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subsist now; and if labour were discontinued, the means of subsistence would soon disappear.

From one conclusion there is no escape, and that is, that in proportion as the number is great of those who have not laboured, must the performance of those who did labour have been effective; and in proportion to the number of those among us now who perform no labour, must be the productive power of those who perform the whole.

8. There always must be a considerable proportion of mankind incapable of labour. The truth of this proposition is unquestionable; it is also true that there are many who are not incapable, who either do not labour at all, or whose labour is far short of that which is performed by others to whom they are equal in strength. There are, besides, some of those incapable of labour who have become so, not unavoidably, but from causes which might have been prevented.

9. A portion of those who do not labour—the youngmay be better employed in fitting themselves for future work than in attempting present work. If, while living on the produce of other people's labour, they increase their own productive power, and afterwards exert it, they add more, eventually, to the general stock of necessaries and comforts than they subtract from it in the beginning. Taking, however, the adult and infant, the capable and incapable, the workers and non-workers, together, the larger number of those who are not labouring and prcparing to labour, the more severe must be the work of those upon

whom the whole labour devolves. 10. We are now prepared to state, as one of the results of our investigation, that it appears to be indispensable for the well-being of mankind that the ability and disposition to labour should prevail widely. We have a name for those men who labour cheerfully and assiduously -we call them “industrious.” We say they possess industry. Industry, accordingly, is one of those qualities which we admire and love to observe and to encourage in others, and which all good men, especially the young, strive to cultivate in themselves. We number it among the virtues, because it conduces to the general well-being.

11. Another adjective, "industrial” (pertaining to the production of the necessaries and comforts of life), has been formed from the same word. We call labour and employment industrial, when we wish to distinguish them from other kinds of labour and employment; and in the same way we speak of industrial life, and also of industrial success, one of the foremost conditions of which is, “industry."-Dean Dawes.

subsistence, means of support detaches, separates. consumed, eaten up.

incapable, not able. spinning, making thread. defective, deficient. weaving, making cloth.

organization, constitution. tanning, making leather.

impotent, helpless. operations, employments. eventually, finally. agricultural, belonging to a farm. investigation, examination. imperishable, cannot be de- indispensable, necessary. stroyed.

assiduously, diligently. perpetually, always.

conduces, contributes. minister, serve.

pertaining, belonging. maintenance, keeping up in good distinguish, to note the differ



What four things are necessary to our subsistence? What are our chief articles of food? How is the supply of these articles kept up? What industrial operations have to be performed to supply us with clothes ? What persons are incapable of labour? How do these

What name do we give to those that labour cheerfully and assiduously?

persons subsist?


1. The seasons came and went, and went and came,

To teach man gratitude; and, as they passed,
Gave warning of the lapse of time, that else
Had stolen unheeded by: the gentle flowers
Retired, and, stooping o'er the wilderness,
Talked of humility, and peace and love.
The dews came down unseen at evening tide,
And silently their bounties shed, to teach
Mankind unostentatious charity.


2. With arm in arm the forest rose on high,

And lesson gave of brotherly regard;

And, on the rugged mountain brow reposed,
Bearing the blast alone, the ancient oak
Stood, lifting high his mighty arm, and still

in distress exhorted loud, The flocks, the herds, the birds, the streams, the

Attuned the heart to melody and love.
3. Mercy stood in the cloud, with eye that wept

Essential love; and, from her glorious brow,
Bending to kiss the earth in token of peace,
With her own lips, her gracious lips, which God
Of sweetest accent made, she whispered still,

She whispered to Revenge, Forgive! forgive!
4. The sun, rejoicing round the earth, announced

Daily the wisdom, power, and love of God.
The morn awoke, and, from her maiden face,
Shedding her cloudy locks, looked meekly forth,
And, with her virgin stars, walked in the heavens,-
Walked nightly there, conversing as she walked

Of purity, and holiness, and God.
5. In dreams and visions, sleep instructed much,

Day uttereth speech to day, and night to night
Taught knowledge: silence had a tongue: the grave,
The darkness, and the lonely waste, had each
A tongue, that ever said, Man! think of God!
Think of thyself! think of eternity!

-R. Pollok.




1. The objects of this expedition, fitted up and sent out by the English government, were to get to, or as near as possible to, the North Pole, to examine, and collect specimens of the minerals, vegetables, and animals found in these regions, and lastly, to settle the vexed question as to whether round the Pole itself there was land, an open sea, or a sea of eternal ice.

2. Many Arctic expeditions have during the past century sailed from our shores, but these have had for their chief object the discovery of a north-west passage into the Pacific Ocean. One of the most successful of the Arctic explorers was Sir John Franklin, who made many voyages of discovery to these regions between the years 1819 and 1844.

3. His last expedition was made in the year 1845 with two ships, the Erebus and Terror. When he had been absent about three years, and no tidings had been heard of him, the nation exhibited much anxiety as to his fate. Between the years 1848 and 1855 no fewer than seventeen expeditions from this country, and three from the United States of America, were sent out in search of him. Vague rumours came from time to time to this country of traces of him having been found.

4. Dr. Rae, an American explorer, bought articles from the Esquimaux, which were known to have belonged to his ships. It was not, however, until the year 1859 that Sir Leopold M'Clintock came back with the news that a tin case had been discovered that had been hidden

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