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water is thrown into cisterns, from which it is committed to the boilers. This water is so strong that they make it into salt twice in twenty four hours! All their wood being consumed, they are now boiling with coal, which abounds in their mountains.

These salt-works have very recently been established. Some few years since, in the latter part of a very dry summer, tte river being lower than it was ever known since it was settled by white people, the top of an old gum was discovered at the edge of low water, and salt water issuing out of it. In many places, where the fresh water had left it, it was incrusted into salt by the heat of the sun.

It is supposed that the Indians, when they were in possession of the country, sunk the gum, and perhaps made some attempts at making salt. Col. David Ruffner, a very enterprising man, was the first that established salt-works in Kenhawa, at the place just mentioned ; after him several others; but the old well, as it is called, that is, where the gum was discov. ered, is by far the strongest water, and it is weaker in proportion as it is distant from it, either up or down the river. Col. Ruffner invented a machine which forcc6 the water up hill, to the distance of three miles, for which I understand he obtained a patent. The salt made here is not so fair as that made at King's works, in Washington county, but it is much stronger, and better for preserving meat. I saw this proved in Alabama; the meat (that is, bacon,) that was cured with the salt from King's works, spoiled, while that which was salted with the Kenhawa salt, did not. Great quantities of it is consumed in Alabama; they take it in boats down the Ohio and up the Tennessee river. A great quantity is likowise takon up thc Cuinberland to Nash. villc. But what astonishes me, is, that they have to bore double the depth now to what they did at first; even at the old well, the water sunk, and they were compelled to pursue it by boring, this is the caso with all of them.

These salt-works are dismal looking places; the samcncss of the long low sheds ; smoking boilers; men, the roughest that can be seen, half naked; hundreds of

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boat-men; horses and oxen, ill-used and beat by their
drivers ; the mournful screaking of the machinery, day
and night; the bare, rugged, in hospitable looking moun-
tain, from which all the timber has been cut, give to it
a gloomy appearance.* Add to this the character of
the inhabitants, which, from what I have seen myself,
and heard from others, lack nothing to render them any
thing but a respectable people. Here have settled peo-
ple from the north, the east, and the west of the United
States, and some from the nether end of the world.
However refined, however upright, however enlighten-
ed, crafty and wicked they might have been previous to
their emigration, they have become assimilated, and mu.
tually stand by each other, no matter what the case is,
and wo be to the onwary stranger who happens to fall
into their hands. I never saw or heard of any peo-
ple but these, who gloried in a total disregard of
shame, honour and justice, and an open avowal of
their superlative skill in petty fraud; and yet they are
hospitable to a fault, and many of them are genteel. I
see men here whose manners and abilities would do
honour to any community, and whilst I admired, I was
equally surprised that people of their appearance should
be content to live in a place which has become a by-
word. But their females in a great measure extenuate
this hasty sketch. As nature compensates us in many
respects for those advantages she denies us in others,
and in all her works hac mingled good with evil, you
have a striking instance of this in the female part of the
society of this place. In no part of the United States,
at least where I have visited, are to be found females
who surpass them in those virtues that adorn the sex.
They possess the domestic virtues in an exemplary de-
gree; they are modest, discreet, industrious and benev-
olent, and with all, they are fair and beautiful; albeit, I
would be sorry to see one of those amiable females be.
come a widow in this iron country, in which, bowever,
for the honour of human nature be it remembered, there
are a few poble exceptions amongst the other sex, which

*The river, which is estremely beautiful, is the only relief to the

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As this famous county is to be a link in the chain
which is to connect that part of Virginia cast of the
mountains with the whole of the western country, I have
been at some pains to pick up every thing respecting it.
As curiosity leads one to trace things to their origin,
much as the history of countrien, and remarkablo ovonia,
I have traced this part of Virginia as far back as the
year seventeen hundred and seventy-four, to the memo-
rable battle of the Point, fought beiween the whites and
the Indians, at the mouth of this river. I have seen sev.
eral men who were in that bloody and hard sought bal.
tle, and have just returned from viewing the ground on
which it was fought. I have seen that pari occupied
by the “ Augusta militia," commanded by Gen. Lewis,
and that by the Indians. I have seen thc boncs of the
latter sticking in the bank of the Ohio river ; part of
the bank having fallen in where the battle was fought
discloses their bones sticking out in a horizontal posi-
tion: the engngement lasted from sunrise till dark; tho
victory was claimed by the whitcy. From this bank,
which is a hunilred rect, or thercabouts, in heighi, I
had a view of the beautiful river Ohio : at this place it
is said to be five hundred yards wide.

