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7. Say, on what sands these links shall sleep,
Fathoms beneath the solemn deep?-
8. Say, shall they feel the vessel reel,
When, to the battery's deadly peal,
9. Hurrah!-cling! clang!-once more, what glows,
Dark brothers of the forge, beneath
The furnace's red breath?
And brilliant, of bright sparks is poured
11. The sword! a name of dread; yet when
Upon the freeman's thigh 'tis bound-
12. Whenever, for the truth and right,
It flashes in the van of fight-
colter, the fore-iron of the plough regal, kingly, royai.
with a sharp edge to cut the potent, powerful. sod.
adverse, acting in a contrary may, the flower of the hawthorn. direction.
roadstead, a place where ships
may ride at anchor. reliant, trustful. pestilential, poisonous, tending •
to produce disease. Nile, a river in Egypt, near one
of the mouths of which the battle of the Nile was fought, Aug. 1, 1798, between the English, under Lord Nelson, and the French, under Admiral Brueys—the former gaining a
complete victory. Leonidas, King of Sparta, noted
for his defence of the pass of
Thermopylæ against Xerxes,
489 B.C. Marston Moor, a plain near York
where the Parliamentarians gained a decisive victory over
the Royalists in 1644. Bannockburn, a town in Scot
land famous for the great vic-
tended to act against England,
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL.
1. Surrounded, as we are in our own country, with the wonderful achievements of industry in alliance with knowledge and skill, we must look to other parts of the globe for evidence of what labour, unaided by knowledge and skill, is able to accomplish. An exploring excursion to a few of the departments of industrial employment will throw a strong light upon the mighty difference between what labour, aided by knowledge and skill, is able to produce, and what is only produced by labour alone, without the aid of these auxiliaries.
2. Let us visit a farm. We observe beautiful fields of wheat and other grain, and of roots and grasses.
We happen to know that green food is abundant, while grain is somewhat scarcer than usual. In our ignorance, we ask the farmer why, under such circumstances, he has not grown more corn and less clover; to which he replies, “I had an excellent crop of barley last year, where you see that luxuriant clover. Had I sown the field with wheat or barley, I should now probably see a tliin and sickly crop that would not repay the labour of reaping; whereas, yonder stack of clover has already come off this field, leaving the promise of another nearly as good, and a fair bite for the sheep afterwards.”
3. Our inquiries make us acquainted with the attention he pays, not only to the rotation of his crops, but to the selection of his seed and manures, and to the breeds and the feeding and housing of his cattle.
4. He points out to us the man upon whom he relies for the care and management of his live stock. This man is fond of the animals, and they are as much attached to him. He understands their habits, and everything essential to their keep in health, and to their treatment in disease. At the plough and at field labour he is not to be compared to the man whom you see at the other si le of the hedge. What a furrow that man draws! You could not make a straighter line with your pencil and ruler.
5. The farmer would laugh at us if we were to ask him why he does not grow beetroot for sugar, and coffee, tea, and cotton. He would think we ought to know that a larger quantity of sugar can be obtained, with the same amount of labour, in a different manner; and that the growth of coffee, tea, and cotton, being unsuited to our climate, the thoughtless man, who should attempt to act in defiance of the peculiarities of plants and climate, would have to suffer the penalty of his ignorance or recklessness.
6. While we contemplated and admired all his tools, from the humble spade and rake up to the ploughs of various shapes and sizes, to the harrows and rollers, to his drilling and thrashing machines, and to his movable steam-engine, our thoughts could not but wander back to the crops gathered in by the ancient Britons, who may have occupied the same spot of ground, and we could not avoid making a comparison between them and those of the well-informed skilful man whose farm we had the gratification of visiting.
7. Turn in what direction we will, after quitting the farm where we have observed the methods adopted by industry, knowledge, and skill in combination, to produce abundance of the raw material, out of which are extracted and manufactured the necessaries and comforts of life, we are met by never-ending proofs of the increased power imparted to industry by knowledge and skill.
8. We want our wheat transformed into palatable food. Knowledge comes to the aid of industry at the mill, the revolving stone in which is moved by water, wind, or steam. The wheat is ground, the flour is separated from the bran, and the baker, with his oven, completes the work. We want our wool and flax transformed into garments. Again knowledge and skill enable industry to apply the motive power of steam to the processes of spinning and weaving, preparatory to the labour of the tailor and sempstress.
9. In like manner we may follow the skins of the various animals slaughtered for food to the tanners and curriers, who, respectively armed with their special knowledge and skill, hand over to the shoe and harness maker the material on which their intelligent and skilful labour is to be exercised.
10. But we have other raw material besides that coming from the farm. There is the produce of the mines and of the clay-fields and sand-beds: of mines, that would be inaccessible if the power of steam could not be brought to drain them; of stiff fields and sandy wastes, which would be despised but for the knowledge and skill that are able to convert clay and sand into earthenware and glass.