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3. There was a heart did mourn thy fate,
Thy youthful bride, Oh, where is she?
Did she not grieve for thee?
Who made that widowed bosom lone?
Great Condé's gallant son!
4. And while the world records his fame,
This deed of blood shall dim the scene;
And hide his laurels green.
Shall weep—nor youth alone,
shall shed the pitying tear
The Duke D'Enghien was illegally arrested by the orders of Napoleon Bonaparte, on a false charge of conspiracy, and shot in the fortress of Vincennes, near Paris, at 6 o'clock in the morning of March 21, 1804. He was a direct descendant of the great Condé, the celebrated general and powerful nobleman in the reign of Louis XIV. Condé was born 1621, and died 1686. When only twentytwo years of age he won the memorable battle of Rocroi over the Spaniards.
1. James Nasmyth, the inventor of the steam-hammer, was born in Edinburgh in 1808, and in due time became a pupil at the High School of that city. He has himself given an account of his early life, from which some extracts have been taken.
2. “I had the good luck,” he says, “to have for a school companion the son of an iron-founder. Every spare hour that I could command was devoted to visits to his father's iron-foundry, where I delighted to watch the various processes in the manufacture of iron, and in other smith and metal work; and although I was only about twelve years old at the time, I used to lend a hand, in which hearty zeal did a good deal to make up for want of strength. I look back to the Saturday afternoons spent in the workshops of that small foundry as an important part of my education. I did not trust to reading about such and such things; I saw and handled them; and all the ideas in connection with them became permanent in
3. “My first essay at making a steam-engine was when I was fifteen. I then made a real small working steamengine, which not only could act, but really did some useful work: for I made it grind the oil-colours which my father required for his painting. Steam-engine models, now so common, were exceedingly scarce in these days, and
very difficult to be had; and, as the demand for them arose, I found it both delightful and profitable to make them.
“ With the results of the sale such models I was enabled to pay the price of tickets of admission to the lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry delivered in the University of Edinburgh. About the same time (1826) I was so happy as to be employed by Professor Leslie in making models and portions of apparatus required by him for his lectures and philosophical investigations, and I had also the inestimable good fortune to secure his friendship.
“The earnest desire which I cherished of getting forward in the real business of life induced me to turn
my attention to obtaining employment in some of the great engineering establishments of the day, at the head of which stood that of Henry Maudslay of London. It was the summit of my ambition to get work in that establishment; but as my father had not the means of paying a premium, I determined to try what I could do towards attaining my object by submitting to Mr. Maudslay actual specimens of my capability as a young workman and draughtsman.
6. “To this end I set to work and made a small steamengine, every part of which was the result of my own handiwork, including the casting and the forging of the several parts. Armed with such means of obtaining the good opinion of the great Henry Maudslay, on the 19th of May, 1829, I sailed for London, and after an eight days' voyage saw the metropolis for the first time.
7. “I made bold to call on Mr. Maudslay, and told him my simple tale. He desired me to bring my models for him to look at. I did so; and when he came to me I could see by the expression of his cheerful, well-remembered countenance, that I had attained my object.
8. “He then and there appointed me to be his own private workman, to assist him in his little paradise of a workshop. He left m to arrange as to wages with his chief cashier, and on the first Saturday evening I accordingly went to the counting-house to inquire of him about my pay. He asked me what would satisfy
Knowing the value of the situation I had obtained, and having a very modest notion of my worthiness to occupy it, I said that if he would not consider ten shillings a week too much, I thought I could do very. well with that. I had determined not to cost my father another farthing when I left home to begin the world on my own account. My proposal was at once acceded to.
And well do I remember the pride and delight I felt when I carried to my three-shilling-a-week lodging that night my first wages. Ample they were in my idea: for I knew how little I could live on, and was persuaded that by strict economy I could easily make the money support me.
“To help me in this object, I contrived a small cooking apparatus, which I forthwith got made by a tinsmith in Lambeth, at a cost of six shillings, and by its aid I managed to keep the eating and drinking part of my private account under three shillings and sixpence per week, or four shillings at the outside. I had three meat dinners a week, and generally four rice and milk dinners -all of which were cooked by my little apparatus, which I set in action after breakfast.
10. “After the first year my wages were raised to fifteen shillings a week, and I then, but not till then, indulged in the luxury of butter to my bread at breakfast. I am the more particular in all this, to show you that I was a thrifty housekeeper, although only a lodger in a small
I have the old apparatus by me yet, and I shall have another dinner out of it ere I am a year older, out of regard to days that were full of the real romance of life.”
11. Nasmyth remained in this situation until Maudslay's death in 1831. After a short residence in Edinburgh, where he was busily employed in preparing for his own commencement in business, he rented a portion of an old mill in Manchester in 1834, and began for himself. The floor of the building soon became too weak to hold his increasing stock, and after two years he was obliged to look out for larger premises. He erected more suitable mills at Patricroft, where he worked successfully until the year 1856, when he retired --not to a useless, idle life, but to
a life of honoured and congenial employment. He cultivated the taste for drawing which he had inherited from his father, and he pursued with no little distinction the difficult but engrossing study of astronomy.
12. The story of the origin of the Steam-Hammer is an interesting one. In the year 1837 the question of crossing the Atlantic by means of steam vessels was causing considerable excitement. Already this had been proved possible, and a vessel was now being specially built for traffic between England and America. A difficulty arose with respect to the enormous paddle-shaft of the vessel, which was to be a forging larger than any that had ever before been executed. No engineering firm would undertake so large a forging. Mr. Nasmyth was applied to. In thinking over the matter, he perceived that the existing hammers were unable to execute such a work, and that one of a totally different construction was necessary. Very quickly the idea of the Steam-Hammer presented itself to his mind, and the plan of it was fully sketched out on paper. But in the meantime a different system was determined upon for the vessel, and the enormous paddle-shaft was never forged. The idea of the Steam-Hammer was left for a time. Trade was depressed, and no one seemed to care to spend the money requisite for its construction.
13. While matters were in this state some gentlemen from the great Creuzot Ironworks in France called at the Patricroft Works to order some tools. Mr. Nasmyth was absent, but his partner, Mr. Gaskell, showed them all the interesting things in the works, and also brought out the drawings of the proposed Steam-Hammer. One of the gentlemen, M. Bourdon, was much struck with its simplicity and value, and took careful note of its arrangements. Mr. Nasmyth on his return was told of this visit, but no mention was made about the visitors having