This rivor, which is justly celebrated for its beauty and utility, flows in a smooth current as silent as night; not the least noise can be heard from it; not the smallest ripplc is scen. This, and its limpid appcarancc, thc rich foliage which decoratcs ils banks and looks as though it were growing in the water, by reason of its luxuriance, completely conceals the carth, and constitutes its beauty. If the reader can imagine a vast mirror of end. less dimension, he will have an idea of this bcautiful river. It is so transparent that you may see pebbles at the bottom; not a rock or stone of any size, has a place in the Ohio. Kenhawa is a very handsome river, being generally as smooth as the Ohio, but by no means so limpid ; it has a grcenish appearancc ; you cannct see the bottom, cxcept at the shoals. And more than all this, I have seen the celebrated heroinc, Ann Bailey, who

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J'ichly deserves more of her country, than a name in its

This female is a Welch woman, and is now very old.
At the time Gen. Lewis's army lay at the Point, a sta-
tion on Kenhawa river, Ann would shoulder her rifle,
hang her shot-pouch over her shoulder, and lead a horse
Jaden with ammunition to the army, two hundred miles
distant, when not a man could be found to undertake the
perilous task-the way thither being a perfect wilder-
ness, and infested with Indians. I asked her if she was
not afraid-she replied, " No, she was not; she trusted
in the Almighty-she knew she could only be killed,
and she had to die some time." I asked her if she nev-
cr met with the Indians in her various journies, (for sbe
went several times.) “ Yes, she once met with two, and
one of them said to the other let us kill her, (as she

opposed, from the answer of the other,) no, said his companion, God dam, too good a soger, and let her pass :" but how, said I, did you find the way,“ Steered by the trace of Lewis's army, and I had a pocket

Well, but how did you get over the pater courses ?”- Some she forded, and some she swam, on others she made a rast: she “ halways carried 3 hax and a hauger, and she could chop as well has hany man;" such was her dialect. This is a fact that hundreds can attest. A gentleman informed, that while the army was stationed near the mouth of Elk, he walked down that river to where it intersects with Kenhawa, for the purpose of fishing ; he had not renained long there before he heard a plunge in the water, and upon looking up, he discovered Ann on horseback swimming toward him ; when the horse gained the landing, she observed, “cod, I'd like to a swum." She was quite a low woman in height, but very strongly made, and had the most pleasing countenance I ever saw, and for her,

“ And what would the General say to you, when you used to get safe to camp with your ammuni. tion.” “Why he'd say, you're a brave soldier, Ann, and tell some of the men to give me a dram." She was fond of a dram. When I saw the poor creature, she was almost naked; she begged a dram, which I gave to

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her, and also some other trifle. I never shall forget
Ann Bailoy. Tho pooplo hore repont many, sayings of
hers, such as "the howl upon the helm on the bank of
the helk”-that is, an owl on an elm upon the bank of
Elk river.

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History.Kenhawa county consists of two strings of inhabitants, upon Kenhawa and Elk rivers, Il was reclaimed from the Indians and the bullalocs, by degrces, with the loss of many lives by the former, until Gen. Wayne subdued them. The buffalocs were so numerous on this river, that they made large roads through the bottoms. Elks, deer and bears were likewisc numcrous. None of the busfaloes are to be soon now, but bear and deer are still numerous, and elks are often seen on the head of Elk river, which emptics into Kenhawa river at a little town called Charleston, the seat of justice for this county.* It is navigable its wholc length, two hundred miles. In this town are four stores, iwo taverns, a court- house, a jail, and an academy; the thrcc last are of brick; and a post office, a printing press, and some very handsome buildings. The first permanent settlement was made in 1786, though they had to defend themselves with forts, or at icast one, which was built ncar where a Mr. Joncs now livcs, cala İcd Jones's forry. Mr. Morrico, a Mr. Cea, this Jones, and Col. Donnally, the hero of Donnally's fort, wero the first; others soon followed, but M. was the head man; he had a boat-yard, built boats, and sold them to people who emigrated to the west. He had money at interest, and was the successful rival of Col. D. They never agreed; M. carried every point, he was looked up to by the people, and what he said was the law, let that be what it might. Courts of justice were establishcd, magistrates appointed, and all as this lord of the land dictated. Some person, however, who had a bond on M., had the audacity to sue him. The court sat in an old house, or cabin rather, as the story goes. Some

* I saw one which was caught when it was young on Elk river. It was quite gentle, and went at large, though nearly grown; it belonged to Col. Ruffner.

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