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4. The residence of people of fortune and refinement in the country has diffused a degree of taste and elegance in rural economy that descends to the lowest class. The very labourer, with the thatched cottage and narrow slip of ground, attends to their embellishment. The trim hedge, the grass-plot before the door, the little flowerbed bordered with snug box, the woodbine trained up against the wall, and hanging its blossoms about the lattice; the pot of flowers in the window; the holly, providentially planted about the house, to cheat winter of its dreariness, and to throw in a semblance of green summer to cheer the fireside; all these bespeak the influence of taste, flowing down from high sources, and pervading the lowest levels of the public mind.

5. In rural occupation there is nothing mean and debasing. It leads a man forth among scenes of natural grandeur and beauty; it leaves him to the workings of his own mind, operated upon by the purest and most elevating of external influences. Such a man may be simple and rough, but he cannot be vulgar.

6. The man of refinement, therefore, finds nothing revolting in an intercourse with the lower orders in rural life, as he does when he casually mingles with the lower orders of cities. He lays aside his distance and reserve, and is glad to waive the distinctions of rank, and to enter into the honest, heartfelt enjoyments of common life. Indeed, the very amusements of the country bring men more and more together. I believe this is one great reason why the nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders in England than they are in any other country, and why the latter have endured so many excessive pressures and extremities without repining more generally at the unequal distribution of fortune and privilege.

7. To this mingling of cultivated and rustic society may also be attributed the rural feeling that runs through British literature; the frequent use of illustrations from rural life; those incomparable descriptions of nature that abound in the British poets, that have continued down

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from “The Flower and the Leaf” of Chaucer, and have brought into our closets all the freshness and fragrance of the dewy landscape. The pastoral writers of other countries appear as if they had paid nature an occasional visit and become acquainted with her general charms; but the British poets have lived and revelled with her—they have wooed her in her most secret haunts—they have watched her minutest caprices.

8. A spray could not tremble in the breeze-a leaf could not rustle to the ground-a diamond drop could not patter in the stream- -a fragrance could not exhale from the humble violet, nor a daisy unfold its crimson tints to the morning, but it has been noticed by these impassioned and delicate observers, and wrought up into some beautiful morality.

9. The effect of this devotion of elegant minds to rural occupations has been wonderful on the face of the country. A great part of the island is rather level, and would be monotonous were it not for the charms of culture; but it is studded and gemmed, as it were, with castles and palaces, and embroidered with parks and gardens. It does not abound in grand and sublime prospects, but rather in little home scenes of rural repose and sheltered quiet. Every antique farm-house and moss-grown cottage is a picture; and as the roads are continually winding, and the view is shut in by groves and hedges, the eye is delighted by a continual succession of small landscapes of captivating loveliness.

10. The great charm, however, of English scenery is the moral feeling that seems to pervade it. It is associated in the mind with ideas of order, of quiet, of sober wellestablished principles, of hoary usage and reverend custom. Everything seems to be the growth of ages of regular and peaceful existence.

11. The old church of remote architecture, with its low, massive portal, its Gothic tower, its windows rich with tracery and painted glass, in scrupulous preservation; its stately monuments of warriors and worthies of the olden time, ancestors of the present lords of the soil; its tombstones, recording successive generations of sturdy yeomanry, whose progeny still plough the same fields, and kneel at the same altar—the parsonage, a quaint, irregular pile, partly antiquated, but repaired and altered in the tastes of various ages and occupants—the stile and footpath leading from the churchyard, across pleasant fields and along shady hedgerows, according to an immemorial right of way --- the neighbouring village, with its venerable cottages, its public green sheltered by trees, under which the forefathers of the present race have sported—the antique family mansion, standing apart in some little rural domain, but looking down with a protecting air on the surrounding scene; all these common features of English landscape evince a calm and settled security, and hereditary transmission of home-bred virtues and local attachments, that speak deeply and touchingly for the moral character of the nation.Washington Irving.

cultivation, tillage.
exquisite, refined or matchless.
harmonious, suitable.
lavishes, gives bountifully
coy, shy, modest.
haunts, resorts.
furtive, stolen.
witchery, enchantment.
magnificence, splendour.
foliage, leaves of trees.
glades, lanes through the woods.
meanderings, windings.
expand, spread out.
sequestered, retired.
quivering, shaking.
limpid, clear.
decorate, adorn.
discriminating, distinguishing.
capabilities, qualifications.

sterile, barren.
assiduity, diligence.
diffused, spread.
embellishment, adornment.
semblance, likeness.
debasing, degrading.
casually, occasionally.
waive, put aside.
literature, writings of the best

English authors.
caprices, whims, fancies.
monotonous, wanting in variety.
embroidered, fringed.
antique, old looking.
hoary, white with age.
architecture, style of building,
portal, doorway.
progeny, descendants.
evince, show.

Name something for which the English are noted. Describe some of the beauties of their park scenery.

What else are the English noted for? How has this love of rural life spread amongst the lower classes? What trees does the labourer plant about his cottage? What writers are fond of describing rural scenes? Name some subjects that they are fond describing. What is the great charm of English scenery? What is this moral feeling associated with?

THE GENTLEMAN. 1. Not alone by generous birth

(Greatly though it fashions men),
Not by all the wealth of earth,

Not by all the talents ten,
Not by beauty, nor by wit,

No, nor manners well refined,
Is that name of honour writ

On the forehead of the mind. 2. Poverty retains it oft,

With the peasant it hath dwelt,
And its influence sweet and soft

In the scholarless been felt;
Lowly birth, and sorrow's power,

All that want of all things can,
Have not marr'd-nor made—one hour

That true Knight, the Gentleman. 3. Charity,—unselfish zeal

Lest a sorrow or a shame Anyone be made to feel

Undeserving scorn or blame,--
Dignity,—the generous sense

That himself is heir outright
To that heritage immense,

King and priest of worlds of light, 4. Lowliness of heart withal,

Purity of word and life,-
Courage--not for arms to call,

But to quell insurgent strife,–
Honour, for the good and true,

With Bayard to guard the van,-
And what courtesies are due,

These make up the Gentleman.

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