid to me by the citizens, particularly upon my arrival, which was honoured by a turn out of the band,

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