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Henry V. but the town of Calais. Not only were all these temporary conquests lost, but the great southern province which had belonged to England ever since the marriage of Henry II. to Eleanor of Aquitaine, was recovered, and France became a greater and more powerful kingdom than she had ever been before. Calais remained in the hands of the English until 1558, when it was taken by the Duke of Guise. campaigns, the times during kingdom during the minority
which an army keeps the field of the king. every year during war.
supremacy, highest authority. subjugation, conquest by force. absorbing, engaging wholly or factions, party quarrels.
engrossing. Dauphin, a title given to the obstacles, hindrances.
eldest son of the French king. Rheims, 82 miles E.N.E. from Paris. regent, one who governs the overawed, restrained by fear.
Describe the condition of France in the fifteenth century. Who was the Duke of Bedford ? What city did he besiege, and for how long? Who was Joan of Arc? Relate her interyiew with the Dauphin. Describe her relief of Orleans. What request did she make of the king after he was crowned? When Joan of Arc was taken prisoner how was she treated ? When and where did she die?
JOAN OF ARC'S ADDRESS.
TRANSLATED FROM SCHILLER'S “JUNGFRAU VON ORLEANS
ANNA SWANWICK, IN BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY.
1. Farewell, ye mountains, ye beloved glades,
Ye lone and peaceful valleys, fare ye well!
you now farewell.
Who sang’st responsive to my simple strain,
2. Ye scenes where all my tranquil joys I knew, For ever now I leave
far behind ! Poor foldless lambs, no shepherd now have you! O'er the wide heath stray henceforth unconfin'd! For I to danger's field, of crimson hue, Am summon'd hence, another flock to find. Such is to me the Spirit's high behest; No earthly vain ambition fires my breast.
3. For who in glory did on Horeb's height
Descend to Moses in the bush of flame,
Who aye hath loved the lowly shepherd train,
He, from these leafy boughs, thus spake to me, “Go forth! Thou shalt on earth my witness be.
“Thou in rude armour must thy limbs invest,
5. "For when in fight the stoutest hearts despair,
When direful ruin threatens France, forlorn,
6. The heavenly Spirit promised me a sign;
He sends the helmet, it hath come from him,
oriflamme, the ancient royal
standard of France. Gaul, ancient name of France. beleaguer'd, surrounded by an
1. If we can learn what we must do in order to secure the means of future subsistence, we shall also learn what has already been done to put us in possession of the means of present subsistence. The principal of these means are food, clothing, fuel, and shelter.
2. Let us examine our position in respect of food. We have, perhaps, a stock of bread that might last us for three or four days; during these three or four days more flour must be made into bread. We have a stock of flour that might last us for two or three months; during this period more wheat must be ground into flour. We have a stock of wheat that might last us, according to the season of the year, from twelve to twenty months; during this period we must till the earth, sow the seed, reap and thrash, in order to procure more wheat. Our store of cooked meat would probably last as long as our stock of bread. More meat must be cooked to supply the place of what is consumed. Sheep, oxen, and other animals must be slaughtered to provide more meat; and to replace these, others must be reared and fed, and the land must be cultivated to produce the food which these animals consume day by day.
3. From food, let us turn our thoughts to clothing. We may suppose ourselves to have clothes sufficient to serve for six months; during this period we must work at cutting and fitting the cloth and other materials already prepared for the purpose. Spinning and weaving, tanning and dyeing, must proceed to replace the materials thus cut up. Sheep-shearing, cotton-picking, flax and hemp dressing, silk-winding, and other operations must be going forward to supply the raw materials for future manufacture, these to be replaced, as fast as manufactured, by planting and other agricultural work.
4. Even the houses which shelter us, durable as they are, compared with the food which we eat and the clothes which we wear out, are not imperishable; some are of long standing, others are more modern. But while we live in them, the process of decay is slowly but surely going on; and if we would not be left without shelter, we must be attentive to repair, to paint, and to rebuild. For these purposes trees must be felled and sawn up, bricks must be made, paints manufactured, and slates and stones quarried and shaped.
5. We may trace back in the same way, step by step, everything that has to be done to replace all the other necessaries and comforts which are perpetually disappearing while they minister to our well-being. The maintenance of our furniture, utensils, and tools depends upon the continued performance of all those stages of work that descend from the last touch or polish that specially fits them for use to the first stroke of the pick-axe which detaches the mineral from the earth.
6. It may be remarked that there are many persons who do not labour, and that there were many persons also who did not labour in times past; and yet we do not expect that the former will fail to share in the necessaries and comforts of life, as we know that the latter did share. This is true. One large portion of mankind cannot labour. All mankind in their tender years are incapable of labour, and there are some who, from defective organization, or other causes, are ever incapable. Nevertheless, all these, the young and the impotent, subsist upon the produce of past labour, and their future subsistence depends upon present and continued labour.
7. If nobody had worked in the past, nobody could