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5. Ay, sir, calm and cold and proud,
Trust me, for the word is true,
Finer gentlemen than you;
And each boon by fortune given,
Are always gentle sons of heaven.
For polish'd age or stilted youth,
Need to learn this deeper truth,
Nobly on the Christian plan,
How to be the Gentleman.
-M. F. Tupper, Lyrics of the Heart and Mind. marr'd, spoilt.
his honourable character. Died knight, a model gentleman of 1524. the olden time.
Chesterfields. The Earl of Chesheritage, inheritance.
terfield wrote a famous series Bayard, a noble and gallant of letters to teach his son good Frenchman, highly distin
He died 1773. guished for his bravery and betide, happen.
LINNÆUS, THE SWEDISH BOTANIST.
1. There are many beautiful spots in Sweden, and Rashult, in the province of Smaland, where Charles Linnæus was born, in the year 1707, is said to be delightfully situated near the banks of a fine lake, surrounded by hills and valleys, woods and cultivated ground. From a very early age Linnæus was remarkable for his love of plants, and as he tells us himself, was no sooner out of his cradle, than he almost lived in his father's garden. He was scarcely four years old when he heard his father, who was the village clergyman, explaining to a few friends the qualities of some particular plants; this first botanical lecture was remembered by him as an epoch in his scientific life. When he was eight years old his father gave him a plot of ground for a garden; he made many excursions to the woods and meadows to find plants and flowers to put in it, and never ceased to inquire of his father the names and properties of all the plants of the garden and field that he could procure.
2. At school, Charles showed a decided preference for natural history, and disappointed his father by his want of taste for other branches of learning. He took long rambles in the fields, and his father considered this as an indication of an idle and thoughtless disposition. Charles Linnæus was unfortunate in his instructors. His first tutor was a person of disagreeable manners; then at the grammar-school of Wexio, he met with a harsh taskmaster. When he was seventeen he was removed to a higher grade school, and it was intended that he should enter the church. But he had no taste for the studies required in that profession, though he made great progress in mathematics, natural philosophy, and his favourite study—botany. His literary progress was so small that when in 1724 his father went to see him, his tutors said he was a hopeless dunce, and advised that he should be put apprentice to a shoemaker, tailor, or other tradesman, and not forced to pursue an object for which he was evidently unfit.
3. Fortunately, Dr. Rothman, the lecturer on natural philosophy, had more discernment, and encouraged Charles's father to allow his son to study medicine, offering to take the young man into his own house for a year, an offer which was gladly accepted. He next studied at the University of Lund, and made so much progress that he occasionally assisted Dr. Stobæus, a physician with whom he lived, in the labours of his profession, and soon became a great favourite.
4. When he was spending a summer vacation at home, he met his old patron, Dr. Rothman, and was advised by him to study at Upsal, as he would there derive superior advantages both in medicine and botany. Here the vigour of his mind first clearly showed itself. But he had to struggle against many difficulties. All his father could allow him was eight pounds a year, so he was often in want of books, and clothes, and even bread. He was reduced to mending his own boots with the bark of trees and folded paper. Happily for Linnæus his industry and love of knowledge came under the favourable notice of Dr. Olaus Celsius, the professor of divinity, who was very fond of the study of plants; and finding that he was much in want of assistance, Dr. Celsius generously invited him into his own house.
5. During his stay in the house of Dr. Celsius, Linnæus wrote his first essay on the classification of plants on a new system of his own. This led to his being appointed an assistant lecturer in the botanic garden in 1730.
He had previously solicited the humble appointment of gardener to the university, but was refused on the ground of his being fit for a better situation. Now, finding himself authorized to take the direction of the garden, he reformed and greatly enriched it. He entered the house of Professor Rudbeck, the senior lecturer on botany, as tutor to his children, and by this means obtained the use of a very fine collection of books and drawings. His mornings were devoted to the duties of his situation, and his evenings to his botanical studies.
6. A new object soon engaged the attention of our young naturalist. Hearing Professor Rudbeck speak of the curiosities he had seen in Lapland, Linnæus felt a
great desire to visit that country, and as the Academy of Sciences at Upsal wished to send a traveller into those remote and desolate regions, Linnæus received an appointment to travel through Lapland, under the royal authority and at the expense of the academy. In May, 1732, he set off on his long journey, travelling sometimes on horseback, sometimes on foot, carrying all his luggage on his back. He met with great hardships in traversing the barren provinces of Lapland; bogs and forests continually intercepted his way; he frequently was forced to cross rivers, and was often at a loss to find a roof to shelter himself, or even to obtain the coarsest kind of food. Nothing, however, escaped his notice; and poor and bàrren as was much of the country through which he travelled, he brought from it more than a hundred plants previously unknown in Sweden, and was able, on his return, to describe the face of the country, the animals, the manners and customs of the inhabitants, and much that was curious and interesting.
7. During this journey he had an opportunity of benefiting the Laplanders by his knowledge of plants. At Tornea, a city on the north of the Gulf of Bothnia, he was told that very many of the cattle, which had been turned out to grass, had died of a violent disease. Linnæus examined the marsh in which the cattle had fed, and found that it contained abundance of waterhemlock, which is one of the most poisonous of plants. He returned to Upsal the following October, having, in five months, performed a journey of nearly four thousand miles. The academy could only allow him his expenses
-amounting to ten pounds; such was the poverty of Sweden at this time. His services, however, were recog. nized by his being elected a member of the academy. botanical, relating to plants. university, a place of learning epoch, a date made remarkable having the privilege of conby some event.
ferring degrees. mathematics, the science of num- classification, putting into classes ber and quantity.
or sorting. Describe the birthplace of Linnæus. How was his interest first excited in plants ? Who gave him most useful advice as to his studies? Describe his difficulties at the university. What was the subject of his first essay? Describe the first public appointment he received. From whom did Linnæus receive an appointment to travel through Lapland? Name some of the hardships he had to undergo in fulfilling it. What benefit was he enabled to confer on the people of Tornea?